Alexie, Sherman. 19, April. "Superman and Me." Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 19 Apr. 1998. Web. 02 Feb. 2016.
“Superman and Me” tells a tale of young Sherman Alexie (the author of the essay) talks about being a young native American boy having an admiration for Superman, and how he first learned how to read with a Superman comic book. He talks about how unusual it was for him, an Indian boy on a reservation, to have identified so much with Superman. He then talks about how from there, he taught himself how to read, and was reading dense texts extremely quickly. This source gives anecdotal insight on not only the misrepresentation in mainstream comics, but also how it’s merely considered “unusual” for a young boy on an Indian Reservation to learn how to read so quickly, whereas if he were anyone else, he’d be a prodigy. I found this source to be beneficial for me because I now know what kind of audiences my books can reach and the potential they can have, with proper representations.
Cohn, Diana. ¡Sî, Se Puede! / Yes, We Can!: Janitor Strike in LA. Texan-Mexican Border: Cinco Puntos Press, 2009. Print.
This book was a really good source for me when determining the kind of accessibility my books should have; because this book is bilingual, it’s accessible to both English and Spanish readers. It also gives voice as well as new perspective on the Janitor Strike in L.A.; a movement which wouldn’t have been given voice to without this book. The book not only gives the movement a voice, but gives it personal/familial perspective. The author, Diana Cohn, is a social activist herself, and is determined to write about social advocation that is accessible to young children. What I strive to do with my own books is bring light to issues that otherwise wouldn’t be taught or represented, and this book is a perfect example of that.
Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development, Board on Children, Youth, and Families; Shonkoff, Jack P. and Phillips, Deborah A. From Neurons to Neighbors: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000. Google Books. <https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=oZQtR7WIBKgC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=Childhood+psychological+development+&ots=qG75DcSqAQ&sig=c-y5pzUw-_qsLVfRjV3VnN0Kgh8#v=onepage&q=Childhood%20psychological%20development&f=false>
This source was incredibly beneficial to me in that it gave extensive analysis and insight on the importance of early childhood experiences, as well as the template set for whether a child can have a healthy or unhealthy start to life. The executive summary lists conclusions that’ve been further examined throughout the book that suggest the needs of children are constantly evolving and unaddressed, and early childhood programs and policy must go under reform for a child to benefit socially from such. This source, although incredibly dense, is something worth revisiting and sifting through to discover new insight on childhood experiences and perceptions. To understand children on a psychological level is vital to my project, as I want to make sure my books can create healthy learning experiences for children.
Dvorsky, George, PhD, and James Hughes, PhD. Comp. Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies. Postgenderism: Beyond the Gender Binary (2008): n. pag. Web. 2 Feb. 2016. <http://www.battleswithinme.com/uploads/2/8/6/9/28694993/postgenderism_beyond_binary.pdf >
Postgenderism is the idea of gender binary and strict gender association will erode in modern society and within modern technology. It’s not the belief of total androgyny, but rather just that everyone should have the liberty to choose their expression and how they associate themselves. This analysis of a future without the disabilities enabled by patriarchal and gender norms helped to give me insight on futuristic beliefs pertaining gender and how they can be reflected within one of my books. Because western society is gradually approaching reform to traditional representation and expression, it’s important for me to understand and analyze its progression if I want my final product to be timely and impactful.
Jacobs, Deborah L. "How to Self Publish Your Book Through Amazon." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 25 Apr. 2014. Web. 03 Feb. 2016.
I found this source to be incredibly relevant to me because it lays out the basic steps to self publishing. Self publishing is the part of this process that has been intimidating me the most and this source breaks the process down into something simpler and more accessible. It gives great insight on how independent authors build their platform, and how they go about the process. This article then begins to explain all the potential options and resources for self publishing, like Kindle Direct Publishing, CreateSpace, Amazon Author Central, etc. This article gave detailed descriptions of each resource and what a self publishing process would look like for each accordingly.
Kilodavis, Cheryl. My Princess Boy. Seattle, WA: KD Talent LLC, 2009. Print.
In My Princess Boy, a four year old boy is described as someone who proudly wears dresses, jewelry, and expressing himself in stereotypical femme ways. I chose this source specifically because I wanted more than one example of a children’s book exploring the gender binary and gender non-conformism. It is effective in that it gives me ideas for how to structure a children’s book, as well as how to approach gender nonconformism in an easily accessible way for children. It gives insight and representation to those who wish to explore outside of gender norms both physically and aesthetically. I found this source incredibly beneficial and important to my work, because it was the book that inspired this project in the first place.
Hill-Meyer, Tobi. A Princess of Great Daring. Toronto: Flamingo Rampant, 2015. Print.
A Princess of Great Daring is another children’s book that explores similar themes of My Princess Boy, except it makes further strides in explaining the life of what it means to be a trans person. Jamie, the main character, tells her friends that she really is a girl inside, and her friends are just as loyal to her as they ever would have been. A Princess of Great Daring is a phenomenal example of how acceptance should be taught as well as how transgenderism should be represented. Flamingo Rampant, the company that published the book, is known for publishing books specifically pertaining social justice and activist undertones. I looked further into this book, the author, and the publishing company to draw further inspiration.
Moody-Turner, Shirley. Black Folklore and the Politics of Racial Representation. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2013. Google Books. <https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=f_IaBwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=racial+representation+for+children&ots=gk2-4BKM5b&sig=UWCWqE2QJqo3x-I4ckhCG1tM3Ng#v=onepage&q=racial%20representation%20for%20children&f=false>
This is another example of a source that, while a dense read, is worth gradually sifting through and revisiting time to time. I had a basic understanding of racial representation, but I found it beneficial for me to find a text that dissects and analyzes it further. What I appreciate about this source is its exploration of the history and significance of black folklore, and its transcendence into American culture, although once hindered by oppression. It analyzes motifs from traditional West African philosophy, as well as the importance of cultural intersection in these folk tales. For my project specifically, I found it important to have a fundamental understanding of Black folklore and its cultural significance, because mainstream misrepresentation of black people had a large impact on the accessibility black folklore has had overtime. Because my project aspires to give voices to those who are marginalized and misrepresented, it was important for me to learn about a genre of literature that has always been underrepresented in this country.
Myers, Christopher. "The Apartheid of Children’s Literature." The New York Times. The New York Times, 15 Mar. 2014. Web. 02 Feb. 2016.
This source was the most important/relevant to me when pertaining to misrepresentation in children’s books. Young people of color are harder and harder to find in children’s books, and this scarce misrepresentation has a devastating affect on those children. Black children specifically are limited to books with historical pretense and the legacies of civil rights and slavery, but never to they explore the same kind of adventurous, innocent, and curious themes as white characters. In 2013, 93 of the 3,000 children’s books published were about black people. This source was reliable and impactful for me, because it came directly from personal experience and a study done by the University of Wisconsin's Cooperative Children’s Book Center. It gave the exact insight I needed for this project.
Tare, Medha, Cynthia Chiong, Patricia Ganea, and Judy Deloache. "Less Is More: How Manipulative Features Affect Children's Learning from Picture Books." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 31.5 (2010): 395-400. Web.I found this source to be interesting and necessary to be at my disposal because it speaks specifically on the effect that extravagant drawings and visuals have on a child’s reading development. The present studies show that pop up illustrations and manipulatives are more likely to distract from the child’s reading/learning experience, and instead simply just attract them to the illustrations and manipulatives. These features are detrimental to a child’s learning experience and their ability to recognize real life references and their symbolism in picture books. I found these studies to be incredibly relevant and timely for my project, because all of the books I plan to produce will be picture books. It’s going to help both me and my illustrator(s) to get an idea of how every picture is engaging but not hindering a child’s learning experience.
Comparing The Taming of the Shrew and 27 Dresses
Both in The Taming of the Shrew and 27 Dresses, there are characters who wish to win someone’s love in means that are not natural nor romantic. Jane can best be compared to Petruchio in this sense, however, because Jane ends up with another man entirely, the movie implies that women do not know what is best for them, especially in regards to love.
In The Taming of the Shrew, Petruchio is adamant about wooing Katherine to be his maiden, and has set up elaborate ways in which to tame her into his wife. In 27 Dresses, Jane is madly in love with her younger sister’s fiance. Because Jane has been a bridesmaid in 27 different weddings, she completely does not accept the idea that her sister will be marrying the man that she loves. Jane, although selfless in her ways, can be compared to Petruchio because both of these characters wish to “win” a person. However, with a woman as a pursuer, because she ends up with another man entirely, it implies that women do not know who is best for them and need a man’s confirmation.
“Why, that is nothing: for I tell you, father,
I am as peremptory as she proud-minded;
And where two raging fires meet together
They do consume the thing that feeds their fury:
Though little fire grows great with little wind,
Yet extreme gusts will blow out fire and all:
So I to her and so she yields to me;
For I am rough and woo not like a babe.”
(Act 2, Scene 1, 135-144)
In this part of the play, Petruchio is describing to Baptista his precise intentions in making Katherine fall in love with him, disregarding any and all arguments against his intentions. Petruchio does not find love or the potential of it in Katherine, but instead wants to use this marriage as a status symbol because of her riches. In this sense, Petruchio is trying to prove something to himself by doing so.
In 27 Dresses, because Jane has been the bridesmaid in so many weddings and has yet to have one of her own, also finds that getting married will benefit her in a similar sense. She wants to prove to her family, friends, and herself that she is worthy of marriage, and is adamant about marrying the man that her younger sister is engaged to.
“Then God be blessed, it is the blessed sun,
But sun it is not when you say it is not,
And the moon changes even as your mind.
What you will have it named, even that it is,
And so it shall be still for Katherine.”
(Act 4, Scene 6, 19-23)
In this scene of The Taming of the Shrew, Petruchio is convincing Katherine that the sun is the moon, and once Katherine agrees with him, he then changes his mind and convinces her that the sun is in fact the sun. Then, Katherine gives up on any rebuttal and decides to just follow whatever Petrucio ends up saying, and tells him he is and will be correct regardless. This scene shows that, regardless how minor the decision is, women are incapable of coming up with reasonable conclusions in any situation, and cannot speak for themselves without their thoughts or feelings being validated by a man’s.
In this scene of 27 Dresses, Kevin is suggesting that Jane say “No” to her younger sister, because she’s convincing Jane to do absolutely everything for her wedding. He then asks Jane if she’s ever said no before, and persuades her that she should be able to say no to her sister. The interesting conclusion that this scene presents is that Jane needs permission to say no. Before Kevin suggested she speak her mind, this scene makes it seem as though Jane would have never thought of doing so before. Interestingly, Kevin has a similar impression on Jane that Petruchio has on Katherine. Petruchio asserts very clear, authoritative power over Katherine. Kevin, although tactfully and subtly, introduced his feeling of entitlement over Jane, by making it as if he’s granting her liberation.
In both the movie and the play, there is a recurring theme that promotes the idea that a spouse/partner is a status symbol or an asset, which of course alters the expectations of courtships and relationships. Both Jane and Petruchio aspire to get married simply to show that they are able to sustain a marriage, essentially for the improvement of their self worth. However, Kevin and Petruchio are representations of how the patriarchy affects men’s expectations for women counterparts; Both Kevin and Petruchio felt as if they were worthy of giving Katherine and Jane permission to think or behave certain ways. This is proof that these harmful ideologies have transcended time since the publication of the Shrew, especially in the Western World. These expectations also speak volumes about gender roles and how they’ve sort of changed shape over time, instead of gradually fading from society entirely.
During human life, there are many different oppertunities people have to conflict with themselves, all of them having to do with fitting into a specific category of person. Questions about identity are incredibly common, due to the discomfort one receives when feeling abnormal or different. It’s natural to feel such a way, which is why categories are established- to feel normal, and to be able to simplify others to feel comfortable with them. These different categories/binaries include race, class, interest, occupation, and one of the largest, gender. We see gender in every social system; whether it be in schools, at work, or simply when having to use the bathroom. The gender binary pressures individuals to classify themselves as one gender or another, specifically the gender that pertains to their sex, leading to misconceptions about the existence of genderfluidity or any exploration of gender.
Monique Slusher, the author of an article explaining what it means to be “genderfluid,” uses a metaphor of three cups: one labeled “woman,” another “man,” and a third with no label at all. One some days, they say that the woman cup will be completely full; because they feel like a woman completely in every aspect. One other days, the man cup will be full, because they feel like a mix of both a man and a woman. And on some days the unlabeled up will be full, because being “man” or “woman” doesn’t describe how they feel at all on that day. (The Pacific Index.) The idea of genderfluidity is having a completely flexible and ever changing gender identity. The fact that this concept is extremely uncommon and at times causes lots of distress and discomfort proves the oppressiveness of the gender binary. The pressure to simply be “man” or “woman” and to completely live as man or woman puts pressure on individuals to identify themselves specifically as one gender or another.
A Sand Creek high school in Colorado Springs caused quite an uproar when they crowned a transgender student, Scarlett Lenh, to be homecoming princess. One parent had even said "I'm very sympathetic that he's transgender, but he should be on the boy's side, not the girl's." A high school junior also stated that “I think it’s wrong because he’s actually a guy, he’s not a girl, and he hasn’t been doing this his entire life – he’s only been doing it recently.” (KOAA.com) Because Lenh identifies as a girl, she is still part of the binary. However, both of these statements prove in multiple ways the negative effect of the gender binary, because of the automatic use of personal, masculine pronouns to describe Lenh, only because she was a boy at birth. The idea one must stay on the “boy’s side” because they were a boy is language that clearly states the discomfort in anything that doesn't completely cooperate with the binary that has been established, which is therefore why so much pressure is put on individuals to classify as one specific gender for their entire existence, and that any exploration of gender cannot exist.When asked, people who aren't directly affected by the gender binary might say that only the trans community, genderqueer, genderfluid, and other individuals that identify outside the binary are affected, but on closer inspection, every social institution built around the binary that accommodates cisgender individuals directly causes the oppressiveness of the binary, such as same gender schools, camps, sports, and even bathrooms. These are the things that more deeply ingrain the binary into people's subconscious, and leads to further distress and judgement towards others who simply cannot follow or participate in these social institutions, and can therefore not live a comfortable life. It is important to understand that sex and gender are two completely different things; just because someone was born with specific body parts doesn’t mean that they must do everything according to the gender society assigns those body parts for the rest of their life. It is much more important to acknowledge and appreciate one’s being, instead of always trying to classify it.
"Controversy over Transgender Student Being Crowned Homecoming Princess." KOAA.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014. <http://www.koaa.com/news/controversy-over-transgender-student-being-crowned-homecoming-princess/>."LGBTQ+: What's genderfluidity?." : The Pacific Index. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2014. <http://www.pacindex.com/opinion/2014/09/11/lgbtq-whats-genderfluidity/>.
I sometimes fear that myself and the world around me wears a white glove. Knows their boundaries too well, where to filter, what shouldn’t be seen. What frightens me the most about this white glove, is that it conceals any raw, naked sensation of reality; giving a softened, decorated version of our environment. We aren’t aware, or we aren’t aware enough of what surrounds us, what’s behind the curtain, what we’re told we are not supposed to see. The minds inside of this decorated reality have no concept of question, no concept of any other reality; just acceptance for what is and what should be. And of course, as there is commonly one person responsible for presenting an idea, there is only one human that is responsible for shielding a population of other humans behind a fantasy of deceivery, a false perspective, an extremely large riddle.
The secret behind biases, is that they all essentially start with riddles. One person believes that they can persuade another to believe he or she is correct, and therefore gives them a series of strange words that makes their point seemingly override any other point. As no idea is completely original, this perspective has probably derived from another person’s perspective; another person’s usage of words to reach persuasion. I’d like to think of it as a food chain of opinions; our minds and mouths being vessels for these opinions. One thing that is particularly interesting about biases, is that they usually hide behind the purpose to educate; as teaching experiences that must be delved into a population of brains. When educating with bias, the masses you are educating may never realize the slant of your perspective. The finesse you have with articulating your opinion can lead to others believing it is fact; the result of a sly play on words. The best kind of riddles are those that no one ever realizes are riddles.
A man like Joseph Goebbels, the Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany, had lots of fun with riddles. They were all that he could speak in. He was a Harry Houdini of words. He used a single idea, articulated it quite nicely, shared it with few people, who then shared it with more people, who then shared it with an entire population. This resulted in a movement, which then resulted in a political party; teaching a brand new mindset to a plethora of brand new minds. This idea then develops into worldview and demands to be practiced. I compare him to Houdini, as an act like this is very similar to a magic trick. Painting a picture with certain colors, making it as though you’ve used every color. Hide all the ugly bits and decorate the pretty, interesting things. Use certain vocabulary and literary tools as smoke and mirrors, deceive those around you by making every angle of your sentences appear perfect. It is the creating of an exaggerated illusion, making a distorted reality; a hyperbole for the eyes. In Goebbels’ speech, “Knowledge and Propaganda,” he states that “An idea always lives in individuals. It seeks an individual to transmit its great intellectual force.” You can only truly have fun with your medium of idea presenting when you realize how much power you can have. I believe that the most vital thing we do as human beings is communicate, and the most vital tool we have for communication is words. Goebbels knew precisely the kind of power he possessed with his words, and conducted miniature magic tricks with them; a pile of sophisticated riddles, persuading a mass of people to unify in discrimination against all Jews. Adolf Hitler so very closely had the capability to rule an entire continent, merely with his words. 6 million Jews, and 6 million non Jews were killed because of his words. He made everyone around him, in front of him, and beneath him hate, simply with words.
Now, whenever if I educate myself on Nazism, The Holocaust, or World War II, how can I evaluate their viewpoints and behaviors as someone who aspires to be an observer of all perspectives? How can I eliminate my pre-existing biases, and reason with my reflective biases? I would think the only way in which one could possibly reflect upon such evil acts and mass destruction of humanity is to evaluate the humanity. It was not merely a story, or a blood stain on a European atlas. However, almost all wars and monumental tragedies are taught in ways in which they’re completely non-humanized. It is a pure history, concealing the raw sensation of its personalism; like a white glove, making it impossible to touch. It is a pile paragraphs experienced by many authors, written by only one. How can different perspectives be acknowledged, if something is told in only one perspective?
I, of course, have many pre-existing biases and blind spots that I encounter on a daily basis, most of the time unintentionally. One of these, that I believe is absolutely vital for me to be aware of, is my lack of experiences. I have no idea what it’s like to need something I cannot have, I don’t know what it’s like to fear for my life, and I’ve never had to prove my bravery to anyone. All three of these are the most human experiences of those who have lived, breathed, and bled through World War II. I cannot reach out and touch their experiences if they do not reach out and touch me. What good is it if I’m too book smart, and can only learn from words alone? Wouldn’t my mind be absorbing a decorated illusion as opposed to a raw truth? Wouldn’t my mind learn to interpret a decorated illusion as a raw truth?
Every single person in this world has a set of biases; if they did not, they would not be alive, or fully engaged in life. We all form biases from things we hear, things that are said, opinions that seem justifiable, through a series of many words and riddles. The only way in which we can acknowledge and eliminate these biases is if we find the humanity in them, search for their imperfections, accept their ugly traits. It is much easier to say that all who kill, discriminate, and hate are evil; it is much harder to say they are human beings, that they are one of us. It is much easier to paint ourselves and our environment as an attractive deceivery, as opposed to revealing its naked reality. It is much easier to use our words as shields to protect others from what they do not want to hear or see. What we must all do is wipe the dust from certain corners of our pupils and see the imperfect angles of everything. Biases cannot ever fully be eliminated, but our world would be so much healthier if there was more acceptance and awareness to everything inside and around it.
(Sitting in the center of the bedroom, around miscellaneous belongings and other unfamiliar things; looking open and vulnerable like a human. This is, essentially, a personified version of a suitcase.)
Your mother will miss you when you’re gone; you can hold me when you’re homesick. Your ex lover would have forgotten about you; you can punch me with memories and worn souls until my back is as black and blue as yours. I will hold your tears, I don’t mind. I will fold your clothes into love letters and apologies.
(Take the belongings scattered around the bedroom)
When your father calls and asks if you still have the ring grandmother gave you, I will have it safe and sound. I will keep with me all the picture frames you don’t want to look at. When the hotel room is scattered with ancestry and diary entries, you may fill me up with all you have. You’re the last thing that keeps me from being a casket. Drag me along the dirt, suffocate me in the trunk of 8AM Taxi, smear my face with guilt, with mourning, with running away, with running home, and kiss me goodnight when the plane departs. Leave me, lose me, find me, rip me apart and put me back together; do to me what everyone else has done to you. They’ve gone away now; the keepsakes you’ve tucked behind my throat are all you have.
(sitting on the floor of the bedroom, staring up.)
I am a detached umbilical cord shaped like flags I’m not supposed to hold and I do not want by body to be an atlas anymore. I bear burdens that look like mountaintops of countries and passports plastered on my chest like crucifix. I will marinate every remnant from your lineage with the scent of lost land. I am a prostitute to native country, and a nomad of culture without pulse. Whenever I see the faces of heritage, I cannot help but take what I can; I want to learn about how your body speaks, and how your tongue moves. I want to know what it’s like to sit at a dinner table. I want to know what it’s like to be surrounded by faces that look just like mine, I want to know what it’s like to come home.
I looked at myself in the mirror yesterday and all I could see were tally marks. I counted every time I had killed myself and took along another life to a destination I could not remember. I stood tired, I felt bones, I tasted like empty room. There is nothing more that a world could give if you have already taken everything that it can show. There is nothing more that a body could give if you never get a chance to own it. I put a price tag on the tip of my ear and crawled into a plastic bag. I do not need to be an atlas if all I have left to be is a closet. So long, bon voyage, do not wake me when the plane lands.(Close when your job is done)
Culture is the main system that defines what category an individual fits in. A culture can consist of education, media, music, art, morals/religion, and most importantly, language. One part of language that culture has a large impact on his profanity. Profanity/curse words are a subset of language that is considered strong, obscene, and overall dirty. However, these words can still be apart of ones common diction, and are “okay to use” under certain circumstances. Permission to use profanity comes from culture because culture defines what profanity is. Since every culture has diverse definitions of what is social norm and what isn’t, certain behaviors and language that are natural for one culture are deemed blasphemous and obscene for another.
The way in which profanity is depicted in the media depends on an innumerous amount of variables and complications. For essentially every circumstance, however, culture has the main influence on the laws that dictate what language is “too obscene,” or what is perfectly fine to say publicly. When such boundaries are crossed, censorship is used. Censorship in the United States has liberalized over the years, and censorship in the United Kingdom is also rather lax with its linguistic risks. Take into account two different versions of the same television show that is common amongst the teenage population of both the United States and the United Kingdom; Skins. Both Skins UK and Skins US are known for their impulsive and radical usage of obscenity and foul language. In Skins UK, Effy uses terms like “shagging” and “surf and turf” (SE3E01: “Everyone”) to describe sex, and when Freddie confesses to Effy that he’s in love with her, he blatantly says “I really fucking love you.” (SE4E05: “Freddie”) In Skins US, when Tony was making phone calls to people about Stanley, he says that he “Has to get laid by the time he’s 17, or he can’t be my friend anymore.” (SE1E01: “Tony”) Even with the slight lenience of censorship, it caused far more controversy and lead to the show going off air after the first season. Reasons why Skins US got far more negative attention was because it publicly presented things too obscene for American media. American culture contrasts from the United Kingdom’s culture because the UK is open to accepting what’s considered improprietous language as a social norm, as well as a natural human behavior. Because the UK’s definition of profanity is less stringent, it gives permission to freely use what’s defined as profane in the US.
With a majority of religions, there is a wide range of mandatory edicts strictly against vulgar language. In Catholicism, there are a specific amount of rules that must be followed by every Roman Catholic entitled The Ten Commandments. In the Ten Commandments according to the Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church, there are two particular commandments that specify the wrongdoings of using foul language and other swear words. Two of them would be the second commandment, “Thou shalt not use misuse the name of the Lord your God in vain,” (New American Bible, Exodus 20:7) and the sixth commandment, “Thou shalt not commit adultery.” (New American Bible, Exodus 20:14) Using God’s name in vain is considered a form of swearing as well as blasphemy. With the sixth commandment, committing adultery can be defined/interpreted as any sort of act that is sexual or impure towards your body. Cursing/swearing fits into this criteria, because it is thought of to be degrading and harmful towards one’s self. What is fascinating about these two commandments especially, though, are that they state two natural human behaviors as being vulgar and degrading, and a majority of curse words are essentially just language that describes these natural human behaviors. Though because the culture of Catholicism does not give permission to use such words, they have become profane, because culture defines the line between vulgarity and normality.
In just about any and every educational environment, the concept of obscenity is either completely avoided, or deemed as subject too inappropriate to approach with any depth. This is because of ethics that are established in the culture of learning. Though recently, the comfort level with profanity has been increasing especially in educational environments. In a New York Times article about educated people using foul language in America, it states that “In our society, the main taboo is no longer sex, but race.” (“Room for Debate”) And also talks about how our offense evolves throughout the time. It also states that, after a certain amount of time, “people clutching at their pearls at things like that will look as quaint as people considering it a big deal that Clark Gable said ‘damn’ in ‘Gone With the Wind.’” (“Room for Debate”) Because of the fact that Americans are no longer offended by impropriety, they have now moved on to hyperbolizing the insult of using a racial slurs. The definition of profanity is constantly revising and evolving based on what a culture is offended by, and because of the recent epidemic of sexual exploitation, there is no more controversy or shock towards it, and it has become so natural that such words can be comfortably used by educated people. Now, ethnophaulisms are the new definition of profanity, and any permission to use that profanity will come from the culture that has defined it.
Permission to use profanity comes from culture because culture defines what profanity is. Since every culture has diverse definitions of what is social norm and what isn’t, certain behaviors and language that are natural for one culture are deemed blasphemous and obscene for another. Culture is what dictates ethical and unethical behavior, regardless of its normality or naturality elsewhere. The boundary between ethical and obscene accentuates the line between right and wrong, and carries out the importance of doing and saying the right things.
"Everyone." Skins UK. E4: 22 Jan 2009. Television.
“Freddie.” Skins UK. E4: 24 Feb 2010. Television.
“Tony” Skins US. MTV 17 Jan 2010. Television.
The New American Bible.
"Why Do Educated People Use Bad Words?" Room for Debate Why Do Educated People Use Bad Words Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Nov. 2013. <http://roomfordebate.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/04/12/why-do-educated-people-use-bad-words/?_r=0>.
Intro:La casa esta en Nueva York cerca de Parque de Central, lejos de las montañas y la playa. Es muy grande y moderno, la casa es para nuestra amiga Michelle Friedman y su familia. La casa tiene tres habitaciones, una cocina, tres baños, un comedor, un jardín, y una sala. Michelle tiene tres niños, dos niños comparten una habitación, el tercer niño es junto a los otros cada habitación está conectado a un cuarto de baño. La familia vive en los dos últimos pisos de uno beacon court
La sala tiene tres sofás, una mesa, y muchos cuadros en las paredes.Una alfombra en el piso. Tres ventanas mira fuera en la ciudad.
La Cocina/El Comedor: La cocina tiene una estufa, un horno, un lavavajilla, una lavamanos, y una nevera. El comedor asientos ocho personas más, hay una grande ventana mira fuera en la ciudad.
El baño #1 es muy grande. Hay un lavamanos, una ventana, un inodoro, y un banera grande. El baño #2 es mediana, tiene un inodoro, un lavamanos pequeña, y un banera. El baño #3 es muy, muy pequeña. Hay un inodoro y un lavamanos. Baño #1 es el baño de tres niños. Baño #2 es el baño de Michelle. Baño #3 es de baño para los huéspedes o cualquier otras personas en la familia.
1.) : 2.)
La habitación uno es muy pequeña y simple. Hay un cama sofá, dos ventanas, y un escritorio. La habitación dos es muy brillante. Tiene un ventana grande y cama grande. La habitación tres es muy divertida. Dos camas y dos escritorios, una ventana mira fuera en el ciudad. La habitación es muy perfecto para dos niños. Los dos niños son gemelos y mejor amigos. Su color favorito es naranja.
El Jardín es muy bonita y mas o menos grande. Hay dos árboles y plantas en un estanque. ¡Si el jardín hay un estanque! La ventana mira fuera en el jardín es la ventana de habitación de Michelle. Hay un lugar para caminar en el borde del estanque. Hay un patio para llegar al jardín. El jardín es muy elegante. Hay peces en el estanque. Hay una fuente en el estanque.
One thing I learned that is vital with any one point perspective drawing is that the vanishing point is what determines the outcome of your drawing, and everything must be precise. I was never aware of how much of an impact one error could potentially make.
b. How did leaning this thing make your drawings better.
Well, learning this will make my drawings better, for I'll use each technique that I've learned though this drawing and apply it to anything else I decide to draw.
c. If you did this assignment again, what would you do differently?
If I could do this assignment again, I would take more of the help I neglected to get. My final drawing would have been better than what it resulted to be.
d. What is your advice to someone who has never drawn a one point perspective drawing before?
My advice would be to put into consideration each line you draw. Every single mark you put to paper is a commitment, and don't be too quick to marry an idea.
e. What resource helped you the most and why?
The resource that helped me the most was probably the slideshow on moodle that explained every single step of drawing the art room. It was helpful guide, as well as a fantastic visual aid.
Mi amiga Gina. Ella siempre lee y dibuja. Ella es muy trabajadora, es por eso que le gusta hacer la tarea, y estudiar después de las clases. Cuando tiene tempo libre, ella relaja.
¡Hola! Me nombre es Veronica. Tengo catorce años. Soy estudiante de Science Leadership Academy. Está en el centro de la cuidad, Filadelfia. Está cerca de Franklin Instituto, Greene Towne la escuela y La Academia de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. La escuela es súper divertida y extraña. Hay 500 estudiantes, 25 profesores, y 5 pisos. Science Leadership Academy tenemos deportes, club de poesía, círulo de lectores, y simulacro de las naciones unidas. Participa en club de poesía porque es interesante y muy divertido.
Tengo muchos clases. Tengo historia, álgebra, bioquímica, español, inglés/literatura, ingeneria, arte, teatro y technologia. Mis favoritos clases son inglés, ingeneria, y teatro. En la clase de inglés, necesitamos una pluma, un libro, una computadora, y unas hojas de papel. En la clase de inglés, nosotros escribimos y leermos. En la clase de álgebra, necesitamos unos lápices, una calculadora, y una carpeta. Nosotros tenemos que siempre intentamos y participamos. En la clase de español, necesitamos una pluma, una computadora, y una carpeta. Para tener éxito en todo la clases, En necesario tú tiene ser trabajador.
Los profesores en Science Leadership Academy son bastante inteligente y divertido. La Señorita Manuel enseña Español. Ella es baja pero trabajadora. El Señor Kay enseña inglés y teatro. El es extraño y creativo. Le encanta leer y escribir. La Señorita Dunda enseña bioquímica. Ella es alta y muy inteligente. La clase de Señorita Dunda es interesante y divertida. La Señorita Jonas enseña historia. Ella es timida y bastante simpática. Me encanta la clase de Señorita Jonas porque ella es profesora talentosa.
Me encanta Science Leadership Academy porque nosotros tenemos libertad de expresión, y tambien me gusta los largos almuerzos. La libertad es lo que más me gusta de SLA. Me escuela es muy extraña, siempre divertida, y tambien interesante.
So, I decided to find one thing that I think represents who I am the most, which is music. Music has been very much apart of my life ever since I was a child, and it's something that will probably stay with me for the rest of my life. My father always played his guitar around me, and my uncle always took me to classical concerts.
I wrote the word "music" in a large font, in order to draw attention to it. I've also attempted the rule of thirds by adding a picture as well as a brief saying. I tried to create this slide in such a way so that you'd really only have to glance at it once to know the purpose of it. Not too much information; just enough to catch the eye. I've only stuck to a black and white color scheme.
The only changes I made visually to the slide is making the word "music" and the picture slightly larger to make up for the extra, unnecessary space. From creating this slide and watching my classmates present their slides, I've learned about the possible mistakes I could make, as well as the minor things that could make a slide more visually appealing.
¡Hola! ¡Pero vivo en Filadelfia! Se conoce como “La Ciudad de Amor Fraternal.” Mi nombre es Veronica. ¿Cómo estás? ¡Estoy emocionada! ¿Cuántos años tienes? Soy Tengo catorce años. ¿Cuándo es tú cumpleaños? Mi cumpleaños es el siete de febrero. ¿Qué tiempo hace hoy en _____? ¡Hace bastante frio en Filadelfia!
¿Cómo eres tú? Soy morena, un poquito timida, creativa, inteligente, y bastante simpática. ¿Qué te gusta hacer? Me fascina escuchar música, leer, y escribir. De vez en cuando me gusta relajar, comer, y estudiar. Cuando tengo tiempo libre, me encanta leer. Adios!
The internet connects to my modem from my ISP, which is Comcast. My modem then connects to my wireless router through my ethernet. My router is connected to my printer, my desktop computer, and both of my laptops.
One thing I learned from this that I didn't know before was how many connections had to be made in order for me to access the internet through my computer. When casually using the internet for social networking, I never thought much of the fact that I was connected to the internet.
Something that I would like someone else to know is that once something is on the internet, it no longer belongs to you. When uploading a picture, video, or any other kind of media to the internet, you no longer have any control as to where it goes.
In order to have a basic conversation in Spanish, you must know how to:
Ask them how they are
Ask them their name
Ask them where they live
This is how to ASK any of these questions:
****NOTICE: (tú) is in parentheses for the questions ¿Cómo the llamas? and ¿De dónde eres? This is because the word tú is a way of addressing a friend (or amigo) of yours. If you are to ask these same questions to someone who is not your friend and is to be respected, you would ask them like this:
Here are some responses to those questions:
¿Cómo se llamas?
¿De dónde eres (tú)?
WAYS TO SAY GOODBYE:
******It is always polite to say "Nice to meet you" after meeting someone for the first time. It is also polite to reply to that by saying "Likewise."
OTHER USEFUL TERMS:
Here is a game that can be helpful with this lesson. It is also good for greeting someone in Spanish.
Here is a continuation of the video for How to Greet Someone in Spanish. In this video, however, we are having a basic conversation with the tourist.
There are FOUR ways that you can greet someone in Spanish, and they are:
****NOTICE: There are TWO exclamation points being used in each greeting. One of them is BEFORE the greeting and one is AFTER the greeting. The exclamation point before the greeting is ALWAYS upside down. This rule applies to EVERY sentence or phrase that is exclamatory. This same rule also applies when adding a question mark to any question you may ask in Spanish.
You must know when to use each greeting. For example, you would only use ¡Buenos días! when:
Greeting someone as you're arriving to work
Greeting someone as you're arriving to school
Greeting someone while you're eating breakfast
Greeting someone at any other time during the morning
You would only use ¡Buenas tardes! when:
Greeting someone when you're leaving school
Greeting someone while you're eating lunch
Greeting someone at any other time during the afternoon
You would only use ¡Buenas noches! when:
Greeting someone while you're eating dinner
Greeting someone after you've got home from work
Greeting someone at any other time during the evening
¡Hola! is a greeting that can be used at ANY time.
Here is a game that can be helpful with this lesson. It is also good for basic conversations.
Here is a video of a tourist visiting America who is unable to speak English, and can only speak Spanish. In order to make this tourist feel welcome, it is necessary to know how to greet someone in Spanish.