Eva Karlen Capstone

Abstract: I have worked on the Mutter Museum’s upcoming exhibit on the 1918 Influenza Epidemic for my senior capstone project. My capstone has unfolded in several stages, and my work on this exhibit is not complete. I will continue to work on this project at the Mutter Museum while in college. I learned about the Museum’s upcoming exhibit selection in the fall of 2016. I wanted my capstone to utilize the the College of Physicians of Philadelphia’ resources and synthesize my years of learning at the Mutter, and I wanted my capstone to be an interdisciplinary project. My coordinator at the Mutter Museum helped me to brainstorm capstone project ideas. Eventually, I decided to compose and score a soundtrack for the 1918 Influenza Pandemic exhibit. I did a lot of research on the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. I studied in the College of Physicians Medical Library and learned about the nature of Spanish Flu and how it devastated the United States between 1918 and 1919, taking almost 14,000 Philadelphian lives in just six weeks of those years. To further my knowledge of infectious diseases, I studied some of the other most devastating diseases of history, such as the Smallpox Epidemic of 1775, and their impact in the United States. Then, I researched the music of the era. At this point in the process, I knew that I could not complete a soundtrack to the exhibit in this year; the exhibit is still in the most preliminary stages of its development and nobody is really sure how the exhibit will appear in 2019. However, I will continue to be a part of the process of the exhibit, and my research has taught me a lot about the Flu Pandemic and about museum curation. Here is a link to a research and process paper that I wrote on the 1918 Influenza Pandemic and the process of museum curation: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1wgy8JTJ8blLfSYPKgsvuFWsaxmtGw2Y2MHkKgo1PM6A/edit Bibliography: Bristow, Nancy K. American Pandemic: The Lost Worlds of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. I have used, and will continue to use, this source as my basis for understanding the 1918 flu epidemic. I found this book in the College of Physicians Library and later in the Free Library of Philadelphia. Its introduction is in first person from the author’s perspective and explains that the author was inspired to write this book after learning about her family’s history in the epidemic. The book provides a comprehensive view on the epidemic but focuses through the lens of social implications and classes. The book dedicates several chapters to the discussion of race, gender, and social class, and how these elements of society changed during and after the epidemic. It is an enjoyable read. Barry, John M. The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History. New York: Viking, 2004. This book is useful in that it discusses the influence of influenza around the world and influenza in light of the Great War. It also considers the 1918 Influenza Epidemic with respect to future epidemics and modern public health and medicine dilemmas. It does a good job of illustrating exactly how devastating and powerful the epidemic was, as the 1918 epidemic is often overlooked and the Black Death and smallpox epidemics have their place in the spotlight. It is a comprehensive and sobering book. It does not seem to be biased and is a very good source for background research of the 1918 Flu Epidemic. Willrich, Michael. Pox: An American History. New York: Penguin Press, 2011. This book has a lot of great information on the history of public health, and in that, often devastating disregard for public health and safety in medicine. The book also discusses bioethics and topics relating to bioethics, like vaccination and individual liberty versus social good and public health. This book analyzes these issues through a social, rather than a medical, lens, making it a good read for those who want to learn about medical history but don’t have much interest in biology or medicine. The book is also very easily readable and well organized. "The Deadly Virus: The Influenza Epidemic of 1918." National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2017. This is a very good compilation of primary source documents from 1918. The collection of letters, memos, and photographs helps to paint a picture of 1918 and lends to better understanding of how the epidemic impacted real people’s lives. The variety of materials also helps to put facts about the 1918 Flu Epidemic in the context of various people’s lives, jobs, and creations. This source is not biased in any way and seems to have the sole goal of bringing these resources to the light of the public and informing them about this devastating and often overlooked period of history. Boylston, Zabdiel. “An Historical Account of the Small-pox Inoculated in New England, upon All Sorts of Persons, Whites, Blacks, and of All Ages and Constitutions: With Some Account of the Nature of the Infection in the Natural and Inoculated Way, and Their Different Effects on Human Bodies: With Some Short Directions to the Unexperienced in This Method of Practice / Humbly Dedicated to Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales.” 1730. S. Gerrish in Cornhil, T. Hancock at the Bible and Three Crowns in Annstreet. Harvard University Library, Cambridge, MA. This is a primary source document. It is Zabdiel Boylston’s account of the Smallpox Distemper and is addressed to the Princess of Wales. Though it is about a different epidemic than influenza, it details first-person accounts of some of the first inoculations that were performed in the United States. To understand all of the implications of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic, we must consider the history of epidemics in the coutnry and how the public and medical professionals have treated them. Debates on inoculation were long and varied during the Smallpox Epidemic. Vaccination was considered a social boon during the 1918 Influenza Epidemic. Massey, Edmund. “A Sermon Against the Dangerous and Sinful Practice of Inoculation.” Speech, St. Andrew’s Holborn, July 8, 1722. This is another primary source document from the era of the 1722 smallpox epidemic. It quotes the Christian Bible and bases its anti-vaccination arguments on religion and Biblical references. Though this sources predates the 1918 Flu Epidemic, some of the controversy of vaccination that is expressed in this source is also expressed in literature from the 1918 Influenza Epidemic and modern conversations about the safety of vaccination. This is an important document to consider when one looks at the history of epidemics and medicine in the United States. Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company, 1997. This book considers the wolrd history of disease, epidemics, and medicine through the lens of social studies. The book asks big questions regarding who receives resources and who has access to medicine. I have used this source to better understand the current state of health care in the United States and global perception of medicine and health care. It is naive to focus exclusively on the United States and how the 1918 Influenza Epidemic affected it. Through this source, which covers a very wide range of topics and scientific material, I have expanded my knowledge of epidemics across the globe. Averill, Gage. Four Parts, No Waiting: A Social History of American Barbershop Harmony, 32. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. I used this page of this book to learn more about ragtime chord progressions. It is easiest to learn about the nature of ragtime chord progressions by listening to the music, but especially for a person with limited knowledge of music theory, it is helpful to have chord or note progressions explained in words. Diagrams are also very useful. In ragtime songs, the chords generally progress along a circle of fourths in a pentatonic scale. Variations on this include minor seventh chords and dominant seventh chords. A key part of ragtime songs is syncopation between bass notes and melody. This source clearly and concisely covers ragtime chord progressions. Various Artists. Hits of the War Year - 1914 - 1918. Reader’s Digest Music, 2012, MP3 album. I used this source to learn more about the music that was popular during the era of the flu epidemic and the years predating it. Before this, I researched ragtime music and the types of music that were popular at the turn of the century. The songs have funny titles and are about a variety of topics, from women to Irish lullabies to China Town. I used these songs as inspiration for my songs. Bohlman, Philip V. Europe and North America, 1942-, 157-168. New York: Taylor and Francis Group, 2001. This source introduced me to ethnomusicology. Through this source, I learned about the specific study of different types of ethnic music. The research technique of ethnomusicologists will be useful to my study of the music of the 1918 era. Ethnomusicology involves studying music and history. Many historical documents and historical locations must be researched to understand certain types of music, but an understanding of music is also required to develop a complete understanding of a genre or type of music. This source comes from the author’s point of view and details the author’s journey in ethnomusicology, but it is still a good introduction to the topic and field of research. Boyd, Jane. “Spit Spread Death.” Free Panel Discussion, 16 May 2017, Mutter Museum, Philadelphia, PA. Address.

Abstract:

    I have worked on the Mutter Museum’s upcoming exhibit on the 1918 Influenza Epidemic for my senior capstone project. My capstone has unfolded in several stages, and my work on this exhibit is not complete. I will continue to work on this project at the Mutter Museum while in college. I learned about the Museum’s upcoming exhibit selection in the fall of 2016. I wanted my capstone to utilize the the College of Physicians of Philadelphia’ resources and synthesize my years of learning at the Mutter, and I wanted my capstone to be an interdisciplinary project. My coordinator at the Mutter Museum helped me to brainstorm capstone project ideas. Eventually, I decided to compose and score a soundtrack for the 1918 Influenza Pandemic exhibit.
    I did a lot of research on the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. I studied in the College of Physicians Medical Library and learned about the nature of Spanish Flu and how it devastated the United States between 1918 and 1919, taking almost 14,000 Philadelphian lives in just six weeks of those years. To further my knowledge of infectious diseases, I studied some of the other most devastating diseases of history, such as the Smallpox Epidemic of 1775, and their impact in the United States. Then, I researched the music of the era. At this point in the process, I knew that I could not complete a soundtrack to the exhibit in this year; the exhibit is still in the most preliminary stages of its development and nobody is really sure how the exhibit will appear in 2019. However, I will continue to be a part of the process of the exhibit, and my research has taught me a lot about the Flu Pandemic and about museum curation.

Here is a link to a research and process paper that I wrote on the 1918 Influenza Pandemic and the process of museum curation: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1wgy8JTJ8blLfSYPKgsvuFWsaxmtGw2Y2MHkKgo1PM6A/edit

Bibliography:

Bristow, Nancy K. American Pandemic: The Lost Worlds of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
I have used, and will continue to use, this source as my basis for understanding the 1918 flu epidemic. I found this book in the College of Physicians Library and later in the Free Library of Philadelphia. Its introduction is in first person from the author’s perspective and explains that the author was inspired to write this book after learning about her family’s history in the epidemic. The book provides a comprehensive view on the epidemic but focuses through the lens of social implications and classes. The book dedicates several chapters to the discussion of race, gender, and social class, and how these elements of society changed during and after the epidemic. It is an enjoyable read.

Barry, John M. The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History. New York: Viking, 2004.
This book is useful in that it discusses the influence of influenza around the world and influenza in light of the Great War. It also considers the 1918 Influenza Epidemic with respect to future epidemics and modern public health and medicine dilemmas. It does a good job of illustrating exactly how devastating and powerful the epidemic was, as the 1918 epidemic is often overlooked and the Black Death and smallpox epidemics have their place in the spotlight. It is a comprehensive and sobering book. It does not seem to be biased and is a very good source for background research of the 1918 Flu Epidemic.

Willrich, Michael. Pox: An American History. New York: Penguin Press, 2011.
This book has a lot of great information on the history of public health, and in that, often devastating disregard for public health and safety in medicine. The book also discusses bioethics and topics relating to bioethics, like vaccination and individual liberty versus social good and public health. This book analyzes these issues through a social, rather than a medical, lens, making it a good read for those who want to learn about medical history but don’t have much interest in biology or medicine. The book is also very easily readable and well organized.

"The Deadly Virus: The Influenza Epidemic of 1918." National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2017.
This is a very good compilation of primary source documents from 1918. The collection of letters, memos, and photographs helps to paint a picture of 1918 and lends to better understanding of how the epidemic impacted real people’s lives. The variety of materials also helps to put facts about the 1918 Flu Epidemic in the context of various people’s lives, jobs, and creations. This source is not biased in any way and seems to have the sole goal of bringing these resources to the light of the public and informing them about this devastating and often overlooked period of history.

Boylston, Zabdiel. “An Historical Account of the Small-pox Inoculated in New England, upon All Sorts of Persons, Whites, Blacks, and of All Ages and Constitutions: With Some Account of the Nature of the Infection in the Natural and Inoculated Way, and Their Different Effects on Human Bodies: With Some Short Directions to the Unexperienced in This Method of Practice / Humbly Dedicated to Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales.” 1730. S. Gerrish in Cornhil, T. Hancock at the Bible and Three Crowns in Annstreet. Harvard University Library, Cambridge, MA.
This is a primary source document. It is Zabdiel Boylston’s account of the Smallpox Distemper and is addressed to the Princess of Wales. Though it is about a different epidemic than influenza, it details first-person accounts of some of the first inoculations that were performed in the United States. To understand all of the implications of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic, we must consider the history of epidemics in the coutnry and how the public and medical professionals have treated them. Debates on inoculation were long and varied during the Smallpox Epidemic. Vaccination was considered a social boon during the 1918 Influenza Epidemic.

Massey, Edmund. “A Sermon Against the Dangerous and Sinful Practice of Inoculation.” Speech,  St. Andrew’s Holborn, July 8, 1722.
This is another primary source document from the era of the 1722 smallpox epidemic. It quotes the Christian Bible and bases its anti-vaccination arguments on religion and Biblical references. Though this sources predates the 1918 Flu Epidemic, some of the controversy of vaccination that is expressed in this source is also expressed in literature from the 1918 Influenza Epidemic and modern conversations about the safety of vaccination. This is an important document to consider when one looks at the history of epidemics and medicine in the United States.

Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company, 1997.
This book considers the wolrd history of disease, epidemics, and medicine through the lens of social studies. The book asks big questions regarding who receives resources and who has access to medicine. I have used this source to better understand the current state of health care in the United States and global perception of medicine and health care. It is naive to focus exclusively on the United States and how the 1918 Influenza Epidemic affected it. Through this source, which covers a very wide range of topics and scientific material, I have expanded my knowledge of epidemics across the globe.

Averill, Gage. Four Parts, No Waiting: A Social History of American Barbershop Harmony, 32. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
I used this page of this book to learn more about ragtime chord progressions. It is easiest to learn about the nature of ragtime chord progressions by listening to the music, but especially for a person with limited knowledge of music theory, it is helpful to have chord or note progressions explained in words. Diagrams are also very useful. In ragtime songs, the chords generally progress along a circle of fourths in a pentatonic scale. Variations on this include minor seventh chords and dominant seventh chords. A key part of ragtime songs is syncopation between bass notes and melody. This source clearly and concisely covers ragtime chord progressions.

Various Artists. Hits of the War Year - 1914 - 1918. Reader’s Digest Music, 2012, MP3 album.
I used this source to learn more about the music that was popular during the era of the flu epidemic and the years predating it. Before this, I researched ragtime music and the types of music that were popular at the turn of the century. The songs have funny titles and are about a variety of topics, from women to Irish lullabies to China Town. I used these songs as inspiration for my songs.

Bohlman, Philip V. Europe and North America, 1942-, 157-168. New York: Taylor and Francis Group, 2001.
This source introduced me to ethnomusicology. Through this source, I learned about the specific study of different types of ethnic music. The research technique of ethnomusicologists will be useful to my study of the music of the 1918 era. Ethnomusicology involves studying music and history. Many historical documents and historical locations must be researched to understand certain types of music, but an understanding of music is also required to develop a complete understanding of a genre or type of music. This source comes from the author’s point of view and details the author’s journey in ethnomusicology, but it is still a good introduction to the topic and field of research.

Boyd, Jane. “Spit Spread Death.” Free Panel Discussion, 16 May 2017, Mutter Museum, Philadelphia, PA. Address.​

Comments