"FBI — Witness Cooperation Campaign Launched in Philadelphia." 2010. 18 Feb. 2013 <>
    This is an official news article on an effort in Philly to try and increase the number of witnesses who will step forward and say what they know so that our court system will work. The purpose of the campaign was to inspire people to do the right thing.

Anderson, John. Gang-related witness intimidation. Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2007.

"Pair held for witness intimidation - - Featured Articles from ..." 2012. 18 Feb. 2013 <>

This is an article on a court case where witness intimidation played a factor. It article also quotes law-enforcement officials on their views on the problem of witness intimidation.

“Witness intimidation is rampant in Philadelphia and has led to murder and killers walking free, law-enforcement officials say.”

“Unfortunately, the reality in Philadelphia is that virtually every homicide case is negatively affected by witness intimidation," District Attorney Seth Williams told City Council during budget hearings last year. "People are literally afraid for their lives - or the lives of their loved ones - to testify."

(I got this one)
Sostek, Anya . Terrified to Testify Increasingly, criminal cases are being stalled because intimidated witnesses don't show up or because they recant their statements.
Washington, D.C. : Governing magazine, 2007.

This is a magazine article that calls for a witness intimidation law that would impose heavy fine on intimidators as well as allow witness to testify with coming to court.
“Witness intimidation, of course, is nothing new. Examples of jailhouse snitches date back centuries in England, while the concept of omerta, or a "code of silence," has also existed for hundreds of years in Mafia communities. The difference between those concepts and what is going on today is that the "stop snitching" mantra has become a cultural phenomenon affecting law-abiding citizens and even children.”

“Blatant examples of witness intimidation are unfortunately abundant. Six members of the Dawson family were killed in East Baltimore in 2002 when their house was firebombed in apparent retaliation for their repeated calls to police to complain about drug dealing. In 2004, Newark police attributed the murder of four people in a vacant lot to the fact that one was a murder witness; a witness to the quadruple murders was later killed as well. Last year, at least eight witnesses to the murder of a 10-year-old boy in Philadelphia went silent when called to the witness stand.”

“Jessamy says that she started to notice the growing incidence of witness intimidation about five years ago, in the course of looking at statistics charting why certain cases hadn't moved forward. Increasingly, cases were being stalled because witnesses either weren't showing up or were recanting their testimony.”

McCoy,Craig R. Panel urges funding of a witness-intimidation crackdown for Phila. courts
Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Inquirer, 2013.

The summary of the proposal to give the witness protection program more money that fails to past.

"We have to do something to help them protect the witnesses who have been subjected to significant intimidation," said Greenleaf, a Republican who represents part of Bucks and Montgomery Counties. "We have to be of help to them."

MacDonald, Toim. State study: Philly needs more funds to fight witness intimidation
Philadelphia: WHYY, 2013.

A report by a state Senate advisory panel on funding the witness intimidation program.

A report by a state Senate advisory panel says Pennsylvania should give more money to Philadelphia to crack down on witness intimidation.
The committee,  made up of judges, professors, prosecutors and other experts in the judicial system, is urging more state funding for the city's victim assistance program. The extra money would pay for witness relocation expenses -- as well as hiring a team of prosecutors to help crack down on intimidation of witnesses.

Jones, Ashby. On Snitches and Stitches in Philly. New york city: The wall street journal, 2009.

“B“It’s endemic. People are frightened to death,” said District Attorney Lynne M. Abraham. “We’ve had witness after witness intimidated, threatened, frightened.”

“Indeed, the Inquirer story is chock full of terrifying anecdotes. But what can a city like Philadelphia do to combat the problem? Two things, it appears: try to prosecute those who intimidate witnesses as well as guarantee the safety of those who do testify.”

“According to the story, witness intimidation convictions can be tough to land. Prosecutors charged about 1,000 people with witness intimidation between 2006 and 2008. Of resolved cases, prosecutors won a conviction on witness-intimidation charges only 28 percent of the time.”

“And without the ability to protect those who testify, it’s hard to make a dent in the problem.”

“That fear, that’s real,” said Jamie Egan, a former city prosecutor. “When people would ask me if I could guarantee their safety, I would say, ‘Unfortunately, I cannot.’”
Part of the problem stems from the fact that funding for Philly’s witness protection program is down.”

“Statewide, according to the Inquirer, money for witness relocation has dropped off in recent years, a casualty of budget cuts and the faltering economy. While the Philadelphia program spent just over $11,000 per witness last year, the federal witness-protection program spends more than four times that.”

FBI."Step Up, Speal Up" Witness Cooperation Campaign Launched in Philadelphia
Philadelphia: FBI, 2006.

DEAN, MENSAH M. Pair held for witness intimidation
Philadelphia: The Philadelphia inquirer, 2012.

Dedel, Kelly. Witness Intimidation Guide No.42 (2006)
Providence ,Rhode island : The PoP conference , 2006.