Scientists, medical professionals, and other analysts use animals to develop successful medical treatments and determine the safety and effects of medications as well as other products that are intended for human use. Through animal testing, cures to cancer, anemia, and tuberculosis have been founded as well as the discovery of penicillin and insulin - among other things. Even then, according to a study conducted by the Human Society of the United States, approximately 65% of Americans are against animal testing due to the harm that may be inflicted on the animals being used in the tests. It should be known, though, that although animal testing may be considered cruel and inhumane on behalf of the animals, and there are changes that could be made to the methods that are practiced, there are certain circumstances of higher importance where animal testing has proven to make major positive impacts and is necessary for the long-term wellbeing of our human population.
Animal testing is opposed by such a large number of the American population. However, it is questionable that what these people propose as solutions and alternatives to animal testing would be as effective, in addition to their not being very many. The only current alternatives include test methods where cells are modeled after human cells and computer based simulations where drugs are virtually tested. These methods may be useful but they do not provide the accurate and reliable results that animal testing does, as computers and models are only based off of real cells and are not advanced enough to understand complex human organs. Being that humans and animals share many similar biological characteristics, understanding the biological functions of animals and their reactions to certain drugs and products means understanding the biological functions of humans and how humans would react, therefore advancing scientific knowledge of the human body.
To put it simply, in order to develop effective drugs they must be put through many trial experiments and be reworked until made successful. A crucial step in creating effective medications, such as insulin, a critical discovery that lead to saving many lives of those with diabetes, is by testing them first on real cells and organs. In 1889 a German scientist studying diabetes found that once a dog had his pancreas removed, it got diabetes. This lead to further investigation of what exactly the pancreas’ job was: to produce digestive juices and to produce an unknown substance that regulates sugar glucose throughout the body. They carried out studies where the pancreas of dog A was removed, and dog B’s pancreatic ducts were tied off, stopping the flow of nourishment. Dog A developed diabetes, while dog B only developed minor digestional issues. They later took out dog B’s pancreas as well and filtered the fluids inside, through which they found insulin. They injected the insulin directly into the dog’s veins and found that it’s blood sugar levels dropped drastically and they were able to keep the dog healthy and free of symptoms of diabetes. These long, hard studies that took place over the course of many years perfectly portray the importance of animal research in both advancing scientific knowledge and developing effective medicines to cure potentially lethal diseases. There are many other instances where animal research and testing have contributed to understanding and treating harmful conditions, such as breast cancer, brain injury, childhood leukemia, cystic fibrosis, malaria, multiple sclerosis, and tuberculosis.
Some argue that carrying out these tests on humans, who volunteer to do so, would be safer and more reliable than animals. However, it is simply not feasible under many circumstances. By law, it is considered murder for a human to die by a drug that has not yet been under proper tests, also known as ‘unethical human experimentation.’ Additionally, it would be simply immoral to complete these possibly dangerous experiments on humans when the medications being tested are intended in the first place to make scientific advancement in the human world. Just as a product or medicine for a specific breed of dog wouldn’t be tested on that breed of dog first, products or medicines for humans should not be tested on humans before being released for public consumption.
When thinking about animal testing, people do not focus enough on the major positive impacts that have been made when it comes to expanding scientific knowledge and maintaining a healthy human, and animal, population, as shown with the dog who had been cured of diabetes. However, when it comes to the welfare of the thousands of animals currently being tested on, if the government were to consider implementing laws focused around animal testing it would be most beneficial if they governed how often and under what circumstances it is allowed to be used rather than completely eradicating it.
Carome, M.D. Michael. "Outrage of the Month: A Steady Stream of Unethical Human Experiments." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 02 May 2016. Web.
"Diseases & Research." Animal Research Info. N.p., n.d. Web.
"Medical Benefits." Speaking of Research. N.p., 06 Apr. 2016. Web.
"New Poll Shows Majority of Americans Strongly Oppose Animal Testing for Cosmetics." The Humane Society of the United States. N.p., n.d. Web.
Society, New England Anti-Vivisection. "Animals in Science/Alternatives." In Testing. N.p., n.d. Web.
"The Discovery of Insulin." nobelprize.org. N.p., Feb. 2009. Web.
Why this is my best possible 2fer…
I believe that this is my best 2fer thus far both through my writing and choice of topic. I chose a controversial and popular topic, then went against even my own opinions while writing this 2fer. In doing this, I had to be sure to do ample research to find substantial evidence to back the claims I make, which is something I had struggled with in past 2fers. My arguments were stronger in this 2fer and I think that is even more important with such a controversial topic.
Woo Her to Wed Her!
Comparing Shakespeare’s Taming of the Shrew to the modern film starring Jennifer Lopez, The Wedding Planner.
When comparing Shakespearean literature and modern film, although there are many differences in the ‘roles’ females and males share in a relationship, there is one thing in particular that may not have changed as much as one would think it would over the past hundreds of years-- the tactics that men use to gain the attention and affection of women. In Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew, the audience is introduced to many suitors who are determined to earn the love of the beautiful and desired Bianca, and even a suitor who intends to gain the love from the not as beautiful and desired Kate, Bianca’s sister. These men show that they will go far lengths to prove their masculinity and power to their desired wives, believing that this will coincide with gaining female affection.
Similarly, in the movie The Wedding Planner, Eddie - although engaged to somebody else - falls in love with Mary, his wedding planner. Eddie uses similar tactics as the suitors do in attempts to gain the attention and affection of Mary. In both Taming of the Shrew and the modern film The Wedding Planner the male perspective of courtship and dating heavily revolves around 'wooing' and impressing a female to gain her affection, oftentimes attempting to prove worthiness through power and masculinity.
"Happily to wive and thrive, as best I may. Crowns in my purse I have and goods at home..."
(Act I, Scene II, 57-59)
In the quote above, Petruchio is talking to a friend, Hortensio. He is convincing Hortensio that he has what it takes to gain the affection of, and eventually marry, high maintanence Kate. He speaks as if his plan to do so is to impress her with the crowns in his purse and the goods he has to his name. Here, Petruchio clearly represents the idea that in order to impress his love interest, he must first wow her with his wealth and material possessions.
In The Wedding Planner, Eddie behaves similar to Petruchio in this regard when he is left hanging out with another man named Massimo, who is interested in Mary as well, while Mary and Eddie’s fiancé are touring a venue.
In this scene, while wandering the venue, the two men find the exercise room. They first get on the treadmills and Eddie soon notices that Massimo is going faster than him. He quickly turns up his treadmill to the highest setting. Next, they begin doing pull-ups. Eddie asks Massimo multiple times: “How many is that for you?” being sure to continuously one up Massimo’s pull-up count. It is comical because Massimo does not even seem to be competing with Eddie and instead, Eddie has this entire competition going on in his head. Slightly different from Shrew, yet still holding the same principal, it seems that in this scenario Eddie would like to prove that he is more ‘worthy’ than Massimo by showing his strength and masculinity, as if the more that he he appears to have, the more he will impress Mary.
"Madam, before you touch my instrument, I must begin with rudiments of art, To teach you gamut in a briefer sort, More pleasant, pithy, and effectual than hath been taught by any of my trade..."
(Act III, Scene I, 67-72)
In this quote another suitor, Hortensio, is speaking to his love interest, Bianca, while he is dressed up as a music teacher. In the play, Hortensio claims he does this so that he can get closer to her and possibly win her love sooner than one who does not think up such a great idea. As a reader, one may wonder: what is the point in dressing up as someone else to get closer to Bianca?
In the quote we can see that Hortensio would like to impress Bianca and tells her that he is one of the best music teachers, teaching the most “pleasant, pithy, and effectual” lessons than those that have been taught by any of his trade. Hortensio feels that he needs to act like someone smarter and of more power than who he really is to impress Bianca through his wisdom and mastery of his trade. This is why he chooses to dress up as a highly respected and esteemed music teacher.
In The Wedding Planner, Eddie takes a similar approach as Hortensio does when he ‘happens’ to save Mary from vulnerable and potentially harmful situations multiple times throughout the movie. Similar to Hortensio, Eddie believes that appearing as masculine and strong as he can will attract Mary. In a sense, Eddie is also attempting to impress his love interest by showing a mastery of his trade, which, in his case, is being a rugged 21st century man.
Although these pieces were created hundreds of years apart, the male opinions on courtship and dating, as well as the methods they use to attract and gain the attention of the women they are interested in have not changed very much over the course of time. In fact, the only differences arise when the time periods that they each are from come into play. In conclusion, these stories show that in our society, in order for a male to successfully court a female, he must impress her with his power and masculinity. Hence, it is expected that females must be attracted to these traits and will instantly fall in love with a man as long as he is strong, powerful, and manly.
Shakespeare, William, Barbara A. Mowat, and Paul Werstine. The Taming of the Shrew. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2014. Print.
The Wedding Planner. Dir. Adam Shankman. By Pamela Falk and Michael Ellis. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Matthew McConaughey. 2001. DVD.
I am twelve years old and had just began seventh grade at the prestigious all girls private school, Baldwin, located on Philadelphia’s main line. It is currently ‘bat mitzvah season’ for the many Jewish girls whom I go to school with. This night is not only hugely exciting for the birthday girl, but also for her guests. It is one of the few, but extremely exciting, days where we are able to mingle with the boys from the all-boy’s school down the road from ours, Haverford. I would strategically head to a friend’s house hours before the party starts, where we spend every second available to us to get ready. At approximately six o’clock we eventually pull up to an elaborate hall or hotel decorated just for the birthday girl. Upon walking inside, I was either greeted by an ice sculpture of the birthday girl’s head or a photographer ushering me in and then quickly snapping a photo of me and my friends. I enjoy myself so much at these parties that I eventually go home and ask my mother if I can have one just like theirs for my upcoming thirteenth birthday. She is then forced to break the news to me that not only are we not jewish, but that I am not like the girls I go to school with; that we don’t have all that they have and that that’s okay.
Although my seventh grade self was upset that she couldn’t have an elaborate thirteenth birthday, over the next three years of attending that school I had come to the realization that these bat mitzvahs were just one small factor that set me apart from my peers. I had begun to feel like I was living in a white privileged bubble while going to Baldwin, and I did not belong there. I come from a very liberal family and I soon found out that my parents were struggling with the feeling that the school I was attending was slowly taking away many of the morals and principles that they had worked hard to raised me with; the fear that being in an environment with such a lack of diversity would unintentionally cause me to be unaccepting of those that are different than me. My family feared of what would happen if I continued schooling at Baldwin, graduated, and was suddenly launched into the real world without understanding what the real world truly is, as I had only been exposed to such a small part of it.
It wasn’t until nearly the end of my freshman year of high school that I finally came to terms with this and sat down with my mother to discuss the possibility of switching schools. The conversation went something like this:
Hadleigh: Mom, I think I would like to leave Baldwin.
Mom: Finally! Where would you like to go?
Hadleigh: I have no idea.
The end of the school year was nearing and I knew that my options were slim, and for this reason, the idea got pushed to the side for a while. The next time it was brought up, my mother mentioned the school, Science Leadership Academy, that she passes sometimes on her way to work. I had heard of it and knew that one of my best friends who was a grade below me was applying. It is located in the city where I grew up, the student body is far more diverse than Baldwin, and it overall seemed that it would be a more comfortable environment for me. I made the quick decision to apply as well.
Luckily, the last set of interviews happened to be the following week. I was told to find one recent project that I was most proud of to present, as SLA is a project based school, to one current student and one teacher. I had only done one project that year at Baldwin and it was a group project that I wouldn’t have necessarily defined as one I am “most proud of.” I then decided to take it upon myself to change the project around a bit and create an improved, more personal version of the original project. I was the only person there that was already in high school and many people looked at me strangely. However, my interview went well and I felt confident.
I did not find out that I had been accepted to SLA until my last week of school at Baldwin. I was on a serious time crunch as there were deadlines on both ends that had to be met. My mental state at this time could be described as jumbled and disorganized. I had no idea what I wanted to do. Leaving Baldwin after 5 years was only just a thought until I got the news that SLA had wanted me to attend. I weighed the pros and cons:
Pros: more suitable environment, will be better prepared for the real world, fresh start
Cons: leaving everything I know and starting new, friends, amazing education
After a few days of frantically searching within myself to come to a decision, I had finally decided that I would transfer to SLA.
Although the transition was intimidating at first, I cannot express my gratitude toward my parents enough for pushing me to take the risk that has formed me into the person I am now, and the person I am proud to be. When I think back now to the person I was when I attended Baldwin, I am barely able to recognize that person. SLA has forced me to come out of my shell and put an end to my habit of trying to blend in with the crowd. SLA accepts me for who I am and pushes me to be an individual. I find it amazing that such a seemingly small change could change my life so drastically for the better. After taking this risk and experiencing the positive effects, I feel obligated to take more risks in life with the intention of bettering and working toward becoming the best version of myself.
Dress codes are present in most schools across the country; whether it be a distinct uniform, or a set of regulations that determine what is acceptable by the school’s standards. The guidelines claim to define appropriate attire that will not take away from the purpose of school, which is to get an education and prepare students for the future. However, schools today seem to view the purpose of dress codes in a different light, creating a double standard of what apparel is and is not acceptable in school based on gender, and often targeting females. The sexist dress codes enforced in many high schools pose many negative effects for the young girls being scrutinized for their outfit choices.
In most cases, school dress codes end up being used to police female students’ bodies to make sure that they do not distract or ‘tempt’ their male peers. Schools even go as far as to slut-shame girls for the clothes they are wearing. The unfortunate part is that it is not only male teachers who administer these practices. The female headteacher of Trentham high school, Dr. Rowena Blencowe, banned skirts claiming that girls wearing skirts “isn’t fair for male members of students or staff… it is a distraction.”1 In 2014, the male principal of Devil’s Lake High School, located in North Dakota, punished a girl for wearing leggings. Following this, he called an assembly where two clips were shown from the movie Pretty Women, where the main character is a prostitute. He claimed that the clips were shown to show the students that “You are in charge of the image you project to others and how you want to be perceived.”2 Comparing adolescent girls who choose to dress comfortably to school to a prostitute implies that females bodies are sexual objects, and that young men are not expected to have self control when they come in contact with a female wearing a skirt that shows her knees.
By contrast to this policing of girls’ clothing, instances where a male student is told to change because their outfit is inappropriate or against school guidelines is very rare. In one entry of the Everyday Sexism Project, a forum where people can share their experiences with gender inequality, a young girl wrote of a time where she got penalized for wearing shorts. She left the principal's office and passed a male peer wearing a shirt with two stick figures, one was a male holding down the female's head in his crotch and saying ‘good girls swallow.’ The girl said that her teachers walked right by this young man without a word.3 This experience is just one of many where a female gets dress coded for a seemingly minor and unimportant reason, while her male peers walk around displaying offensive messages on their shirts and their pants sagging low, often times exposing their underwear. These types of situations occur because schools are more focused on there being ‘too much’ skin showing than what would actually be considered offensive to the community. Ignoring the attire of males, while scrutinizing females for their outfits inadvertently teaches girls that they are unequal to men. Gender inequality will never end if females are taught from a young age they they are unequal to their male counterparts.
Somewhere leading up this point, the concept of high school dress codes have gotten mixed up. When asked, people may say that dress codes are crucial, as they prepare students for their future, but on closer inspection, high school dress codes are a collection of sexist double standards that pose many negative effects for the young girls being scrutinized for their outfit choices. For the good of the future generations as a whole, dress codes must be updated. If they are not, females will continue growing up believing that they will always be a man’s target, simply due to the clothing they pick out in the morning. Rather than making girls feel uncomfortable for what they are wearing or shaming their bodies, schools should simply educate their students of what clothing will be acceptable when they begin to move into the workforce - both males and females alike.
1 Bates, Laura. "School Dress Codes Reinforce the Message That Women's Bodies Are Dangerous." The Guardian. 10 Sept. 2015. Web.
2 Klein, Rebecca. "High School Uses Clips From 'Pretty Woman' To Show Students How Not To Dress." The Huffington Post. October 2nd, 2014. Web.
3 "How School Dress Codes Shame Girls and Perpetuate Rape Culture." Time. 22 May 2015. Web.
When reading, Luis likes to be able to fully concentrate on whatever book he is reading, and therefore believes that the best location to read is somewhere quiet and separated from others. The best time for Luis to pick up a book is when he is feeling calm and in a ‘neutral’ mindset. He does not want to have too much on his mind that would cause him to lose focus on the book he is reading.
Luis enjoys reading books that he feels he can relate to somehow. For example, ‘Diary of a Wimpy Kid 4’ is a childhood favorite that Luis has never forgotten because of its commonality, as well the fact that he deeply identifies with the main character, Greg. On the other hand, a book that Luis would like to disappear is ‘Donald Trump: The Art of the Deal.’ He believes that the ideas and practices that Trump displays in the book are very outdated and do not have relevancy to our 21st century society.
Similar to most good readers, Luis has had experiences with reading that weren’t so ideal. When reading ‘Monster: The Autobiography of an LA Gang Member,’ which was a school assigned book, he just could not truly invest himself. He ended up not even finishing the book and began going to websites like Sparknotes for summaries that would help him pass the quizzes. He describes this as “not his proudest moment.”