This quarter in art was my favorite of the year. I enjoyed being to choose each new project and experimented with paint and abstract art. I chose to spend the first half of the quarter working with flowers and watercolor and in the second half I tried to do more abstract art.
For the sketch at the Rodin museum I chose to draw a clump of daffodils near the gate. Daffodils are one of my favorite types of flowers and it was a challenge to draw them.
For the first four hour art project I chose to do two different watercolors of flowers. The first is a lotus floating in the water. In this piece I really enjoyed getting different gradients of pink on the petals and different tones of blue for the water. The second piece is a pink rose. Similarly to the first watercolor I enjoyed creating the different gradients. This piece was harder to do and contains more detail, especially on the petals.
For the second four hour art project I painted two different abstract portraits. The first is of Kat. The second is of Quinn. These two projects were my favorite of the quarter. I had a lot of fun experimenting with paint, learning to create texture with paint, and, for the second piece especially, blending colors.For the last four hour art project I did two different pieces. The first is a collage that incorporated watercolor and the second is a watercolor painting. Like my watercolor flowers, my favorite part of the process was blending and mixing colors.
Rudy Giuliani ran for mayor of New York City back in 1993, where he implicated a method to help crime decrease. Throughout his campaign, he wanted voters to ultimately be in safer area, because rape had risen and so did murder and robbery. Giuliani made a theory which was called the “broken windows”. This was an analogy in which if a window was broken and went unfixed, then sooner or later the rest of the windows would be broken. Which connects to the fact about if small criminal acts slip through, then more and more crimes will take place. Therefore we should snip the problem in the bud. After winning the election and continuing to use this method, in 1996, the New York Times had plunged for the third straight year. By 2010, violent crimes in New York had plunged seventy-five percent.
There was many more reasoning behind the decrease of violence, besides a change in political tactics. One of the tomes on criminology, were that when the economy is on a rise, then the crime is low, but when the economy is suffering then the crime rates rise again. Another time was based on demographics, which pertained to young men, that read, “As the number of young men increases, so does crime.” This was not the case for New York, because even though the number of men increased, crime rates still continued to decline. Karl Smith, a professor of public economics and government at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, said, “If it spreads along lines of communication, he says, the cause is information. Think Bieber Fever. If it travels along major transportation routes, the cause is microbial. Think influenza. If it spreads out like a fan, the cause is an insect. Think malaria. But if it's everywhere, all at once—as both the rise of crime in the '60s and '70s and the fall of crime in the '90s seemed to be—the cause is a molecule.” Smith continued to make advances on the real problem and the real solution. He had a good way of categorizing epidemics in a way that each crime could fit into each. It was a very interesting way in the way that it made seem that the way things were spread was because of a certain type of thing.
In another article, “Causes of Crime - Social and Economic factors” there were epidemics about how economy problems were involved with crime, and it was. The University of Chicago's Department of Sociology, which was formed in 1892, did a focus on city problems and how they could lead to criminal behavior.
There was an overwhelming decrease in popular cities such as New York City when the economy was doing good. This shows that when people are doing good in their pockets, they won`t want to still from other people`s pocket.
In quarter four I tried to focus on reaching my full potential for this advanced art class and I think I did a pretty good job of that by spending my time on these four hour projects and these little assignments trying to do my best. The pieces that I did didn’t have any real meaning they were just challenging for me so I wanted to attempt them.
“The top prospect coming out of High School is Jack Davidson. He has really been on a tear lately, in his Junior year nearly averaging 18 points, 10 assists, and 6 rebounds a game.” Said the sports announcer.
“Yeah he really has been carrying the load for this basketball team and we hope he can do the same thing tonight in the state championship game against the Buckeyes.” Said the other sports announcer. Jack has been playing basketball his whole life. Since he was 5 years old, he has always dreamt of going to the league, the NBA. He would often go to the park around the corner from his house and impersonate all of his favorite players in the NBA. He would pretend to be like Jack Bryant with his signature fadeaway shot or like the flashy Dwyane Wade when going to the basket. At a very young age, he was able to realize that just playing around wasn’t going to get him anywhere. He worked and worked everyday to get to where he wants to be. Guys in their 20’s playing basketball against Jack Davidson would ask where his agent was because he was so good. And now, he is exactly where he wants to be right now. He is in the biggest lights of High School Basketball.
Since the beginning of justice systems people have relied on on eyewitness testimonies to help clarify what really happened when a crime is committed, but they are severely flawed. Eyewitness testimony directly implicate a defendant, this more often than not, leads people to start to think that the person was guilty because they were seen at the scene of the crime, but eyewitness accounts often change overtime as the human brain process what they have actually bared witness to.
Usually when a person is in the type situation that is associated with crime, they respond to the situation in one of two ways. The first way would be mobilization, or fight or flight response. When this response is triggered the body gets ready to defend itself or run away from danger. It releases chemicals that stop some of a person's normal functions in order to provide the energy you need to protect yourself from the approaching danger. This makes the witness become focused on protecting themselves, and not what is going on around them, so when asked later to recount the event their memory would be slightly skewed, and many smaller details that could be critical in the conviction or release of a suspect could have missed their notice.
The other response that is triggered by extreme stress placed on a person when a crime was committed is immobility. This happens when a person becomes traumatised in a panicked dysfunctional state unable to move. In very extreme situations where the witness life in sin danger this can also cause them to lose consciousness. The loss of consciousness or not being totally present in the moment can cause a person to not remember a crime clearly, so their brain would fill in the blanks with things that it feels fits the situation. This is especially bad because they can end up making up things that never transpired, or use the details overheard from the investigators to fill in the blanks.
Although there are a large number of factors that can reduce the accuracy of eyewitness accounts such as the witness being in duress or under extreme stress when the crime was committed, eyewitness statements can be very helpful when trying to figure out the exact sequence of events of a crime. This is usually done by collecting statements from a large pool of people who were in the area the time the crime was committed. If the persons questioned were not under stress and experiencing the two reactions to stress mentioned above then the investors on the case are able to get a clear picture of what happened.Each statement that is given on a crime may include details that others may have missed or details that the witness brain has placed in the memory because that enabled the person to make more sense of the event. It is the investigator's job to navigate theses details and separate the facts from fiction, but when you have little to no physical evidence to compare the witness statements to it is hard not to just take everything accounted to you at face value, since there is nothing there to contest it.
Usually in neighborhoods where there is more green, meaning trees, grassy fields, lawns, flowers, and plants, people feel safer. For example, in a 2008 study of the 100 largest metropolitan areas, meaning urban and suburban areas, violent crimes in the city was at about 2,100, in comparison to in suburban areas at about 1,000. This shows that crime in urban areas is more prevalent than that of suburban areas. But why? It could simply be the reaction to seeing nature and serenity, and the pleasant smells and atmosphere that promotes a safer lifestyle and environment. This being in comparison to say an urban area, where there are factories, busy streets, odd smells, limited greenery, and noise. Also, the closeness of everyone and everything contributes sometimes to feelings of being trapped, especially in living communities, in comparison to how each suburban house is separate. In all, its is a common consensus that suburban areas lead to lower crime rates, however, what more is there to this?
Research studies over the years has questioned whether it’s due to one's genetic makeup of someone that causes them to be involved in criminal activity or if it is due to the environment in which an individual was raised in. It has been concluded that genes and one’s environment both play a significant role in one’s desire to participate in criminal activities. Various studies and lab experiments have led to this conclusion. In all, criminal behavior is defined by social and legal institutions, meaning science and biology do not play a role in defining what criminal activity is.
Regarding environment, however, this is not simply limited to the type of actually environment one is living in, meaning what the outside looks like, the more in depth environment, meaning the household and family environment can factor even more into how a child is influenced. Research has concluded it is the family environment that essentially factors in a child’s superactivity. With family risks or triggers for a bad environment being poverty, a child’s education, how the parent’s choose to raise their child, and how the family functions as a whole. Unsurprisingly, researchers discovered families who lack solid communication skills with one another and have weak bonds and connections throughout the family have been linked with children’s development of aggressive behavior, eventually leading to criminal behavior. A solid conclusion for a families turn out is with a family that lacks financially or mentally to properly raise their children and punish them for doing room are more likely to have an environment that influences the behavior and mindset of those who participate in criminal activity and delinquent behavior. In conclusion, one can understand that not just the overall environment, meaning the city, or suburban, or rural areas has an influence on how criminal activity is promoted, but the actual environment of how a child is raised is the larger factor in determining an individual's criminal mindset and behavior.
Adolescents, Crime and Brain Development.
Ghani is a friend of my mom’s. When he was fifteen years old he and another friend of his came from New York to Philadelphia to work with a drug gang. His friend and he were put inside of an abandoned house where they were locked in a room and sold drugs through a slit in the door, and they were brought food and water through the slit in the door. They were trapped, desperate, and fifteen years old and their brains weren’t thinking about the consequences of their actions, so when the next person came to the door they killed him so they could escape. Ghani and his friends were both tried as adults as many teenagers are even though that shouldn’t be the case. There is no doubt that what Ghani and his friend did is wrong, but should they have been tried as adults?
The rational region (frontal lobe) of a teen’s brain won’t be fully developed until the age of twenty-five. The frontal lobe contains a region called the prefrontal cortex which lets us organize our thoughts, anticipate consequences, plan, and control impulses. “The frontal lobe undergoes far more change during adolescence than at any other stage of life.” It is also the last part of the brain to develop, which means that even as they become fully capable in other areas, adolescents cannot reason as well as adults. Under development of rational thinking causes teens to rely on emotional parts of the brain, rather than the frontal lobe.” A scientist who studies adolescent brains explains, “one of the things that teenagers seem to do is to respond more strongly with gut response than they do with evaluating the consequences of what they’re doing.” Ghani and his friend didn’t kill the man out of act of violence, they killed him based on emotion. They felt trapped. They were trapped! Unfortunately our legal system doesn’t recognize that that teenage are more likely to do mindless thing because they lack rational thinking.
"Adolescence, Brain Development and Legal Culpability." Juvenile Justice Center. N.p., Jan. 2004. Web. 7 June 2016.
Some of the original lie detector test involved trying to use sweat and heart rates as a way to determine if someone is lying. The polygraph was the typical machine that is used to do lie detector test. While the polygraph may be know as typical and not reliable at times it it is the most accurate method of detecting lies that we have. There is a lot of belief that something happens in your brain when you lie that can be shown through graphs and exams. The way people get lie detectors verified is to take them to a court and put them to a test.
What are lies exactly? A lie is a made up state that someone attempts to pass off as the truth by withholding the truth itself. Most lies are made to either avoid telling someone the truth because they are afraid of how that person would react to the truth, or just to hide a dark secret. Of course there are other reasons people lie.
I personally believe that lie detectors are valuable and if the polygraph works now it has to be the best method of telling a lie. I do however believe that it is not perfect and engineers/scientist should keep designing better ones until one of them work. Other people of course believe that lie detectors don’t work and that everything said is a lie. Those are the same people that go on shows like Maury.
The science behind lying says that we when lying we first have to decide things like, how much trouble will we get in, is it worth it, and will we get away with it. We can’t lie more than our self worth. By that I mean we lie enough to maintain our image if we get caught. When tested studies show that people lie when it comes to money in-order to to increase their wealth. In society over 50% of adults lie every 10 minutes just because and almost 100% of children take that and begin their lying careers.
Since the beginning of criminology, police officers and detectives have been trying to come up with methods of detecting lies, stories and fibs. .It wasn't until the early 1920’s polygraphs have been used as an interrogation tool with criminals. The US law enforcement and federal government agencies such as the FBI and the CIA have been using them. This test works in a easy way, when someone lies it makes your heart race. It makes you pant, it drives up your blood pressure and in some extreme cases it makes you drip sweat. A polygraph machine detect lies by looking for signs of these physiological changes. But to often there have been times where the these test don’t actually work. Scientist have been coming up with ways that enhance and improve the way these test work by using neuroscience.
“Scientists believe that a lie is made up of two parts: a person must create the lie and also withhold the truth”
After 9/11 the American government has become highly interested in procuring a sure-fire method of spotting liars. The American military has a whole department, the Department of Defense Polygraph Institute the need for a better test came along. These proponents believe the future impact of neuroscience “will be inevitable, dramatic, and will fundamentally alter the way the law does business” In this case there’s always going to be people who agree with polygraph test and people who think it’s a whole bunch of crap. Using neuroscience, scientist have come up with ways to use Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to looks inside the brain instead of tracking outside measures of anxiety like changes in pulse, blood pressure or respiration. fMRI’s get the point straight across, you ask a question and if you lie the test shows it. Detection accuracy was claimed to be as high as 90% compared to a purported 70% for polygraphs making them more reliable and fast moving. There would be no need to use lawyers that would switch up your words and evidence. While some see this the best thing that could happen, and a bridge to a whole new world of lie detection and criminology others think this is just a waste of time.
Scientist believe the fMRI machines will only confuse results “In theory, it takes more neural activity to lie than tell the truth because you have to construct a narrative, so the extent of neural activity can be relevant in determining whether you’re lying,” said Andrea Roth, an assistant professor at Berkeley Law. In order to image an area where there is activity, a thought has to be made, and an image taken a couple of seconds afterward (because the oxygen conversion is not instantaneous). Stanford University’s Anthony Wagner decided to do a test where laboratory studies involve instruction to tell a low-stakes lie about an action they recently performed. However, in the real world, lies are self-generated, often high risk and emotionally charged, and lie detection may occur years after the event in question. This process must be repeated a couple of times to be able to filter out false positives. In the end there is no hard data to show that we can actually detect lies with great accuracy. We would all love it if neuroscience could distinguish between these true and false memories until then cops and detective will still to polygraph test.
fMRI’s are not a perfect science, and they have a long way to go before they can be perfect. I feel like with a good mixture between the test, lawyers and great evidence court cases will be easy to solve and won’t be hard to put people behind bars. There’s going to be a lot of work done and a lot of time put in before we can get anywhere to a point where test can really tell who’s lying and who’s telling the truth. We shouldn’t treat fMRI’s as if it’s the only thing that can and should be used in the court, we should seen more like another piece of evidence that could be icing on the cake to completely the case.