The book The Scarlet letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, and the movie „Juno,” written by Diablo Cody, both explore the theme of internal destruction. To illustrate this theme, I decorated an old cigar box. The exterior of the box is decorated with a wood carving while the interior has the appearance of it being burnt. The box is meant to mirror the them of internal destruction because from the outside there is no visible sign of damage, however on the inside there is.
In order to construct my creative representation of ‚internal destruction,’ I first had to find a box and plan out how to represent my theme. The design on the exterior of the box is symbolic because the cherub was a common design placed on puritan gravestones. The cherub was used to symbolise immortality, which I found paralleled both the story of the The Scarlet Letter and „Juno,” because while the character will eventually die, the story lives on forever. The idea for the roses on the exterior came to me because roses were a common symbolic theme in the The Scarlet Letter. The carvings on the outside of the box symbolise the continence of life or spirit, from the outside, nothing appears to be wrong. However, if you open the box, the interior is blackened as if it was burnt. The box symbolises ‚internal destruction’ because only after you look on the interior of the box, does it look like something is wrong with it.
I chose to use a box to represent ‚internal destruction’ because the theme reminded me a bit of Pandora’s box. Pandora’s box was filled with everything bad in the world, so it embodies destruction. However, from the outside, the box could be very misleading. I had decided that burning the inside of the box would be the easiest and most effective way of illustrating destruction. To burn the box, I just used a candle and held it really close the the box, to avoid burning a hole in it. I chose to carve the exterior design because I thought it would look more polished in the end than if I had painted it. Carving the wood was much easier than I had originally anticipated, however, I did have to get a little aid from my mother when it came to the roses. I think that the exterior could have looked a little better, had I had more prior experience with wood carving. I’m sure that if examined more closely, one could tell which parts of the design I carved first because I definitely got better throughout my wood carving.
Overall, I think my creative project went well and tat it represents ‚internal destruction.’ The interior of the box has the physical appearance of being destroyed by fire, while the exterior shows no evidence of destruction. If there was one thing that I would change, it would possibly be the wood carvings on the exterior. I had struggled to come up with a design for the outside, and I got my inspiration from puritan graves, which resonates more with The Scarlet Letter than „Juno.” If I was to do this project again, perhaps I would make the exterior designs more symbolic of the innocence of both Reverend Dimmesdale and Paulie Bleeker, instead of just Dimmesdale and his puritan community.
I am satisfied with how the box turned out because I believe that it does accomplish the mission of a creative project that represents the theme ‚internal destruction.’ While there are multiple ways of showing this theme, this box is both a more literal interpretation as well as symbolic.
“El Bola” es sobre un chaval que es maltratado por su padre. En la película, muchas personas saben que Pablo es abusado por su padre, pero nunca denunciaban. Pero, cuando Pablo hizo un amigo, Alfredo, su y su familia reconocieron los indicios de abuso y no hicieron negligencia al la situación.
La película es difícil para ver porque es muy preocupante que un padre abuse su hijo. El maltrato infantil es un tema muy terrible pero es una realidad por muchas chavales y no muchas personas denuncian el maltrato. La película es muy bien en los puntos que lo promover la prevención del maltrato infantil.
En lo que se refiere:
Tengo razón a creer que mi estudiante, Pablo es un víctima del maltrato infantil. Reconozco los indicios que indicando que Pablo es abuso para su padre. Por una semana, Pablo no fue en la clase. No es el primer tiempo que Pablo no estaba en la clase por el tiempo largo. Cuando Pablo volvió a la clase, tuvo el moratón en su cara y espalda y una cicatriz nuevo por encima de su ojos. Es claro que Pablo fue abuso y tuvo heridas. El comportamiento de Pablo es diferente después volvió también. Hay razón a creer el padre de Pablo maltrata Pablo y pega él mucho. Pedí Pablo por qué tuvo las heridas, pero él dijo nada. Dice “Di la verdad” pero Pablo solamente dijo que cayó. Dice “No digas mentiras” pero él fue persistente que es de caída en las vías. La realidad es que Pablo es abuso para su padre y este crueldad es preocupante. Solicito que averiguas en el tema de Pablo. El maltrato infantil es contra la ley.
Señorita Cristina Reyes
Colegio San José
Saludo Señorita Cristina,
Necesito que diga la verdad. Di que Pablo dijo sobre los moretones y heridas. Es muy importante que denuncies con la verdad. Es bueno que reconociste los indicios del maltrato infantil. Di nos la verdad y evidencia correcto. No digas evidencia manipulado. Averigues de Pablo si él es somete a abuso para su padre. Para presenta un denuncio, necesito la prueba suficiente que su padre es violar la ley, y soy capaz de dar la evidencia. ¿Di nos que conoces. Tiene que cambiar su razón por sus heridas muchas? ¿Las heridas causadas para accidentes ó abuso físico? Te enfrentes con Pablo y averigues él sobre la situación en su casa y el comportamiento de su Padre. El tema del maltrato infantil es un realidad preocupante. Ayude el chaval y previno la crueldad contra Pablo. Denuncie alguna indicios la padre de Pablo pega ó azota él. La negligencia del tema es terrible. Gracias por no hago la vista gorda.
Director de Admisión
Federación Internacional de Trabajadores Sociales
Our campaign was on school funding. Originally, I was going to create a poster or some other form of visual media for the project. In the end, Taahir took on that role by himself, and I took control of compiling all of our elements together on our Weebly, while adding some more write ups on our mission and what our topic was.
I feel as if our Weebly is laid out in a effective way that will allow viewers to look at it with ease and grasp what our campaign is about. The website has a Mission page, which comprehensively states what our goal for this campaign is. There is an About page where I had written a write up about what exactly is happening to our schools due to the budget cuts, and the importance of school funding. Above, is a multimedia ad-campaign that was created by Callie. I had placed the ad-campaign above because I had observed that most sights place a more visual way of obtaining knowledge first because it is the quickest and easiest way to gain knowledge about the topic. However, some people do prefer to just read the facts and what the topic is about, which is why I wrote the write up below. I also made a section called „Student Voices,” where I put Andrew’s work. There is a page dedicated to Artwork and Posters, where Taahir is displaying his work. In that section, I also added a little comment at the bottom, inviting other people to send in and artwork or posters that they had created about school funding. I thought by allowing other people to contribute to the artwork and poster section would spread the word or make people more interested to get involved. I also created a page called „Take Action,” created to give people a little insight on what they can do as an individual to help fund our schools. It also has a small section with some up and coming events that people can check out.
My main goal was to combine all of the information we had learned about in a comprehendible and aesthetically way. I think the website will provide people with a general overview on what is happening in the Philadelphia School District regarding budget cuts, as well as what they can do to help.
My project is about Solidarity, the independent trade union that revolutionised the way the communist government of Poland governed Poland and the working people. Last summer, I had the opportunity to travel to Poland, and Gdańsk, the birthplace of Solidarity. I chose this topic because it is something that does not get much publicity or acknowledgement in the United States of America, but Solidarity, or Solidarność in Polish, revolutionised the country and influenced the world.
For my research I had read various articles from 1980; articles and papers that reflected back on the event; and the Solidarity and the Gdańsk website. I read the articles and papers and took notices for reference. I also looked for some quotes from people such as Lech Wałęsa from 1980 around the time of the strike.
I chose to do an exhibit because I thought it would best display the information that my project contains.
Solidarity is the independent trade union that was set up in Gdańsk, Poland during a time of economic struggles due to the oppression of the Communist government in Poland. Solidarity succeeded in improving the rights of Polish workers, such as employment, compensation, workplace and health & safety conditions, influencing economic and social policies, the protection and promotion of culture and education, and the overall improvement of the human rights of the workers. What made Solidarity so revolutionary was that this was the first time any group of people had successfully changed the way the strict and oppressive communist government of Poland governed. The creation and success of the Solidarity Movement is what led to the downfall of the communist government in Poland. Solidarity was also the influencing factor in reforming the Polish government. Together, with the people of Poland, Solidarity paved the way for other post-Soviet countries to become independent from their Soviet communist rule.
„Count on Me” - „Solidarity” Poster. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. „Count on Me” - „Solidarity” Poster. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/?document=63>.
As a part of their campaign, Solidarity created various posters promoting their cause. This poster is of two hands grasping each others wrists as if to show that they support each other and that they are there for one another. At the top of the poster is the text „Licz na mnie,” which translates into english to „Count on me.” The posters were used to visually promote the feeling that Solidarity was there for the workers and were trying to improve the working conditions and living quality for them as well as ending the communist rule.
"Europe's Revolution 20 Years on." BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation, 2 Nov. 2009. Web. 5 Mar. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7879687.stm>.
The Solidarity movement triggered the end of the cold war and the communist rule in Eastern Europe in Poland and Eastern Europe. The relationship between the United States and Poland has been strengthened because of the pro-democracy Solidarity Movement. Solidarity also influenced other countries to revolt and take back their country from the communist government’s rule. Followed by Solidarity’s victory in the Polish election, many other countries began to reform their government. The struggle between Solidarity and the Polish communist government lasted for a decade. But in the end, it really was Poland and the Solidarity movement that lead to the first non-communist government in Eastern Europe.
Górka, W. Anna Walentynowicz, Activist of Free Trade Unions, among Workers. 1980. Photograph. Solidarity, Gdańsk. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/?document=63>.
In the photograph, Anna Walentynowicz is talking to a group of Polish shipyard workers and other civilians. Anna Walentynowicz was the very dedicated shipyard worker who got fired just a few days before she was due to retire. She played an active role in the start of Solidarity. The strike was sparked by the shipyard workers’ outrage over the firing of Walentynowicz. Walentynowicz became a main speaker and advocate for the workers because she had worked so hard for the shipyard and for the defense of the workers. This photograph shows the passion that Walentynowicz had in the concerns for the workers and the interest that others had in hearing her words.
Karta. Gdańsk Memorial Unveiling Ceremony. December 1970. Digital image.Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/23/MSWiA%20198-15-113.jpg>.
This picture shows the unveiling of the Monument for the Fallen Shipyard Workers. The monument was erected as apart of the Gdańsk Agreement to pay tribute and honour the 42 workers who had died in the 1970 December strike. The monument is composed up of three large steel crosses with an anchor crucified to the top of each. At the unveiling of the monument, people packed in the surrounding area to see the monument located outside of gate 2 of the Lenin Shipyard. In the photograph, you can see that people were standing on top of buildings, fences, anything that would get them a better vantage point of the monument.
Kulish, Nicholas. "Poland Leads Wave of Communist-Era Reckoning." New York Times. New York Times, 20 Feb. 2012. Web. 5 Mar. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/21/world/europe/poland-leads-wave-of-communist-era-reckoning-in-europe.html?pagewanted=1&ref=poland>.
The Polish Court is now cracking down on the Communist Leaders and declaring them a part of a criminal group because of their martial law in December 1981. Other Countries that were formerly under the Iron First are taking similar action. Looking at the current situation in the Arab Nations has motivated Poland and other Eastern European countries to look back when the communists still held power. "Poland is wrestling with its past." The Communist government were oppressive and torturous to those under their rule.
Lewandowski, G. V-for-victory Sign Was One of Many Symbols of “Solidarity” (. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/40/OK_053.jpg>.
This poster shows the V-for-victory sign, which was one of the symbols of Solidarity for their great success over their first year in existence. This poster was created a year after Solidarity was formed. At this time, people were reflecting back on Solidarity and it’s progress. As the first independent and self-governing trade union of Poland, it was great feat for the workers and people of Poland in overcoming the communist rule. Solidarity had achieved a lot of great things in their first year, and had already become a very influential factor in the workers unions of other countries and the rule of the Eastern European communist countries.
"Poland." New York Times. New York Times, 05 Mar. 2012. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/poland/index.html?scp=2>.
Poland was the only post-Soviet country to come out of Soviet rule and not go into economic recession. On October 2011, Donald Tusk triumphed over conservative Jarosław Kaczynski in the Polish elections. Tusk is the new pro-European Union prime minister, who is in support of many contemporary concerns such as gay rights, abortion, and some drug legalisation. Because Poland is apart of the EU, it has embedded itself in Europe economics and politics. However, Poland does not use the Euro, which is considered a Euro-Soviet Bloc trait. Poland is trying to continue to independently raise above their previous oppressors, Russia and Germany.
McIntire, Suzanne, and William E. Burns. "The Value of Human Solidarity." Speeches in world history. New York: Facts on File, 2009. 502-505. Print.
“I belong to a nation which over the past centuries has experienced many hardships and reverse. The world reacted with silence or with mere sympathy when Polish frontiers were crossed by invading armies…” (Lech Wałęsa). “In July and August of 1980 a wave of strikes swept throughout Poland. The issue at stake was then something much bigger than only material conditions of existence.” (Lech walęsa). “In the brief history of those eventful years, the Gdańsk Agreement stands out as a great charter of the rights of the working people which nothing can ever destroy.” (Lech Wałęsa). “Our union—the Solidarity— has grown into a powerful movement for social and moral liberation. The people, freed from the bondage of fear and apathy, called for reforms and improvements. We fought a difficult struggle for out existence. That was and still is a great opportunity for the whole country. I think that it marked also the road to be taken by authorities, if they thought of a state governed in cooperation and participation of all citizens.
Michalak, T. Strike in the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk. 1980. Photograph. Solidarity, Gdańsk. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/?document=79>.
The picture is an aerial view on the shipyard in Gdańsk, where the strike started on August 14th, 1980. In the picture, you can see a mass of people gathering around the entrance of the shipyard. The crowd of people is composed up of both shipyard workers and other citizens who just came out to show their support for the shipyard workers in their strike. The people are crowded around the fence and entrance to the shipyard as well as a cross, located in the middle of the courtyard. The photograph really shows the amount of support the shipyard workers had from their community and fellow Polish citizens.
Poster Commemorating the Unveiling in Gdańsk of the Memorial to Killed Shipyard Workers. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/23/plakat.jpg>.
This poster is promoting the unveiling of the Monument for the Fallen Shipyard Workers, honouring the workers who were killed in the strike in 1970. The 1970 strike was violent; 42 people were killed when the security services fired on the workers’ revolting. As apart of the demands of the workers who when on strike in 1980, a monument honouring those who died was to be erected. The poster is of the monument and on the left of it is the word „Grudzień,” which in Polish, means December, which is when the 1970 strike happened. The monument is composed up of three crosses, each with a anchor on the top, to symbolise the shipyard workers.
Składanowski, S./Karta. Lech Wałęsa, Triumphantly Carried Shoulder-high after the Signing of the First Point of the Agreement. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/17/7-3,%20MSZ.JPG>.
Lech Wałęsa is held up on the shoulders of Solidarity supporters in celebration of victory after the signing of the agreement. This was a great accomplishment for the Solidarity Trade Union because it was their first break through in the communist bloc of Poland. Behind Lech Wałęsa are crowds of supporters and even people looking out of their windows; this shows the wide spread support that Solidarity had amassed. The first signing of the agreement was something that all Polish citizens in support of Solidarity celebrated, especially the workers of the Lenin Shipyard and other surrounding Shipyards.
“Solidarity” Poster Using the Colours of the National Flag. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/19/AOPL_000178.JPG>.
After the signing of the Gdańsk Agreement, posters such as this one were used to promote Solidarity and celebrate their victory. This poster used the colours of the Polish flag, and tie it into a knot as if to illustrate the new found unity of the workers at the Shipyard and the people of Poland. After the agreement had been signed, Solidarity’s main goal was gaining more support and organising itself to become very successful. Posters were used as an advertisement for their campaign, reaching more people than going from person to person.
Tagliabue, John. "Thousands at Gdansk Shipyard Join Polish Strike - New York Times."The New York Times. The New York Times, 3 May 1988. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/03/world/thousands-at-gdansk-shipyard-join-polish-strike.html?pagewanted=all>.
Strikes continued after 1980, demanding higher pay and legalisation of the Solidarity trade union. The government retained regional Solidarity leaders. “A strike wave is covering the country. They are not just local conflicts. They are across Poland because the cause is the economic crisis and lack of convincing reform policies that would offer prospects for the future,” (Lech Wałęsa). Crowds would gather around the shipyards and striking workers and leave flowers to show their support. Police would push the crowds back and away from the striking workers. The strikes were centred around more equal and fair treatment and higher pay as well as their trade union being more acknowledged.
Trybek, Z./Karta. Signature of the Agreement between the Interfactory Strike Committee and the Government Delegation. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/18/p-31-1-02,%20Trybek.JPG>.
The workers’ representatives and government commission meet together to sign the Gdańsk Agreement. The Gdańsk Agreement ended the strike and agreed to the demands of the workers, allowing the establishment of self governing trade unions. Lech Wałęsa can be seen signing the Gdańsk agreement with an oversized plastic pen, bearing the face of the pope, Pope Jan Paweł II. The workers’ representatives, MKS, met with Mieczysław Jagielski, who at the time was surviving as prime minister for the communist government. The Gdańsk Agreement was Solidarity’s big breakthrough. Unlike the strike in 1970, which ended in violence, the Gdańsk Agreement was what ended the 1980 strike in peace.
Alex. "1970-71: Uprising in Poland." Libcom.org. Libcom, 31 Oct. 2008. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <http://libcom.org/history/1970-71-uprising-poland>.
December strikes in 1970, when thousands of shipyard workers in Gdańsk marched into the city in protest of the increased prices on basic consumer goods. Their goal was to reach the local regional office of the Polish United Workers’ Party (PZPR). The protesters were met by police and engaged in fighting. The three port cities of Poland were placed under telecommunications block by the government. By the end of December, most of the shipyards in the main port cities had gone on strike. At the end of January, a more democratic strike committee was formed and an agreement was formed. This uprising was the first time the Polish workers had demanded a change and won. It paved the way for the strikes that changed Poland forever.
Blazejowska, Justyna. "Solidarity 1980-2010." Free Poland. Free Poland, 04 Oct. 2011. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <http://freepl.info/9-solidarity-1980-2010>.
More strikes continued but Solidarity stood as a mediator for the workers, reducing the amount of strikes but getting the workers their demands. Solidarity became politically involved giving them more power while slowly taking away the power of the communist leaders. Lech Wałęsa was put into power but resigned on December 12, 1990. The Union got about 5% of the support in the elections in 1990, which gave them 27 deputy seats. But the little votes for Solidarity throughout various elections were considered a failure for the Union. But in 1997, Solidarity received 33% of the votes. Then the Union left the political scene, but they had reformed the political scene completely.
Donovan, Jeffrey. "Poland: Solidarity -- The Trade Union That Changed The World."Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. RFE/RL, 24 Aug. 2005. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. <http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1060898.html>.
The strike that began on the 14th of August 1980 changed both Poland and the world. 17,000 workers went on strike at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk in protest of the rising food prices among other things. This was the first time that the Communist government had given into the demands of the workers. In September of 1980, the Independent Self-Governing Trade Union Solidarity (NSZZ) was formed. After a year, nearly a quarter of Poland ad joined the trade union. Solidarity was the first breakthrough in the Communist block of Poland. Leader of the shipyard strikes was Lech Wałęsa, who had nearly been arrested by the secret police the morning of the strike, but succeeded in climbing over the shipyard gate and join the rest of the workers.
Moberg, Beata. Solidarity. University of St. Francis - Joliet, Il. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.stfrancis.edu/content/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/btopics/works/Solidarity.html>.
Trade union was formed during the economic and social struggles in communist Poland. Workers of the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańśk started the wave of strikes on August 14th. The demand was more freedom from the communist management of the shipyards. Their request was for an increased pay, fair treatment, free trade union, and uncensored media. The strikers got a mass of support from the other citizens around the area and the church. On August 31st Mieczyslaw Jagielski and Lech Wałęsa signed the Gdańsk Agreement. This was a great breakthrough in the communist government and party. Solidarność became a nationwide organisation that revolutionised the communist involvement in industry. This was a big deal because the communist government did not tolerate loss of authority. Together the workers overthrew communism in Poland, and it all started on August 14th with the shipyard strike in Gdańsk.
"NSZZ Solidarność History in Dates." NSZZ Solidarność History in Dates. Multimedia Productions. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <http://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/en/history-in-dates.html>.
The Solidarity movement has continued to make progress and provide more rights for the workers. They had managed to increase minimum wage up to 40% in 2006. The continue to set up campaigns in support of the workers in Poland and workers all across the world. They have trade union representatives from the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia; all countries that were formally under the Iron Fist. While they have taken a few steps away from directly being apart of the political scene, they are still have a great influence on it and often meet with parliamentary representatives.
"NSZZ Solidarność Objectives." NSZZ Solidarność Objectives. Multimedia Productions. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <http://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/en/objectives.html>.
The object of Solidarity continues to be the guarantee of workers rights as in all areas, fight unemployment, improve vocational qualifications, protect the interests of the workers and their families, maintain and mediate for a proper management, influence economic and social polices, promote democracy, foster patriotic attitude, help those with special needs and care, strengthen family life, cooperate and collaborate with other international organisations, protect culture and education, advocate for environmental protection, as well as represent the workers. Solidarity will achieve this by continuing to represent their members before their employers, the government and other institutions, monitoring the workplace, provide legal counselling, union training, and just being there for the workers and attend to their needs.
NSZZ Solidarność. Multimedia Productions. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <
On July 1st 1980, the government introduced commercial prices on food and other everyday objects, provoking the workers to protest. August 14th 1980, the Gdańsk shipyard goes on strike, soon after inspiring other shipyards in the region and country to go on strike as well. Main demands were the reinstatement of Anna Walentynowicz and the erection of a monument for the fallen shipyard workers killed in the December revolt in 1970. On September 13th, the agreement for a free and independent trade union is ratified. Supreme courts and committees begin to adopt and acknowledge “Solidarność.” In December the monument for the Fallen Shipyard was erected outside the Gdańsk shipyard.
Siegelbaum, Lewis. "1980: Solidarity in Poland." Seventeen Moments in Soviet History. Soviet History. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://soviethistory.org/index.php?page=subject&SubjectID=1980solidarity&Year=1980>.
The formation of the Polish trade union, Solidarity, in 1980, disturbed Soviet Authorities. It was considered a embarrassment for the Marxist-Leninists to be confronted by the workers with such widespread support. The start of Solidarity was the Lenin Shipyard, which was the same shipyard whose workers went on strike in 1970 over raised food prices. There were many other protests over raised food and commercial goods prices and unfair treatment between 1970 and 1980. On the 3rd of September 1980, the Politburo came up six “theses.” Solidarity was characterised as an “anti-socialist opposition” which caused for of a threat to the communist government. In December 1981, there was a declaration of martial law, where the Soviet leadership extended economic assistance.
"The Story of the Solidarity Movement." Solidarity Gdansk Poland. Gdansk Life. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://www.gdansk-life.com/poland/solidarity>.
Solidarity was established in September 1980 at the Gdańsk shipyards. It was an independent labour union that was the catalyst in the transformation from communism to democracy in Poland. In 1980, Poland was suffering from an economic crisis, which forced the rise in price of goods and curbing the growth of wages. The firing of Anna Walentynowicz, as well as the previous firing of Lech Wałęsa sparked the shipyard strike at the Lenin Shipyard. The strike started on the 14th of August. On the 16th, many other strike committees joined the strikes. By the 18th the Szczecin shipyard joined the strike, which began a wave of more strikes along the coast of Poland. Solidarity was the first independent labour union in the Soviet Bloc.
"1980: Shipyard Poles Strike for Their Rights." BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/14/newsid_2802000/2802553.stm>.
Shipyard workers in Gdańsk stage strike over the dismissal of Anna Walentynowicz. The strike was apart of the growing campaign to improve the economic situation for the workers and gain political freedom. Around 16,000 workers succeeded in getting Walentynowicz reinstated and a compromise for more accurate media coverage, and the right to form their own representative bodies instead of using official trade unions. In the 1970 riot, the workers succeeded in getting the Communist Party leader, Wladyslaw Gomulka out of office. They also got the authorities to allow the construction of the Monument for the fallen shipyard workers. The workers also got a 40% pay rise.
La mural es de la horizonte de la ciudad de Filadelfia. La horizonte de la ciudad simboliza el crecimiento de Filadelfia en habitantes, cultura, y industria. Los edificios y rascacielos son icónico del Central de Ciudad de Filadelfia. Vive en la ciudad es un movimiento por cambio y evolución en la futura. La horizonte de la ciudad conta la historia de la ciudad y lo progreso. La mural es diseñada a empoderar la comunidad del Central de Ciudad a continuar progresando y mejora por la futura, por una futura mejor. La bandera verde en la parte superior con expresión ‘Viva de La Cuidad’ es hecha a inspirar la comunidad en su intento a será respetuoso medio ambiente y moderno. El propósito de la mural es representar la belleza y ambición de la cuidad y comunidad. El color verde representa una nueva página y moda en Filadelfia sobre ser respetuoso del medio ambiente y derechos humanos. Los colores en el horizonte de la ciudad es muy vívido pero natural y realística. Los colores deben inspirador las personas que verlo.
En mi opinión arte público es más importante porque lo hace no pensar. Tanto grafiti, murales, y todos arte público es muy importante. Todos arte público conta la historia de una país. Yo pienso que mi mural conta la historia y la futura de el barrio. Yo pienso que la mural es muy sencillo pero efectivo. La mural es no ridículo y desordenado pero muy sencillo, y para que, me gusta.
The French Revolution was sparked by the failing economy, the unequal distribution of power and wealth, and a large growth in the poverty-stricken population. “The Holocaust was the destruction of around 6 million jews under the Nazi Regime. The Nazi Germans held a belief that they were racially superior while the Jews where the inferior.”1 The Troubles in Northern Ireland was an extended time of violence and hatred between the nationalists and the unionists in Northern Ireland. And more currently, the Egyptian Revolution was a series of uprises by the people of Egypt against the President Mubarak.
“The structure of revolutions repeats itself over time throughout history and in different places across the world.”2 All of these events started over a conflict between two groups of people; an oppressor and the oppressed. What made the oppressed successful in these events were their planing, support, continuous efforts to change the circumstances. The French Third Estate planned and joined together to write their own declaration of rights. Resistance groups and opposers of the Nazi Regime would hide Jews from being prosecuted. Unionists and loyalists would hold marches to get their message across. But when their message did not get across they persisted in getting their way by rioting, revolting, protesting, and joining together to get the support they needed. “We gave lives up, and we expect to receive our freedom.” 3 Time after time the oppressed would fight and fight until they prevailed.
While the French Revolution lasted from 1789 to 1799, and many people were killed, the revolting public succeeded in revolutionizing their government and social structure. Different resistance groups and countries all fought to end the cruel oppression and destruction that was happening in Europe under the Nazi Regime. The Egyptian Revolution has been successful due to the large support by the people of Egypt and the globe. The protests were consistent and through the media globally shared, which put pressure on the crumbling government to step down. While Northern Ireland is still connected to the United Kingdom, both the unionists and nationalists have made progress on equal treatment and a parliament that is bearable for both sides.Protests and resistances are effective and can be successful, if they have a clear goal and support. The French government and social status was changed completely by the commoners of France. The Holocaust was ended by the many resistance groups and countries that opposed the Nazi Regime. The Troubles in Northern Ireland were eased by the protests that forced the government to change. The people of Egypt were able to broadcast their struggles and protests across the world and end the presidential reign of Mubarak. What ever the conflicts are, whether political or spiritual, the oppressed will fight.
by Heather Campbell
Setting: Starts out a a day before July 21st of 1972, in Belfast in Northern Ireland. Some of the locations of the monologues are in a British Army Base, an Protestant Family’s house, a Police Station, a Catholic pub, Sinn Fein Government Headquarters, and Outside near a graveyard. The monologues end in 2002 in Ireland.
Jack Maxwell, a young British Army member. Has a family back home and is eager to help stop the troubles.
Lewis Ward, a 14 year old protestant boy. Doesn’t really consider the troubles and danger.
Ruairi Flynn, a old Catholic police officer. Wants an independent Ireland, but is tired of all the violence.
Stephen Kelly, a middle aged Irish Republican Army member. Wants an independent Ireland and will do anything for it.
Catherine Ward, Lewis’s mother. A strong protestant and a busy mother, who is always working.
Johnathan Moore, government worker for the the Nationalists. Doesn’t like to be associated with the British.
Sophie Griffiths, a 16 year old catholic girl. Middle child in a large poor family, whose mother was killed in the bombings and her sister was severely injured.
Gerry Adams, Sinn Fein member, ex-IRA member, and now holds a commons seat for Northern Ireland.
Act 1, Scene 1
JACK MAXWELL (Writing a letter to back home in some form of building, sitting on a bed/cot)I’ve been in Northern Ireland for three weeks now. For the first few days I was stationed in Belfast, but then I was sent over to Londonderry. The people of Londonderry were still distraught over Bloody Sunday. After a week in Londonderry I was sent back to Belfast. You wouldn’t believe it, but when I arrived in Belfast, I got to our station and guess who was there! Gavin Moore and Charlie Johnston, they haven’t changed a bit. Gavin told me that during his first week of patrol in Belfast, some one pushed a washing machine out a top story flat as he was patrollin’ beneath, narrowly missing him. He’s fine, but he admitted after that, he was a wee bit shakin’ up for a while. In my first few days in Belfast, I was just patrollin’ around Belfast. I would just make sure no problems started and occasionally “chat up” some of the lorry drivers for any intelligence that might be given away. One time, Charlie and I were patrollin’ by the harbor where all the shippin’ were comin’ in, and we saw a car looking suspicious; hidden in the boot were a good three or four pounds of supplies for bomb making. After we had confiscated the stuff, I had to admit, it felt really good knowing that I might have saved some innocent lives. Shortly after that, Charlie and Gavin were sent to Dungannon. Occasionally we would see some Dickers. Their what we call the lookouts of the IRA. There have been many exchanges of fire between the IRA and us. On the surface you can tell that the Protestants are glad we are here, but underneath it all you can see that they’re still hesitant. They lead such different daily lives then we do back home. Imagine having to open up your handbag to check for bombs and weapons every time you go into a shop. That’s their reality. On the contrary, there are murals and graffiti painted onto the walls in the Catholic area of Belfast, promoting the IRA. We’re tryin’ to make peace, but sometimes it feels very one sided. It’s time for this IRA rubbish to end.
Act 1, Scene 2
LEWIS WARD (Talking to his mum in the kitchen in the morning before school)
Mornin’ Mum... Aye, I know I have te pick up some sugar and eggs after school... I’m not going te stop by his house, I told ye, the oul fella’s batty... No, I still want the cake Mum... But the oul man’s batty and his caretaker’s just as mad, and they live all the way by Oxford Station, I’d have te take the bus... Aye, okay Mum, I’ll dander down te tha oul fella’s house after school... Aye, I’ll make sure te give him some eggs... Ack! Mum, I just wanta be with meh mates, do I have to do all these chores today?... No, I wont wander off this time... I just wanta go te Johnny Moore’s house for a wee bit... Ack!... I know... Aye, I know... He lives near Woodvale Park, just a wee bus ride from school... Ack! Please Mum!... I know... Ack, I’ll go te Johnny’s house another day then... No, Mum. I’m not trying to be a nuisance... I know Mum... Okay, okay. After school, I’ll go te the store, buy eggs and sugar, then go te oul Paddy’s house and give him some eggs... Aye, after that I will come straight home...Aye, Mum...Mum, can ye pass me a scone please...Cheers Mum...No butter?... Aye, I’ll get some butter as well... Cheers Mum. I ought’ te be gettin’ to school now...My glasses are on the table by the door, I’ll grab them on ma way out...Ack! I’ll fix my tie before I get to school Mum... Bloody hell... What?... No, I didn’t say anything Mum... Nothin’, I didn’ say anythin’...I just mumbled muddy shoe, thats all... Nye, its only a smidge, it’ll come off before school... I’m goin’... I’m not goin’ te be late... I know Mum. Eggs, sugar, and butter, oul Paddy, then straight home...Matches?... Aye, I’ll get some matches as well... Cheerio Mum. (Leaves)
Act 1, Scene 3
RAUIRI FLYNN (Reflecting about today’s event in police office)
Nightmare I tell you... It was thee definition of bloody hell...You could hear people screamin’, cryin’ and moanin’. The first thing that caught my eye was a torso of a human being in the middle of the street.... It all came very sudden. I was just makin’ meh rounds about town. It was around 2:17 when I got word that a bomb detonated on a footbridge over the rail line at Windsor Park. Luckily, there were no injuries at that location...But it was bloody scary...I was told te go down by the Oxford bus station, so I got in meh car and started te drive on down there...I reckon I was pretty lucky te have gottin’ there the time I did... I was drivin’ down Hamilton Street, when I heard the bang. It was exactly 3:10 when it was detonated. There were smoke and debris everywhere I swerved down Mary Street, but when I got te Oxford Street, there were so much debris I had te get out of meh car. Just by looking at the scene, it was impossible for anyone te feel safe... I saw meh mate cowerin’ by the side of his car. I rushed over te him te see what was happen’. It took him awhile before words would come te him... He told me...Him and some of the boys from the British army were trying to clear the area...He said that...they tried te get everyone safe...but there were too many people...and the bomb exploded. I helped meh mate get up, he had many minor injuries from all the debris. I looked around... There were blood, debris, and body parts scattered everywhere...It was chaos... The hospital personnels came soon after... I had te help them...gettin’ people te the hospital... and cleaning up the remains. There were so many casualties all with in two seconds...I’m a Catholic... I want an independent Ireland...Te be honest, I think these troubles would all go away if the Brits just left...I heard that the Brits got a warnin’ that the bombs where goin’ te go off today... I was talkin’ te some of meh mates in the pub yesterday...talkin’ bout the incident... They’re convinced that them Brits had deliberately disregarded those warnings, all for strategic policy reasons...I’m not sure whether I quite agree, but... I don’t disagree either... I mean, the British army were there, tryin’ te help evacuate people from the area... But I’m not sure whether I would be surprised if they delayed the evacuation, just so they seemed like they tried, and make the PIRA seem like the bad guys. Whats the PIRA?...Provisional Irish Republican Army...they want an Independent Ireland too...I just want it in a less violent way...(Pause) Later that day, a fella came down, te look for his wee boy... He identified him among the dead... The wee boy was so bloody and deformed, his father could only tell it was him ‘cus of the things he’d been carryin’, cracked eggs, spilt sugar, melted butter, crushed matches, bits of his glasses, and singed photo en his pocket...Two of the other policemen in meh unit escorted the fella back home te tell his wife...They said she broke down cryin’...was complete mess...The worst part of the day was that... that explosion on Oxford street was only one of twenty-two within’ an hour an’ a half... All these victims were just innocent people caught up in it. With Bloody Sunday, they were out on a march – a peaceful march, but still a march...I’ve been apart of the Police service since I turned eighteen...That’s thirteen years ago...I’ve seen a lot in those years...Dealt with a lot too...It’s rare te find people in the police service who get along civilized enough than me and some of the other policemen. Most of the policemen are Protestants, most of them like being apart of the UK. As much as I would like a Independent Ireland, I don’t like dealin’ with all the victims of brutal crimes and havin’ te tell their families...I’ve known too many people who have died and too many people charged with murder...Some days you canna help but wonder, when will it be over?...Is it worth it?
Act 1, Scene 4
JACK MAXWELL(Taking medicine and talking to other army members in a “common room”)
(Take some pills)
I’m okay, which is more than most can say
(Swallow the pills)
I was down at Oxford Street, tryin’ to clear the area. Almost had the area cleared before the bomb went off...Nah, I didn’t even hear the bomb... I just saw everything cave in around me...Some debris must of hit me... I didn’t even realise it was broken at first...It was chaos...Bodies everywhere...I tried my best to help, but then they sent me to the stations doctor...It’s only broken...I have to go home to get it fixed properly...There wasn’t much to help there. There were so many injured and and bodies everywhere. There was no way for there to be any order. No order, no control, it was horrible...Yeah, I go home in a few days...Pardon?... Oh, why do I have to go back home to get it fixed? I guess there are too many people here in worse condition, so they straightened it out and just wrapped it up, and I’ll be home in a few days...They gave me medicine.
(Shows the medicine)
Keep the pain from being to unbearable...As soon as my arm heals, I’ll be back...I heard the first bomb was detonated at around 2:09 by the rail line at Windsor Park and last bomb went off at 3:30...There was another bomb set for after that?...oh, well, good thing the bomb squad got their first...Yeah, I’m looking forward to going home. See my family...I’ll be taking a ferry...Yeah; as soon as they fix it I’ll be on my way back here.
Act 1, Scene 5
STEPHEN KELLY (Reflecting on the IRA and Bloody Friday in a pub)
Before I begin, lets pay homage to a good oul’ Irish proverb “A drink precedes a story.”
(Take a large sip out of a large beer mug)
Why?... Well, it’s quite obvious isn’t it? We want our independence.
(Sip out of the mug)
Why am I apart of the PIRA?
(Takes a sip)
It began when a group of nationalist was marching around the town. The numbers of the group kept escalatin’ and at one point it was up to around 3,000 people.
(Takes a sip)
British troops were brought in to disperse the crowd. Roadblocks were set up to prevent the marchers from gettin’ te certain sections of the town. Them Brits say that the crowd was becomin’ more and more lively and that the troops had te start makin’ arrests. They said as they were arrestin’ people, they came under fire, all they were doin’ was defendin’ themselves.
(Takes a sip)
The results of this day led te the death of 13 at the hands of the First Battalion. The IRA wants their revenge. There were no peaceful arrests and et was nie the marches fault. The only violent people there were them bloody Brits... That’s where it all started for me.
(Takes a sip)
They, the British army and them protestants...They think they were shootin’ for self defense...No, self defense requires some thinkin’...There was no thinkin’ involved there.
(Takes a sip)
As a Catholic, we have no say here...Them Brits and Protestants think they’re better than everyone else. We have poor housin’, no benefits, no rights, and are always bein’ discriminated against...Why wouldn’t I be mad?
(Takes a sip)
We’re second-class citizens in our own country! And when we try te get our messages across peacefully, we’re beat up and our houses set a blaze!
(Takes a sip)
That’s why I joined the PIRA.... What’s the difference between the IRA and PIRA?...Irish Republican Army and Provisional Irish Republic Army. The PIRA is branched off from the IRA. We’re all fightin’ for the same freedom.
(Takes a sip).
And the Sinn Fein and the IRA and PIRA are going to get us that freedom...Sinn Fein? Well that’s our political party, for an Independent Ireland. No more bloody Brits and feckin’ protestants dictating our lives.
(Takes a sip)
Now ‘bout last Friday...Te put it plainly, It required only one man with a loud hailer to clear each target area in no time. All we were tryin’ te do was make daily life impossible. Cause financial devastation from all the wrecked buildin’s. That’s all we had te do. And short after, all the Republicans were convinced that the British had deliberately disregarded the two warnings we sent out for strategic policy reasons. The Brits had their warnin’s but they took to long to take action.
(Takes a sip)
We had some casualties...But sometimes ye have te give before ye receive. We gave lives up, and we expect te receive our freedom. The PIRA is committed unequivocally to the search for freedom, justice and peace in Ireland. We’ve done part of our job, for now.
(Takes a sip)
Act 1, Scene 6
JACK MAXWELL (Talking on the phone)
Hello...Emm..Yeah, I’m okay. I made it through with only a broken arm...I’ll be home soon...They wrapped it up and gave me some medicine...Yeah, soon as I get off the ferry I’ll be on my way to the doctor’s to get it mended...How it at home?...Good...
How’s wee little Sophie?...Good...Well, I can’t tell you too much information, but apparently the British talks to the IRA failed and the IRA began its campaign again...Yeah...It was quite shocking...I didn’t know what to do...You got my letter?...Good..I have to go...I’ll be home soon..Give Sophie a hug for me...Bye.
Act 1, Scene 7
CATHERINE WARD (In her living room, holding pictures of her son, his glasses, and remains of school bag.)
My wee little Lewis...
He dinneh even make it past his fifteenth birthday...And it’s all my fault...
Had I not told him te go te Oul Paddy and give him some eggs, he may still have been with me...
(Burst of tears)
It seems just like yesterday, I was donderin’ down te the cafe down by the train station with him in his wee pram for tea and biscuits... And now, he’s dead...
I knew somethin’ was wrong when meh husband came home with the Bobbies. I thought meh husband had gotten into some trouble with the IRA...Our family bein’ strong protestants...But then I saw the look on meh husbands face...He looked like he was in anguish, like somethin’ happened... Somethin’ more than him just gettin’ into some trouble... Then one of the fellas, he told me I may want te sit down... At that moment, I knew somethin’ was wrong. Meh eyes darted te the clock...
I was so busy tryin’ te get mey wee boy’s birthday supper sorted out for the next day, that I hadn’t realised that he should have been home by then...The bobbies told me that nineteen bombs had gone of just an hour and a half ago. Then... I collapsed...I had already known what had happened...Meh wee boy was just doin’ what I asked...
He was on his way to oul Paddy’s home at 3:10...About te get on the bus at Oxford Street...I should have had him come straight home after school. With all these bombings and officers and the likes...I knew it was too dangerous...I had a feellin’ bout today...I told him te be careful, he just kept replyin’ “I know”
The bobbies, both bein’ protestants, told me that them and the brits are tryin’ to get all this te come te an end...I’ll forever remain loyal te the queen...The British government, they’ve done so much for our country... And with their military here, these troubles are bound to stop some time soon...But thats not goin’ te bring my wee little Lewis back now.
(Burst of tears)
Act 1, Scene 8
JONATHAN MOORE (Talking to a journalist in an office)
When did this all start?... That was a long time ago. I was twelve when Ireland split up. It was in 1920 when the British government decided to split up Ireland, after they had ruled for centuries. An Independent state was created in the south, mostly made up of Catholics. The northern district, Ulster being mostly Protestant, remained part of the UK. That split up was caused by an uprising led by Michael Collins in 1916...There was a civil war in the south after the split. Michael Collins among many others lost his life during that civil war. The end result of was the Rise of a new and independent Republic of Ireland, led by Eamon DeValera. In the North, the Catholics were a minority. They were the republicans and nationalists. They were being discriminated against in jobs, housing, and law. The Protestants were the unionists and loyalists; they were given government jobs and privileges alike for being loyal to the British crown. Northern Ireland played a large role in the British economy because of all the shipyards, and mills. But as I said before, the Catholics found themselves the minority and excluded from Northern Ireland’s success. The Troubles really started three years ago. The Catholic unemployment rate spiked, their housing became poor, and the riots began. The IRA is the nationalists who carried out most of the violence in their quest for independence. My job is te try and get the Nationalist message across, without the violence; te get a united Ireland in a manor that appeals to both sides. For a while we were making some progress. We had a truce with the British government...a truce between the loyalists and the nationalists. There were te be talks. Talks put in place in order te cease fire. But the British failed at talking, so the IRA and PIRA begun their campaign again...
That’s what yesterday was; the start of a new campaign. Why the violence?
I don’t think I can answer that question...I just communicate te people. I’m behind the scene of these troubles...
Well, we want an Independent Ireland. We want equal rights and equal opportunities. No, we want our own rights and opportunities. The British government ruled Ireland like their ruled England, Scotland, and Wales...We’re not English, we’re not Scottish, and we’re not Welsh. We are our own people...And it was time that we were treated that way. That’s why the Republic of Ireland came to be...
Why the violence? Why bloody Friday? That’s a question for someone else...Yeah, I feel bad about the deaths...Quite a large number of them where Catholics...But think of the number of people killed by the British. We’ve been oppressed and discriminated against...I know a lot of people died...I know...Violence delays peace...I know... Look, it isn’t my job te deal with the violence and deaths. My job is just te talk.
(Gets up and leaves)
Act 1, Scene 9
SOPHIE GRIFFITHS (After her mother’s funeral)
We live in west Belfast; where most of the Catholics live...Et was me, meh dad, meh mum, meh four brothers, and meh two sisters all livin’ en a small house near Springfield road. Meh dad is a fisherman; he works hard but we still struggle te live comfortably. Meh mum taught at the primary school near our house, were meh littlest sisters, Amy and Eliza, and littlest brothers, Hugh and Jamie, go te school. She always’d help meh with meh schoolwork. Meh mum always wanted te be a writer. If one of meh wee brothers or sister had a hard time goin’ te sleep she’d tell us all a story. I liked her stories; they always had a nice ending. She could make et seem like every ended happily. But she tolled a lie.
Meh mum was takin’ meh little sister, Amy, get a new dress...She’d been savin’ up money for Amys dress, and they went down te the store te pick et up.
That’s when the bomb went off...Meh mum and Amy were en the car...Meh sister was badly injured, but meh mum died...She worked so hard for our family, with seven children needin’ te be fed and educated...Meh eldest brother, Adam, hasn’t even gone back te school yet and he’s already gettin’ inte trouble...Meh brother, Sean, and I now have te do most of the chores and take care off wee brothers and sisters...Amy’s still en the hospital...and meh dad still has te fish te feed us all. When he’s not workin’ he spends most of his time en the pub drinkin’ the black stuff.... Yeh canna blame him...Mum did everything
She did everything...We need her...We’re good Catholics...We work hard...Go te church...Why us?... Why Amy?... Why meh mum?...We weren’t out causin’ trouble protestin’, and we weren’t out wavin’ the union flag...We want better lives just as much as the IRA do...Meh mum and dad work hard for meh family te have a better live...We didn’t do anythin’ wrong...So, why did they have te take meh mum away from meh family...But she’s in a better place now...away from the violence...Gone but never forgotten.
Act 1, Scene 10
GERRY ADAMS (2002, conference, standing at a podium)
A month ago, I took office in the House of Commons, I had a press conference and I was asked a question...This woman, around 65 years old, she asked me for an apology.
(Low spot light on woman watching a TV)
She told me that thirty years ago, her son died. He died when the IRA set off a series of bombs around Belfast. She told me, he wasn’t protesting or causing a ruckus. He was just dropping of some groceries like she had asked him to. He was an innocent wee boy. Where’s the apology for her son’s death? She said she’s been hearing about rights for the victims of Bloody Sunday. But she wanted to know when it would be her son’s time to be remembered. Before that I came across an article in the paper. It was written in honor of the victims of Bloody Friday. It was written by a woman whose mother had died during the bombings, and her sister severely injured. (Low spot light to woman writing in front of a TV)
After her mother died, her family had to deal with countless of other struggles. After thirty years her family is still hasn’t fully recovered from the death of their mother. I have come here today, te make a public apology for those who died. We offer our sincere apologies and condolences te their families. While it was not our intention to injure or kill non-combatants, the reality is that on this and on a number of other occasions that was the consequence of our actions.
(Low spotlight to a few people huddled around a gravestone) In Belfast the IRA had set out to cause economic damage and had sought to avoid civilian casualties by providing at least 30 minutes’ warning in relation to each of the 21 bombs. It is a moot point whether the IRA operations just stretched the British too far for them to be able to cope with the situation, or whether they deliberately failed to act in relation to two of the many bombs, but it is clear that the IRA made a mistake in putting out so many bombs, and civilians were killed who certainly should not have been killed.
(Low spotlight on man with his family in front of a TV)
This was the IRA’s responsibility and a matter of deep regret. We hope that we can continue to push forward prospect of a peaceful Northern Ireland and Nation. Thank you.
My dad had just gotten home and I was eager to kick the soccer ball outside with him. It was my first year playing soccer on a team, and I refused to be the worst one there. I was playing on a Fairmount team for kids ages 8-10. I had only ever just kicked the soccer ball around, and was not very good. I was in dire need of practice. My neighbor was on my team, and her mom was the coach. I could have practiced with her, if I asked. They knew how to play soccer well, and could easily help me. But nothing is better than getting to spend some quality time with your dearest dad by kicking the soccer ball around.
We would stand three yards apart in the middle of the small street, and kick the ball back and forth to each other. He would help me when I needed it, and teach me new tricks when we were getting bored. We would kick the soccer ball for half an hour and talk. We would talk about what it was going to be like to play on a team, what position I may want to play, and what it was like when he was on a team as a boy. It would be the perfect opportunity for us to bond.
My dad was always at his office working. My mom was the one who picked me up from school, took me to violin lessons, and tried to keep me occupied when I was bored. She was really good at tennis, but dreadful at soccer. My sister was usually at home doing homework and talking with friends. She was always “too busy” to play soccer with me, which was not much of a loss, since she was worse than my mom. My dad was the only person in my family who knew how to play soccer. But he was also only at home in the early morning, and three hours before my bedtime.
When my dad would plop his bag down by the brown wooden chair by our stairs, he would say hello to my mom, and go down stairs for a beer. After a long day of work, a bottle of beer was his usual reward. Then he would come back up stairs and tell me the name of the beer, some of which had funny names. He would then head downstairs and plop onto the cream sofa in our living room.
One day, when he came home after a long day of work, I had barely given him enough time to find the television remote to watch the news before I interrupted his relaxation. “Dad can we kick the soccer ball around outside?” I asked eagerly, he looked up down at me, for I was still really short, and said “No.” He explained to me that he had just gotten back from work, and needed some time to relax, and that we would practice after dinner.
This was our daily routine. I would ask, he would say “no,” and we would play after dinner. I would protest when he refused to play soccer with me. I would tell him that it would get too dark after dinner, and that all he was doing was kicking the soccer ball, so it wouldn’t take up much energy. I would beg and whine, hoping he would give in. I would tug on his arm, trying to press him up. Then I would get so tired of whining that I would just give up, and sit at our table waiting for dinner.
I understood why he wanted to rest. After my short day of school, I was exhausted and in no mood to do my homework that I would needed to be completed by the next day. While I had my short seven-hour school day, my dad was working from eight in the morning to six in the evening. And his work was much more tiring and required more patience than math-baseball and dodge ball. But I was his daughter, and I wanted to play soccer with my dad. His duty was to play with me and I expected him to reserve some time in his day to do so. But did have three hours to myself after school, while my dad had just gotten home from work, and I was already begging for him to give up more of his time.
When dinnertime ended, I would slip on my shoes, run to the cubby were my soccer ball was sitting, and run out the door, calling for my dad to hurry up. My dad and I would start out kicking the soccer ball back and forth. Then he would say we could only use our right feet. Then he would switch it to the left. We would switch to our toes, heels or knees. My dad always came up with new challenges for me. He said it was to keep me interested in the sport.
Streetlights would turn on; he would say ten more passes each. I would try and raise it from 10 to 50. And as we were kicking the soccer ball back and forth, we would debate the number of passes we got each. After I passed the soccer ball to him, he would scoop it up, and say, “that’s twenty,”- ten more than we agreed.
My dad works 10 hours a day, and has four hours at home. Those four hours are his time to relax and whined down from his busy day. All I wanted was a little bit of his time to play soccer, when I wanted to. But despite his long and busy day, he did always leave some time for us to play soccer. And although I did not think to care when I was in third grade, that time after dinner was something to value.
I was born in Philadelphia. I was raised right in the center of the city, only a few blocks away from downtown, and right around the corner from all the museums. I have gone to three different schools, all located in the city and within walking distances from my house. It’s a city I feel comfortable in. I am a true native Philadelphian. But I do not speak like most other Philadelphians. In my family, I was taught to speak our most proper English, with our best grammar. I don’t speak in slang, and I try to pronounce my words. To my family and me, I sound perfectly normal. To my family in Scotland, I sound very American. But to my friends in Philadelphia, sometimes I sound British. I grew up with a Philadelphian-scotch accent, always begin too British or too American for either sides of my friends and family.
I am not sure if it comes out when I am excited, angry, or what; but on rare occasions it can be very noticeable. On one occasion, it was so obvious that my friend began to yell at me. “Why are you talking like that?” my friend exclaimed at me. “What are yeh talkin’ about? I’m talkin’ normal.” I questioned her in confusion. “You are talking with a British accent! Why are you talking that way?” she said frustrated. At this point I had become increasingly puzzled. I’ve heard people say my dad talked with a Scottish accent, and I’ve heard my sister talk with a really lousy Scottish accent, but never me talk with a Scottish accent. “I think yeh’ve gone mad” I told her doubtingly. “Why are you talking like you are British?” she asked my impatiently. “I’m speakin’ the same way I always talk. This is shtupid.” I replied, trying to listen closely to my own voice. As I said stupid, I began to hear it. It was as if I was mimicking my Scottish cousin, if she had a more Americanized accent. I had no idea where it came from or why. I began to get worked up about something and it just slipped out. The more I got “my knickers in a twist” over it, the stronger it became, and I had not the slightest clue why.
On rare occasions, you could easily tell that my dad was from Scotland, and if you had a good ear, which part. The r’s are more pronounced, the words are spoken faster, and words like you and speaking and said like yeh and speakin’. This could have been the source of my selective accent. Even though I was raised in a community where American was the accent, my dad had a greater influence on my speech. It is often said that kids learn the most from their parent’s behaviour and language. When my dad was in a familiar environment he resorted back to his natural language. I suspect this the reason why I occasionally spoke with a different accent.
Although I speak with a slight Scottish accent on some occasions, my more dominant accent is no dubitably American. Every year, my family and I take a plane all the way to Scotland. In Scotland we see my cousins, aunts, uncles, grandmother, and friends; all of them of finding me sounding too American. “You should come stay with us for a year. Get a real authentic Scottish accent!” My auntie would exclaim to my sister and I. “I wish!” we would both wishfully reply. “You could pass off as one of the girls in the village with your appearance, all you would have to do is get rid of that accent. If you lived here you could get a strong quite fast.” My grandma would tell me every time I bumped into her in the hallway. I am never sure whether she is genuine or just wants us to move so she could be closer to us. My family in Scotland, I couldn’t sound any more American, yet my friends at home criticize me for sounding a bit British.
For the most part, having a American-scotch accent has not been a bother. Most people that I converse with do not even notice the Scottish part of my speech. On those rare occasions that it becomes noticeable, most people shrug it off as if I was speaking the same way as them. There are very few occasions where people find my accent fictitious. My friend confronting me on the way I speak was an example of how she thought that I was choosing to speak that way. Which is not the cause of accents. A person and their environment determine accents, not whether they decide to be British for a day and then American the next.
While most of the time I get off as just sounding American, there are those rare occasions where I am both American and British sounding. Due to my family, my background, and surroundings, I have adapted my own variations of both accents. My accent has taught me that people do not choose the way they speak, it is something that happens due to their environments.