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Marxism (Callie, Isabella, Taahir, Tucker)

Our project is about the effects of Marxism on governments across the span of the 19th and 20th century. In order to do this, we broke up our topics into three different studies. We used revolutions from three different countries (China, North Korea, and Russia) to show how Marxism has been placed in each government. However, our main idea was to focus on how Marxism’s primary doctrines and ideologies were not, and still isn’t followed. We chose this topic because we wanted to look at a system of ideals that has only partially been followed. We chose our countries in step with this idea.

The first thing we all did was research Marxism. We used sources that helped us get a solid grounding on the topic, and then used that knowledge in our research of the revolutions. Each of us chose smaller battles/protests in each of the revolutions. These studies include the Bolshevik revolution, North Korea vs. South Korea, and the May Fourth Movement. As we did our research, we found sources that gave accurate information about the time period as well as the event. We needed this because we were writing fictional journal articles as if we were from the time period. This was how we chose to display our information at first.

The majority of our sources are reports from college professors, online articles, or just informational documents. We did try and tackle the famous “Economic Philosophic Manuscripts,” but that turned out to be really very dense, and it was detracting from our overall message. Instead, we used videos given to us by our teacher. David Harvey, a professor who specializes in Marx, turned out to be a very useful source for us. We watched videos that gave us insight into Marxism that would have taken us a lot longer if done on our own.

In the end, we learned a great deal about the flaws of governmental ideals, and how crucial it is to have a system that falls in the middle of the spectrum. A system that is amalgamated with ideals from both Marxism and its antithesis can create a governmental set up that works just as efficiently as any seen today. Marxism has had a nominally latent existence, and has been pidgin holed by the common public as a corrupt system or a flawed system. However, the goal of this project was not to defend this idea or counteract it; it was to show that there is no country that has followed the doctrines and philosophies of Marxism to scrupulous detail. We found this to be true.

Sources:

Marx, Karl. "Economic Philosophic Manuscripts." Economic Philosophic Manuscripts(1932): 1-81. Web.

This is a link to the PDF of Karl Marx’s Economic Philosophic Manuscripts. This is a primary source, because he was the author in 1844. This is essay will play a critical role in the way we conceptualize our idea of socialism. There are a lot of interpretations of what it means to have a Marxist government, and those interpretations originate from Karl Marx himself. That is why this primary source will be useful for the project. He mentions a lot of German ideologies that he uses as an influence for his writings. This inspires the idea of possibly connecting some of the older beliefs of Germany to the beliefs of Germany in the 20th century. Because the Russian revolution began in the early 20th century, the manuscripts would have had to have played a major role in how the leaders of  socialist movements later assessed their own ideals in the founding of the new governments.


Von Kühlmann, Richard. Richard Von Kühlmann on the Russian Revolution. Germany. 30 Nov. 1917.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/russia_kuehlmann.htm

This is a speech that the German foreign secretary, Richard Von Kühlmann, gave to the German Reichtag on November 30th, 1917. The speech presents his opinions on the Russian Revolutions and the way the world is reacting to them. He then goes into his opinions on the governments of countries such as England and France stating that “freedom of though and freedom of speech have been suppressed.” This source is valuable because it portrays the opinions of the revolutions from another country. Richard Von Kühlmann relates what is happening in Russia to what could possibly happen in Germany, which shows the international effect of the revolutions. His underlying tone is that Germany will prevail against other countries that are filled with “greed and power.” He believes that the powers of the east will be able to rise up against the inhumane powers of the west, which is not only a statement about Germany but a statement about much of the European continent.

Lenin, Vladimir. "Proclamation of 7 November 1917." Proclamation of 7 November 1917. Russia. 7 Nov. 1917. Speech. <http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/lenin_25oct1917.htm>

This source is a speech given by Vladimir Lenin, a Marxist and communist revolutionist who led the Russian Revolutions, on October 25, 1917. In this speech he warns against a counter revolution and uprising of the military against the new government formed after the overthrow of Alexander Kerenski. He states that all military men must openly support and join the new government or else they will be arrested. The speech lists what the Petrograd Council of Workmen and Soldeir’s Delegate’s (new government)  sees as its top priorities, which includes but is not limited to, giving land to the peasants and a transfer of all power to the council. This source is valuable because it displays the intended goals of the new communist party in Russia and what the party was based on (its ideology).

Lenin, Vladimir. "Call to Power." Call to Power. Russia. 24 Oct. 1917. Speech.
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/calltopower.htm

This is a writing by Lenin titled “Call to Power,” on the 24th of October in 1917. In it he requests that power be taken away from Alexander Kerenski’s provisional government and be transferred a committee/party chosen by the people specifically the poor and starving. He warns that the government in place at the time was going to fall and that as a revolutionary/revolutionists they must not wait. It is written to the Soviet Central Committee and supposed to represent the voices of the people. He uses a very urgent tone warning that if something doesn't happen immediately the Soviet Union as a whole will lose everything. This source is valuable because it was one of the major factors contributing to the fall of the provisional government. The day after being written Kerenski’s government was overthrown which really shows the power of these words. Although technically a call to the Soviet Union, it addressed the protesters/revolutionists in hope of motivating them.

Lenin, Vladimir. "April Theses." April Theses. Saint Petersburg, Russia. Apr. 1917. Speech. <http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/apriltheses.htm>http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/apriltheses.htm
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/apriltheses.htm

The April Theses was a chain of "directions" which was created by Vladimir Lenin when he returned to St. Petersburg, in response to the war. In the Theses, he summoned the soviets to take power and criticized the liberals in the Provisional Government. Before Lenin's return, the government was controlled by socialist in liberals, which created a democracy. Most of the directives called for new communist policies, also calling for a new government which would be imperial to all other forms of government in Russia.

Duffy/ Firstworldwar.com, Michael. "Manifesto of Russian Council of Workmen and Soldiers." First World War.com. Web. 06 Jan. 2012. <http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/russian_councilofworkmen1.htm>.

The link is to a manifesto written by workers and soldiers.  Its dated to may 15 1917. They start off by explaining that the are speaking in the name of / support of the “ Russian Revolutionary Democracy”  and that as a people they didn’t wish to become involved with the war.  They go on to explain the adverse effects of Russia losing its freedoms.  Revolutionary russia was being threatened by a man power.   They are explaining to the soldiers on the battle front that they must fight to win or else “Revolutionary Russia” will be destroyed.  They are defending liberty in Russia because they are up against the German army that represents  When describing Russia in modern terms its described as being a communist country.   







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A Walk Through the Human Mind

​Process Paper

Psychology: the study of the human mind and its workings.  I choose this topic because I could personally connect to it. Growing up, my father was ill, so I wanted to know why and how. It was helpful because it helped me understand why he was ill and the chances that it can be passed down to me. Not only is it important to me and helped me, but it can help others as well. Understanding Psychology is the first step to understanding the mind.

While doing research for this, I found the site Marxist.com to be useful in finding written lectures by Sigmund Freud. Also since I already had some background knowledge on the topic, I knew who the “father of psychology” was so I started with him. From there I went to psychoanalysis, to the NYC Bomber and criminal profiling.  Another website I found helpful was trutv.com It helped me with the research for the NYC bomber and Dr. James Brussel. 

I mostly relied on books though. Not ones written the by people I was researching, but ones written about them. Since it was so long ago, I couldn’t find interviews or autobiographies that they had written themselves.

A problem I encountered during my research was finding articles written on an article about a book written about the person that I researching and not being able to use them because they were credible. It took a lot of digging to find a source that directed related to the topic of psychology. These articles did lead me books that I was able to use but even though these articles were great in number, the sources they provided were few in number.

            I choose to relate my topic to all three words in the theme. For each word, I picked a specific date that showed how psychology has cause a revolution, who reacted and how it reformed our thinking on psychology. For revolution I choose the year 1883 because it was the year the Wilhelm Wundt began to voice his ideas to the scientific community. At first they were rejected because it was an unknown concept but soon some people were able to see it’s usefulness. Which leads us into reaction. Sigmund Freud gave his final lecture on psychoanalysis and psychology in the year 1932. It may seem strange to not use all of his lectures but I found that the last talked more about him as a human diagnosing people and not as a doctor diagnosing a patient. I also wanted to stay away from mentioning super ego, ego and id in my exhibit because I wanted to focus on him and the new concept he introduced, psychoanalysis. Lastly we have reform. Dr. James Brussel was able to enhance the concept even when he introduced criminal profiling to the FBI. In order to get the FBI’s attention, he first took it for a test run. He was able to profile the NYC Bomber in 1940 by analyzing his behavior.

 

Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

Freud, Sigmund. "Lecture XXXV A Philosophy of Life." New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-analysis . Hogarth Press, 1933. Web. 1 Jan 2012. <http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/at/freud.htm>.

This source is of a lecture given by Sigmund Freud, written down. He talks greatly about religion and how it could influence behavior. There are a few times when he mentions Marxism but I do not understand if he relates that to Psycho-analysis. This source is reliable because it is form another man who has had a great influence in the world of psychology and he did change many things. I used the parts where he talked about how he got into psychology.

 

The layman's guide to psychiatry and psych-analysis. 3. California: Tantor eBooks of Tantor Media, 2011. eBook. <http://www.amazon.com/Laymans-Guide-Psychiatry-Psychoanalysis-ebook/dp/B005DNSSCQ.

This book is written for people who don’t have a profession in the field of psychology. It gives a general over view of the know how’s of the field. It talks about why people act the way they do and why others judge them the way that they do. It touches on a range of topics from emotions to dreams and from insanity to practical and impractical methods, all relating to the field of psychology and psychoanalysis. I used this to help created my loose definition of psychoanalysis.

 

Secondary Source

"The History of Psychology." Discovering Psychology.WGBH Educational Foundation,2001. Web.1 Jan 2012.<http://www.learner.org/discoveringpsychology/history/history_nonflash.html>.  This source is like a basic overview of how psychology has evolved from 1879 to 2000. It is a great place to start because it’s main focus is psychology but it also gives brief points on people and buildings that have influenced the advancement of psychology. The time line doesn’t stick to one person who has had an influence in this field but it expands to many people, which is why I think this source is reliable. I used this to help me find the people I would research on.

 

"Wilhelm Wundt and Introspection: the cultural contribution of the father of psychology." WilhelmWundt.com. N.p., Jan 3. Web. 1 Jan 2012. <http://www.wilhelmwundt.com/index.htm>.

This source is an essay written by someone on Wilhelm Wundt, a man otherwise known as the father of psychology. It talks about Wundt life in psychology and how he used introspection to evaluate the behaviors of the human mind. Essentially this text is a general overview of Wundt’s work through out his lifetime although it focuses mainly on introspection. It gives a clearer meaning on his work and it also included other sources that I can go to that may help me with my project. I used this source to help identify what part of Wundt’s work I was following.

 

M. Lothstein, Leslie. "The Transformation of Psychology: Influences of 19th-Century Philosophy, Technology, and Natural Science." The American Journal of Psychiatry. Psychiatry Online, 01, Mar 2003. Web. 1 Jan 2012. <http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=176134>.

This source is about a textbook that gave an interesting viewpoint of both psychology and science as a whole. It mostly talks about chapter 11. Also about how politics play a role in psychology. I found this interesting since you wouldn’t think that something like that could influence a person behavior and memory so much. To the point where people felt the need to study it and see just how far the influence was rooted. I used this source to help create my loose definition of psychology.

 

Madden, Melissa Ann. "GEORGE METESKY: NEW YORK's MAD BOMBER-The Profiler." TruTV. TruTV, n.d. Web. 4 Jan 2012. < http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/terrorists_spies/terrorists/metesky/8.html>.

This article talks about George Metesky, the first big case that Dr. Brussel profiled that lead him to want to continue and create a new section to the FBI. It talks mainly of the process of what the police went through in trying to apprehend the bomber on their own for close to 10 years until they called Dr. Brussel. Though the police were skeptical, they went along with it and they did catch their guy. I used this source to get a better understanding of the Bomber’s work.

 

Plucker, Dr. Jonathan. "Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) German Philosopher & Psychologist." Human Intelegence. Indiana University, 25 July 2007. Web. <http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/wundt.shtml>.

This page talks about Wilhelm Wundt’s start in opening an Experiment Psychology Laboratory. It catered more toward German, philosophers and psychologist but American and British philosophers and psychologist were also welcomed. Everything he did was considered experimental because he was the first to do it. He set the limits that could be reached for research because there were know for him. I used this source because of the experimental laboratory.

           

Madden, Melissa Ann. "The Profiler." TruTV. TruTV, n.d. Web. 4 Jan 2012. <http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/terrorists_spies/terrorists/metesky/3.html>.

This article talks about Dr. James Brussel and how he profiled the NYC Bomber. It also talks about how he became involved in the case 10 years after it was opened. Though he had already began to profile the bomber before he was asked onto the case. He was doing because his inner psychiatrist was telling him to do it. I used this source because of the profile on the profiler.

I'll have pictures of my board up tomorrow.
Photos of each side
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Great president or man of mysteries.

process paper. 
During this project I learned a lot about president John F. Kennedy. Most people relate him to Marylin Monroe and the scandals that involved her. But there was a lot more to him than that. He was a man of many successes and many failures. His family always came first and he took risks that weren't always worth taking. Through my tumblr and Weebly viewers will learn about how people adored him and how people hated him. He had a very private life, which is still being exposed to this day. In the beginning I didn't even know what I was doing. At first I was just listing facts about him but I wasn't focusing on a particular part of his life. But as the project went on I figured out where I wanted to take my project and I took it there. I wrote a personal letter from a fictional character named Gracie. I made her a young girl who witnessed the assassination of her president, someone who she felt close to.  I focused on two parts, the assassination and the Bay of pigs which involved John F. Kennedys younger brother Robert, who was also his closest ally. This rocked the nation and was a huge disappointment and embarrassment for the United States. 

Gracie’s story.

November 22nd 1963 is a day that has a home in every history textbook and will be remembered by so many. It was they day president John. F. Kennedy was murdered. A young girl witnessed it with her own eyes. The harrowing event took place in Dallas Texas. JFK’s car was riding by, when Gracie Mack saw her president shot 3 times, once in the head and twice in the throat. Gracie witnessed him fall into his beautiful wife, Jackie Kennedy’s arms and heard her shout “Oh No”.  The car was sped up and went straight to the hospital. Upon arrival the president was still alive, but died 35 minutes later. Gracie couldn’t believe what she saw, she lost herself in her own mob of thoughts. Moments later more chaos arrived. She saw a white man, on the thin side, arguing with police officers, he gave her a look. One she had never seen before. She saw hate and death within his eyes and she instantly knew who he was and what he had done. His name was Lee H. Oswald, he was 24 years old, and he killed Gracie’s president. Oswald was under heavy investigation for two days. Gracie listened to her parents and others conversations around, on November 24th she heard that Oswald had been murdered. Murder was bad. So why did Gracie feel so good about it. Jack Ruby, someone that many knew seldom about. Even though most found it the right thing to do, murder was still a crime. Ruby tried to say that it wasn’t premeditated and that he didn’t know about where Oswald was being held. There were many different sides to JFK’s assasination. Gracie heard her great grandfather say that it was all Robert Kennedy’s fault, that he got the mafia involved the Kennedy administration. But Gracie didn’t want to hear the blame game, she didn’t want Lydon B. Johnson in charge of the country. She didn’t know what was going to happen, but she knew that it would change the way America was forever.


Annotations 


In this article by Tom Wrecker, the assassination of John F. Kennedy was exposed. Kennedy was shot on November 22nd 1963. He was shot at 12.30 pm and pronounced dead around 1 pm. Lee H. Oswald who was quite active within the Fair play for Cuba committee  ,was arrested later that night on accusations of killing John F. Kennedy. Oswald hit Mr. Kennedy with three shots, he fired the rifle from a building off the motorcade route. 106 minutes after the death of Kennedy, the vice president Lydon Baines Johnson swore into oath as America’s new president. "KENNEDY IS KILLED BY SNIPER AS HE RIDES IN CAR IN DALLAS; JOHNSON SWORN IN ON PLANE." NY Times Advertisement. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1122.html>.

Jack Ruby was the man who killed Lee H. Oswald as he was being transferred from Dallas police headquarters to a nearby county jail. In an interview with Ruby, he said that he had no idea that Oswald was being moved, but many believe that the murder was premeditated. He claimed to have no idea that Oswald was being moved earlier, he said that nobody had told him, he thought it was going to be done at 10.00. Ruby had no prior knowledge as to whom Oswald was before the scandal. He said that the murder wasn’t intended but for the two days after Kennedy’s death all he felt was letdown and remorose "JFK: Jack Ruby's Deathbed Interview." JFK Online: JFK Assassination Resources Online. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <http://www.jfk-online.com/rubydeathbed.html>.


Interviews with Jacqueline Kennedy were hidden for almost 50 years, the interviews with Mrs. Kennedy were conducted four monthes after the assassination of her husband. She talked a lot about how JFK was as a person, about how much he loved his children, and how he would always come to his family before going to the office and getting to work. She talked a lot about the Cuban missal crisis, which was the closest the U.S came to a nuclear war. It was a very stressful time for JFK, but Jacqueline stayed by his side the entire time, she refused to go on any sort of vacations, and made sure he was given the comfort that he needed. "Jacqueline Kennedy Tapes, Recorded After JFK Assassination, Reveal Intimate Secrets - YouTube." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=voDCp6-j1FI>.


Robert F. Kennedy was not only JFK’s brother, but also his closest political ally. His role today would be almost impossible. He had plans of getting rid of Americas biggest enemies. He feared that it was his fault that his brother was killed. He believed that his drive to prosecute the mob and kill Castro had backfired and resulted with the assassination. He felt as though the death was supposed to be for him and it came to haunt his family. When he got news of his brothers death, there was no emotion or grief, just utter shock, the moment he found out that his brother was dead, he quickly began making phone calls in search of who killed JFK. There were questions as to why Robert Kennedy didn’t play a bigger role in helping to find out who killed his brother. Some say the main reason was simply denial that his wound was too big, and others say that he didn’t want the government to find out what he was doing on the sides with Castro. "Robert Kennedy Struggled With JFK's Assassination - ABC News." ABCNews.com - Breaking News, Latest News & Top Video News - ABC News. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/story?id=131457>.


In The Wink a book by Barr McClellan, he opens up to the controversial idea that vice president Lyndon B. Johnson was behind the assassination of JFK. McClellan said that Johnson had the moves and the motives to do it. Some say that the theories are complete bogus, but McClellan and his family, speculate that Johnson, was in it for the money power and blood. He also involved Edward Clark, who was an embassador saying that he covered the assassination for Johnson. Jeong, Hye. "LBJ Behind JFK Killing - New Book - Remember 'The Wink'" Jeff Rense Program. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <http://www.rense.com/general40/thewnk.htm>.

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Nat Hist Day BMark by: Aja Wallace and Jésus Jímenez

This is the link to our Weebly website http://74138277.nhd.weebly.com/

PROCESS PAPER

A topic of interest for any further research is looked at at the easiest aspect of any project itself. For my partner and I, this simple task was not as easy as it was set up to be. We were fully aware of the fact that we wanted to have a topic that involved something with Cuba, The Cuban Revolution or The Cuban Missile crisis. Anything that had to do with Cuba in some manner, was the route my partner and I knew we wanted to take. We just randomly decided to research about Cuba because it is a place we wish we could visit but we did not know too much about it. Revolution, was the first word that came to mind trying to think NHD wise, so The Cuban Revolution it was.

Conducting the research was slightly all over the place in the beginning. There was not a set way to look for things. The idea was to just find anything that would be found on the topic, then later narrow the larger group down. So more direct articles could be found. After finding some of the sources that we felt were of quality use, dissecting what was needed became the next step. The idea behind the information was sharing pieces about The Cuban Revolution that any viewer who was not apart putting together the project, would find the information insightful.

PRESENTATION! Is one of the five core values, that Science Leadership Academy has, so choosing a way to display any information found just mean it had to be appealing to an audience. And what better way to do so than a website. To us the idea of a website, was something that would make any viewer want to see more. The first thought when most people are looking at a website for the first time is, wanting to explore to see what will be found. That is the affect my partner and I were going for.

The Cuban Revolution relates to the NHD theme, simply because it is national history. Revolution, reaction and reform, these terms gave there meanings when Fidel Castro transitioned from a Rebel to leader in the time that Cuba went through some of it’s changes. Fidel was the voice of his Cuban people, because his idea was to take over Cuba for the people. Fidel started to cause chaos, he then received the reaction he wanted from Batistia. Which allowed him to eventually take office. With that Cuba was going through a turn. Losing their sugar trade causing getting 80% of their exports taking away. A corrupt economy it was, retaliation was the next step. The first attempt was to furtively assassinate Fidel.  

Bringing back the relics of a bygone Cuba was a challenge within itself. Aside from seeing how Cuba related to the NHD theme. My partner an I also wanted people to understand, that a revolution can slowly persistent even at its nadir.


Primary Sources

Latin American Studies. "Rebels Entering Havana (January 1959)." The Cuban Revolution (1952-1958). N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <www.latinamericanstudies.org/cuban-rebels/castro-1956-mexico-city.jpg>.

This primary source is a picture of Fidel and the people he associate himself with. This picture was taken in 1956 in Mexico City. This picture supports one of our articles where we talk about Castro’s plans to go back to Cuba. Many things happened in Mexico that this picture represents. First of all, Castro still has supporters when he gets to Mexico, indicating that he still has a strong group of followers, faithful enough to take back Cuba. This picture is one that will be used in the website. It will be located in the 1953 - 1959 page.

. Havana Tank. N.d. Rebels Entering Havana, Havana, Cuba. The Cuban Revolution  Web. 15 Feb. 2012.

Fidel an his men were going into Havanna. The streets at which Castro drove down were filled with crowds of people on both sides, watching as he entered. Everybody seemed to be for Fidel and the ways he told people he was going to revolutionize things. Gaining much respect for the way he was, withing being in the public eye he was just trying to do what was in the ‘best interest’ of Cuba. This picture showed the expression on the faces of the people an Fidel as they enter. Which in turn sets the tone of the situation clearly.


Phillips, R. Hart. "Castro Assaults Cuban Army Post." Latin American Studies. Web. 30 Dec. 2011. <http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/cuban-rebels/NYT-7-28-57.htm>.

This was an article out of the New York Times. Castro and a number of armed or armed forces swept down out of Sierra Maestra to attack the former field headquarters of the Cuban Army.  Cuban Army headquarters issued a press release stating that the rebels had attacked the Estrada Palma post. This piece in a way explains the mind set of Castro and shows what he is capable of doing and what he will do to get what he wants. Giving ideas how he takes over and his approach to conquer along with the people involved in doing so.


Time. "CUBA: The Vengeful Visionary - TIME." Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - TIME.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,892091,00.html>.

There was an issue of TIME Magazine, that had a picture of Fidel Castro on the cover. I found an article on TIME’s website from 1959, which is from the same month the Cuban Revolution came to a close. Unfortunately, I need a subscription to TIME to access the article, as I can only read the first paragraph or so. This source was used, because we felt as thought it was a key to writing any of these articles. The information was the missing part to the entire projects. My partner and I really liked using this resource, although the information was very little.

Korda, Alberto . CheyFidel.jpg. N.d. Mueseo de Che Guevara, Havana, Cuba. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CheyFidel.jpg. Web. 27 Dec. 2011.

This is a picture of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, Che was a big help during the revolution and earned the trust of Fidel Castro, which earned him a good spot in Cuba’s new government. Both men were commandantes of their own group of guerrilla fighters which were made of peasants and many other natives. The picture was taken 1961 before the Cuban Missile Crisis, Cubans already won by this point. This picture will be put at the end of the 1959 -1960 page to symbolize the future of Cuba. Since by the reporter’s perspective, it was a bit hard to see what was coming next for Cuba.


“16. Assignment in Cuba." Latin American Studies. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. <http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/cuban-rebels/chapelle.htm>.

This is a recollection of events by a female reporter in Cuba, reporting the events that happened there during the revolution. It’s written as a memoir sort of, and it is based on her experience on the island, so it’s useful as a primary source. She writes about her memories of being on the battlefield, and other things such as her life while being there. Although some might think she was just a reporter. He thoughts and experience is much valued. My partner and I like primary sources as such because when a reporter reports things it is almost as if it an interview, because the insight they give it awesome.

"U.S. reporters covering the Cuban Revolution." Latin American Studies. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. <http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/reporters.htm>.

During the Cuban revolution, there were many U.S. reporters hanging around Fidel Castro and his men, even a camera man named Wendell Hoffman from CBS was there as well. Although I get a lot of names from this source, it’s difficult to find any information left from any of these people. Some of the information I do find is in books I have to pay for, but I’m curious to find anything filmed by Wendell, to see if it is up anywhere on the Web. My partner and I decided to use this resource because we though it was similar to the other primary source being like an interview due to all of the reporters.

Castro, Fidel . "The Revolution Begins Now." Marxists Internet Archive. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Dec. 2011. <http://www.marxists.org/history/cuba/archive/castro/1959/01/03.htm>.

This is a speech Fidel Castro gave in Santiago. This was at the end of the Cuban Revolution, after all the fighting was over and Batista left Cuba. In this speech, Castro talks about the changes that he will make in Cuba, along with how grateful he is for the people that supported and aided in the revolution. My partner an I decided to use this source because we felt it would be the finishing touch to the history. When doing history research, there is always a source that is full of information that you can break down in so many ways.



Secondary Sources
Sierra, J.A.. "The Landing of the Granma - The Castros return to Cuba, 1956." Cuban history begins here. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/granma.htm>.

This article was written by J. A Sierra, a news reporter. This is can was a reliable source. The article gave insight to the basic outline of life of Fidel. Giving the main points that really had an affect on the revolution. introducing when Fidel started to take over Havanna, with his men. Also tleling about some of the physical fights he went threw with his men. While they were in Sierra Maestra, Castro felt as thought the fight has just began.This piece in a way explains the mind set of Castro showing what he was capable of doing.

Franqui, Carlos. "Cuban Revolution: Attack on the Moncada Army Barracks." Cuban history begins here. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012.<http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/moncada.htm>.


Introduction written by Tana De Gamez from a book written by Carlos Franqui The introduction was, about the original attack on the Moncada Barracks. We decided to use this secondary resource because of thorough coverage of the first sign of revolution Castro showed to the Batista regime. It contains information such as the type of people that joined Castro’s forces. And what happened afterwards when the attack failed. Nice little source.      


"American Experience | Fidel Castro | Timeline | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/castro/timeline/index.html>.

From this source, we have a good and reliable timeline for the Cuban Revolution up to the year 1976. Since the beginning of the time line, there are brief descriptions of what happened year by year, through the revolution beyond the reconstruction and into the Cuban Missile Crisis. We used this resource as a way to keep track of the dates to have accurate information in the written aspects of our project. The timeline used in the resources was also good for tying everything together, including other sources we used on our research. The dates of the many events came in handy.

"Cuban Revolution." Xenon.truman.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Dec. 2011. <http://www2.truman.edu/~marc/webpages/revsfall99/cuba/>.

This source leads to another summary of the revolution along with links to speeches and topics about socialism. It is also important to note that this website tells us how much money Batista took with him and where he went once he fled Cuba, $300 million must’ve been a lot back in 1959, and it would be good to go in deeper to find out how he got that money and if it was from corruption. We used this resource as a quick summary overview of how we could present our articles. The quick outline of the Cuban revolution was ideal for developing articles with on a 1200 word limit.

Lotta, Raymond. "U.S. Imperialism, the Cuban Revolution, and Fidel Castro." Revolution #261, February 26, 2012. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://rwor.org/a/056/cubahist-en.html>.

Raymond Lotta writes about U.S imperialism in Cuba. Even after the revolution, Cuba still needed to be part of the world market. That part was covered briefly in our project and explained how sugar was the main source of economic profit for Cuba after the revolution and reconstruction. The source also includes statistics about the sugar industry, more specifically about the statistics about Cuba’s involvement in that industry. Another aspect of this written piece is the fact that Castro never said he was communist. This is something important to clear up and acknowledge, he was a Marxist, which does not mean you are communist. It’s a different form of ideology and is implemented sometimes within a government but is not always successful.

                              

Brice, Arthur. "Memories of boyhood in the heat of the Cuban revolution - CNN.com." CNN.com International - Breaking, World, Business, Sports, Entertainment and Video News. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/americas/01/01/cuba.remembrances/index.html#cnnSTCText>.


Arthur had a first hand experience when Batista lost power and gave up the island. He is also a refugee from Cuba and was among those who fled the island. We used this article as a reference to how the public felt about certain events in Cuba. Even though Arthur was at the young age of 5 during the end of the revolution, he speaks from the perspective of his parents also, since the revolution also affected them as residents of the country. Arthur Brice has helped tie in the public’s side of the revolution with this project, seeing as most of the people fighting in the guerillas were farmers and people that wanted change.


      Batista&. "Cuban Revolution." ThinkQuest : Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Dec. 2011. <http://library.thinkquest.org/20176/crevolution.htm>.

This website has a lot written about the Cuban Revolution and is essential as it has a solid summary about it. The website also has links to other websites regarding the Cuban Revolution. Although the summary of the revolution is brief, it serves as a good source to look at if we need to refresh our minds. The links on page redirect to other speeches that Castro has done over the course of the revolution. This website is an excellent resource, as we can quote Castro through the various speeches provided on the page. Through these speeches we can see the revolution through his eyes and understand what he meant.

Depalma, Anthony. "The New York Times Upfront | The News Magazine for High School." Scholastic | Children's Books and Book Club | Scholastic.com. Web. 30 Dec. 2011. <http://teacher.scholastic.com/scholasticnews/indepth/upfront/features/index.asp?article=f090108_Cuba>.

This piece of information was from the New York Times years,  after the Cuban Revolution happened. Many of Cuba’s richest people gather together to welcome the new-year, at which they thought would be better for them after 50 years. Most of the Cubans basic human rights was not good to the economy, it helped sink it. The soviet leaders than agreed to remove the missiles, Kennedy then promised that the U.S would not invade Cuba, again. This site to helped with a more general introduction to the topic and explaining how it began to prolong over the many years.

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Phenomenal Women Jamelia Barrett Loren Jenkins

 500 Word Process:

Why we chose this topic:
 My partner and I didn’t know where to start at first with this project. Honestly, we had a hard time choosing something that would keep our interest, and we wanted a topic that wouldn’t bore us. When our teacher introduced us to some ideas it came upon that the WCTU known as the Woman Christian Temperance Union has caught our eye. Finding information wasn’t hard, and it was quick to find things that were interesting, which had motivated us to learn and do more on this project. In the process we learned that the WCTU was on one of the first all woman Christian alliance that was against the usage and founding of alcohol.

How I conducted my research:  First we did a research on the WCTU and how the organization works, also we looked on the motifs and believe and value. And what are some of the thing they have done that had made a change in our history. Then while doing the research on the WCTU we found out that during the 1920 the fought to get alcohol illegal. And we also realize that this era was called the Prohibition era. This lead us to do our project /exhibit on the prohibition era through the eyes of the WCTU. While doing this research on the WCTU we saw the opportunity to do something on the prohibition which was a important part of the history. During this time a lot of significant things happen.

 

How we created the EXHIBIT: My group member and I started to organize the important points of our research. We created outline of the most important picture and quote of our project. We then look on the rule in the NHD rule book of how the exhibit should be for example the height width, 500 word limit. Then we collaborated and work on printing the picture and the font also we designed the broad so it looks presentable.

 

How our project related to the theme:

Or project is related to the theme because it is research done within a important time period in history. The theme for this year was Revolution, Reaction, and Reform in History and this was a event that happen 50 years ago. We were able to show what lead up to the revolution of the alcohol being illegal. The reaction after when the alcohol became illegal violence and crime rates rose ,flapper was stating to develop ,the women during that time the 19 amendment granted the women the right to vote ,illegal underground dealing of alcohol and the speakeasies were developed and the stock market also crashed. The reform was that the 21 amendment made alcohol legal again and it the amount was modified. This was a very important because never 200 years an amendment has been repealed. So this why our theme is related to the theme of the national history day’s theme ,it’s portray each term of Revolution, Reaction, and Reform each has a example of how the relate.

 

 



 

PRIMARY SOURCES

        WCTU. "WCTU Opposes Amethyst Initiative." Welcome to the WCTU. Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 29 Sept. 2008. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <http://www.wctu.org/amethyst.html>.

            I found this web page helpful because we have done the prohibition of alcohol through the WCTU. eyes and this a example of how the WCTU is still fighting the same issue they fought for 50 years ago. So this gave on information on what the WCTU is doing presently.

 

 



Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Minnesota. "Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Minnesota Records. Dates:." Minnesota Historical Society. Web. 2009. <http://www.mnhs.org/library/findaids/00106.xml>.

              This a site which give information and the different WCTU conference that was hold over a consecutive year .This show how one of the subdivision of the WCTU how the run they run their meeting the order of protocols. Records related to statewide women’s organization focused primarily on raising public awareness of the personal and social problems brought about by the consumption of alcoholic beverages, and on the advocacy of individual abstinence and prohibition. Includes records of district and local unions (chapters).




Elizabeth, Wiillard. "Let Something Good Be Said: Speeches and Writings of Frances E. Willard - Frances Elizabeth Willard, Carolyn De Swarte Gifford." Google Books. Board of Trustee,  2009. Web. 06 Jan. 2012. <http://books.google.com/books? id=kt6w5t1YStcC>.

This is a book about the first president of the WCTU. Its autobiography on the president, and the many speeches she gives at every rally meeting and protest. It talks about her journey of campaigner all over the country to recruit. How the conduct a meeting and this book celebrate the effort Willard put in to form and get women to fight for the cause she stands for.


http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/studies/nc/nc2a.htm

McGrewcalifronia, Jane Lang. "History of Alcohol Prohibition." DRCNet Online Library of Drug Policy. California Drug Policy. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. <http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/studies/nc/nc2a.htm>.
This a source that give a break down of the years of the WCTU. Its full with information of the different activity that happens. It also gives excerpt from interview with different members of the organization. The reason why theses women put their life on the line to support a good cause and get the government to make alcohol illegal.


Anonimous. "Alcohol Prohibition." EH.net. Economic History Associatio, 2 Jan. 2010. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. <http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/miron.prohibition.alcohol>.

This a very informative site that give you the step by step breakdown with the day when the the Prohibition ended. This will give me incite on what happen and the effect it had on the society after. One example after the Prohibition the crime rate raised. and the was uncover bars ruined and illegal Raids . EH.NET " e evidence on Prohibition and crime focuses on the homicide rate, since this is the only type of crime for which data are reported consistently both before, during, and after Prohibition.10 Figure 3 presents the homicide rate in the United States (measured as homicides per 100,000 population) for the period 1900-1995" This is one of the statics that the source gave.


Elly, Martin. "Prohibition Era Timeline - Timeline of Prohibition Era." American History  From About. American History.com. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <http://americanhistory.about.com/od/prohibitionera/a/prohibition.htm>.

             I used this source to figure out the different time and date that related to my topic . it help me to know the specific dates for each leg of the journey of Prohibition . I will used this to make a timeline to show on the blog to help to provide as reference .



WCTU. "| WCTU Drinking Fountains | Glendora CA |." Welcome to the WCTU. Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 29 Sept. 2008. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <http://www.wctu.com/Glendora.html>.

            This a picture of a old WCTU fountain. this what they women of that organization put these outside of saloon to promote the men to drink water and not alcohol. This will help us to tell our story visually

 

 

 

 


Secondary Source:


Albalagh Children Home. "Prohibition of Alcohol." Albalagh Home Page. Albalagh Children Home. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <http://www.albalagh.net/kids/history/prohibition.shtml>.

             This source has help us to understand the prohibition in a nutshell. I was able to get the main idea of what the prohibition was about and how it developed. This is really help I would recommend it to any one who is doing a project on the prohibition.



http://www.wctu.com/Glendora.html
- This is a photo on one of the fountains that were made around the drinking problems started to occur. They where put up around saloons that where closing or selling very low products of alcohol. These where created for people to have a nice cold drink instead of running to the saloons to get a beverage that only caused harm to them. This was a way to relax those heavy drinkers and switch to something that where more refreshing. Many of these where set among the streets that supported the WCTU, and some in front of saloon fronts.

* WTCU. N.d. Photograph. Drinking fountain , Glendora CA. Web. 09 Jan 2012. <http://www.wctu.com/Glendora.html>.


Source: http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/FunFacts/Prohibition.html
http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/FunFacts/Prohibition.html
- This photo reads "Lips That Touch Liquor Shall Not Touch Ours". Back then drinking was a crime and still is today. Many people do it for fun,but don't realize that effect it has on themselves and other people. It became such a problem back in the day when woman thought that drinking was a horrible thing. The smell of it on your breath or just around the person who abused drinking was ranked from it. They found it to be unattractive and a destroyer.

*WTCU. N.d. Painting. n.p. Web. 09 Jan 2012. <http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/FunFacts/Prohibition.html>.



It May Be a Losing Battle, but W.C.T.U. Is Out There Fighting
Source: http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20C16F9395C1A7493C4A91783D85F458785F9&scp=1&sq=WCTU&st=cse
- I want to use this source because is shows  the WCTU success in Chicago on August 06,1971. I am really proud too see that they loose very few battles. They all stood together to fight for justice, and that's what caught eye for other woman in other states to join then in this revolution. The WCTU union has been able to grow over the year in their time an d has reached more then 10 states to walk through this war with them. To this much liquor (--------------------------------------------------------------------------) in state attract to a small amount of this (---). The WCTU is still around, and many families still struggle with the drug abuse today. Mostly which can lead to child abuse, self abuse, abuse to others, and lead to mentally and physically distraction.

* *"It May Be a Losing Battle, but W.C.T.U. Is Out There Fighting." New York Times. 06 09 1971: 1. Web. 13 Jan. 2012.



Susanna Madora Salter --
First Woman Mayor

by Monroe Billington
http://www.kancoll.org/khq/1954/54_3_billington.htm
- This is a story about a woman named Susanna Madora. She was elected by the W.C.T.U to be an officer for her district.  She had a struggle making it in the WCTU because of the negativity that she had to go through just to get her votes in was ridicules. Men like today where jealous that woman was able to have such power and control over the organization they were running.There were so many hacks and scams they did from keeping her being successful in the WTCU. It's a shame that men where selfish to ever see a woman do good, or let alone see a woman do better then them.

*Billingtion, Monroe. "Susanna Madora Salter -- First Woman Mayor ." Kancoll. Kansas Collection: Kansas Historical Quarterlies , Autumn 1954. Web. 5 Jan 2012. <http://www.kancoll.org/khq/1954/54_3_billington.htm>.

Frances Willard
http://womenshistory.about.com/od/temperance/p/frances_willard.htm
- I want to use this in our project because it talks about the first woman who was the heading of the WCTU. WIllard was also the first dean of woman. I think talking about the first woman is import an because she is the one who had the most work, and the most compassion for this. I would add things about her old life when she was a child, until she was adult.I want to talk about what made her interested in starting the alliance agasint alcohol. There are a few interested things such as her not being married, and having a travel and sedentary companion for 22 years. She was a woman.
* Johnson- Lewis, Jone. "Womans History." Frances Willard. About, n.d. Web. 13 Jan 2012. <http://womenshistory.about.com/od/temperance/p/frances_willard.htm>.






 

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Solidarność_NHD

Process Paper

My project is about Solidarity, the independent trade union that revolutionised the way the communist government of Poland governed Poland and the working people. Last summer, I had the opportunity to travel to Poland, and Gdańsk, the birthplace of Solidarity. I chose this topic because it is something that does not get much publicity or acknowledgement in the United States of America, but Solidarity, or Solidarność in Polish, revolutionised the country and influenced the world. 

For my research I had read various articles from 1980; articles and papers that reflected back on the event; and the Solidarity and the Gdańsk website. I read the articles and papers and took notices for reference. I also looked for some quotes from people such as Lech Wałęsa from 1980 around the time of the strike. 

I chose to do an exhibit because I thought it would best display the information that my project contains. 

Solidarity is the independent trade union that was set up in Gdańsk, Poland during a time of economic struggles due to the oppression of the Communist government in Poland. Solidarity succeeded in improving the rights of Polish workers, such as employment, compensation, workplace and health & safety conditions, influencing economic and social policies, the protection and promotion of culture and education, and the overall improvement of the human rights of the workers. What made Solidarity so revolutionary was that this was the first time any group of people had successfully changed the way the strict and oppressive communist government of Poland governed. The creation and success of the Solidarity Movement is what led to the downfall of the communist government in Poland. Solidarity was also the influencing factor in reforming the Polish government. Together, with the people of Poland, Solidarity paved the way for other post-Soviet countries to become independent from their Soviet communist rule.


Bibliography:
Primary:

„Count on Me” - „Solidarity” Poster. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. „Count on Me” - „Solidarity” Poster. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/?document=63>.

As a part of their campaign, Solidarity created various posters promoting their cause. This poster is of two hands grasping each others wrists as if to show that they support each other and that they are there for one another. At the top of the poster is the text „Licz na mnie,” which translates into english to „Count on me.” The posters were used to visually promote the feeling that Solidarity was there for the workers and were trying to improve the working conditions and living quality for them as well as ending the communist rule.


"Europe's Revolution 20 Years on." BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation, 2 Nov. 2009. Web. 5 Mar. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7879687.stm>.

The Solidarity movement triggered the end of the cold war and the communist rule in Eastern Europe in Poland and Eastern Europe. The relationship between the United States and Poland has been strengthened because of the pro-democracy Solidarity Movement. Solidarity also influenced other countries to revolt and take back their country from the communist government’s rule. Followed by Solidarity’s victory in the Polish election, many other countries began to reform their government. The struggle between Solidarity and the Polish communist government lasted for a decade. But in the end, it really was Poland and the Solidarity movement that lead to the first non-communist government in Eastern Europe.


Górka, W. Anna Walentynowicz, Activist of Free Trade Unions, among Workers. 1980. Photograph. Solidarity, Gdańsk. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/?document=63>.

In the photograph, Anna Walentynowicz is talking to a group of Polish shipyard workers and other civilians. Anna Walentynowicz was the very dedicated shipyard worker who got fired just a few days before she was due to retire. She played an active role in the start of Solidarity. The strike was sparked by the shipyard workers’ outrage over the firing of Walentynowicz. Walentynowicz became a main speaker and advocate for the workers because she had worked so hard for the shipyard and for the defense of the workers. This photograph shows the passion that Walentynowicz had in the concerns for the workers and the interest that others had in hearing her words.


Karta. Gdańsk Memorial Unveiling Ceremony. December 1970. Digital image.Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/23/MSWiA%20198-15-113.jpg>.

This picture shows the unveiling of the Monument for the Fallen Shipyard Workers. The monument was erected as apart of the Gdańsk Agreement to pay tribute and honour the 42 workers who had died in the 1970 December strike. The monument is composed up of three large steel crosses with an anchor crucified to the top of each. At the unveiling of the monument, people packed in the surrounding area to see the monument located outside of gate 2 of the Lenin Shipyard. In the photograph, you can see that people were standing on top of buildings, fences, anything that would get them a better vantage point of the monument.


Kulish, Nicholas. "Poland Leads Wave of Communist-Era Reckoning." New York Times. New York Times, 20 Feb. 2012. Web. 5 Mar. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/21/world/europe/poland-leads-wave-of-communist-era-reckoning-in-europe.html?pagewanted=1&ref=poland>.

The Polish Court is now cracking down on the Communist Leaders and declaring them a part of a criminal group because of their martial law in December 1981. Other Countries that were formerly under the Iron First are taking similar action. Looking at the current situation in the Arab Nations has motivated Poland and other Eastern European countries to look back when the communists still held power. "Poland is wrestling with its past." The Communist government were oppressive and torturous to those under their rule.


Lewandowski, G. V-for-victory Sign Was One of Many Symbols of “Solidarity” (. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/40/OK_053.jpg>.

This poster shows the V-for-victory sign, which was one of the symbols of Solidarity for their great success over their first year in existence. This poster was created a year after Solidarity was formed. At this time, people were reflecting back on Solidarity and it’s progress. As the first independent and self-governing trade union of Poland, it was great feat for the workers and people of Poland in overcoming the communist rule. Solidarity had achieved a lot of great things in their first year, and had already become a very influential factor in the workers unions of other countries and the rule of the Eastern European communist countries.


"Poland." New York Times. New York Times, 05 Mar. 2012. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/poland/index.html?scp=2>.

Poland was the only post-Soviet country to come out of Soviet rule and not go into economic recession. On October 2011, Donald Tusk triumphed over conservative Jarosław Kaczynski in the Polish elections. Tusk is the new pro-European Union prime minister, who is in support of many contemporary concerns such as gay rights, abortion, and some drug legalisation. Because Poland is apart of the EU, it has embedded itself in Europe economics and politics. However, Poland does not use the Euro, which is considered a Euro-Soviet Bloc trait. Poland is trying to continue to independently raise above their previous oppressors, Russia and Germany.


McIntire, Suzanne, and William E. Burns. "The Value of Human Solidarity." Speeches in world history. New York: Facts on File, 2009. 502-505. Print.

“I belong to a nation which over the past centuries has experienced many hardships and reverse. The world reacted with silence or with mere sympathy when Polish frontiers were crossed by invading armies…” (Lech Wałęsa). “In July and August of 1980 a wave of strikes swept throughout Poland. The issue at stake was then something much bigger than only material conditions of existence.” (Lech walęsa). “In the brief history of those eventful years, the Gdańsk Agreement stands out as a great charter of the rights of the working people which nothing can ever destroy.” (Lech Wałęsa). “Our union—the Solidarity— has grown into a powerful movement for social and moral liberation. The people, freed from the bondage of fear and apathy, called for reforms and improvements. We fought a difficult struggle for out existence. That was and still is a great opportunity for the whole country. I think that it marked also the road to be taken by authorities, if they thought of a state governed in cooperation and participation of all citizens. 


Michalak, T. Strike in the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk. 1980. Photograph. Solidarity, Gdańsk. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/?document=79>.

The picture is an aerial view on the shipyard in Gdańsk, where the strike started on August 14th, 1980. In the picture, you can see a mass of people gathering around the entrance of the shipyard. The crowd of people is composed up of both shipyard workers and other citizens who just came out to show their support for the shipyard workers in their strike. The people are crowded around the fence and entrance to the shipyard as well as a cross, located in the middle of the courtyard. The photograph really shows the amount of support the shipyard workers had from their community and fellow Polish citizens.


Poster Commemorating the Unveiling in Gdańsk of the Memorial to Killed Shipyard Workers. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/23/plakat.jpg>.

This poster is promoting the unveiling of the Monument for the Fallen Shipyard Workers, honouring the workers who were killed in the strike in 1970. The 1970 strike was violent; 42 people were killed when the security services fired on the workers’ revolting. As apart of the demands of the workers who when on strike in 1980, a monument honouring those who died was to be erected. The poster is of the monument and on the left of it is the word „Grudzień,” which in Polish, means December, which is when the 1970 strike happened. The monument is composed up of three crosses, each with a anchor on the top, to symbolise the shipyard workers.


Składanowski, S./Karta. Lech Wałęsa, Triumphantly Carried Shoulder-high after the Signing of the First Point of the Agreement. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/17/7-3,%20MSZ.JPG>.

Lech Wałęsa is held up on the shoulders of Solidarity supporters in celebration of victory after the signing of the agreement. This was a great accomplishment for the Solidarity Trade Union because it was their first break through in the communist bloc of Poland. Behind Lech Wałęsa are crowds of supporters and even people looking out of their windows; this shows the wide spread support that Solidarity had amassed. The first signing of the agreement was something that all Polish citizens in support of Solidarity celebrated, especially the workers of the Lenin Shipyard and other surrounding Shipyards.


“Solidarity” Poster Using the Colours of the National Flag. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/19/AOPL_000178.JPG>.

After the signing of the Gdańsk Agreement, posters such as this one were used to promote Solidarity and celebrate their victory. This poster used the colours of the Polish flag, and tie it into a knot as if to illustrate the new found unity of the workers at the Shipyard and the people of Poland. After the agreement had been signed, Solidarity’s main goal was gaining more support and organising itself to become very successful. Posters were used as an advertisement for their campaign, reaching more people than going from person to person.


Tagliabue, John. "Thousands at Gdansk Shipyard Join Polish Strike - New York Times."The New York Times. The New York Times, 3 May 1988. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/03/world/thousands-at-gdansk-shipyard-join-polish-strike.html?pagewanted=all>.

Strikes continued after 1980, demanding higher pay and legalisation of the Solidarity trade union. The government retained regional Solidarity leaders. “A strike wave is covering the country. They are not just local conflicts. They are across Poland because the cause is the economic crisis and lack of convincing reform policies that would offer prospects for the future,” (Lech Wałęsa). Crowds would gather around the shipyards and striking workers and leave flowers to show their support. Police would push the crowds back and away from the striking workers. The strikes were centred around more equal and fair treatment and higher pay as well as their trade union being more acknowledged.


Trybek, Z./Karta. Signature of the Agreement between the Interfactory Strike Committee and the Government Delegation. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/18/p-31-1-02,%20Trybek.JPG>.

The workers’ representatives and government commission meet together to sign the Gdańsk Agreement. The Gdańsk Agreement ended the strike and agreed to the demands of the workers, allowing the establishment of self governing trade unions. Lech Wałęsa can be seen signing the Gdańsk agreement with an oversized plastic pen, bearing the face of the pope, Pope Jan Paweł II. The workers’ representatives, MKS, met with Mieczysław Jagielski, who at the time was surviving as prime minister for the communist government. The Gdańsk Agreement was Solidarity’s big breakthrough. Unlike the strike in 1970, which ended in violence, the Gdańsk Agreement was what ended the 1980 strike in peace.



Secondary:

Alex. "1970-71: Uprising in Poland." Libcom.org. Libcom, 31 Oct. 2008. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <http://libcom.org/history/1970-71-uprising-poland>.

December strikes in 1970, when thousands of shipyard workers in Gdańsk marched into the city in protest of the increased prices on basic consumer goods. Their goal was to reach the local regional office of the Polish United Workers’ Party (PZPR). The protesters were met by police and engaged in fighting. The three port cities of Poland were placed under telecommunications block by the government. By the end of December, most of the shipyards in the main port cities had gone on strike. At the end of January, a more democratic strike committee was formed and an agreement was formed. This uprising was the first time the Polish workers had demanded a change and won. It paved the way for the strikes that changed Poland forever.


Blazejowska, Justyna. "Solidarity 1980-2010." Free Poland. Free Poland, 04 Oct. 2011. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <http://freepl.info/9-solidarity-1980-2010>.

More strikes continued but Solidarity stood as a mediator for the workers, reducing the amount of strikes but getting the workers their demands. Solidarity became politically involved giving them more power while slowly taking away the power of the communist leaders. Lech Wałęsa was put into power but resigned on December 12, 1990. The Union got about 5% of the support in the elections in 1990, which gave them 27 deputy seats. But the little votes for Solidarity throughout various elections were considered a failure for the Union. But in 1997, Solidarity received 33% of the votes. Then the Union left the political scene, but they had reformed the political scene completely.


Donovan, Jeffrey. "Poland: Solidarity -- The Trade Union That Changed The World."Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. RFE/RL, 24 Aug. 2005. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. <http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1060898.html>.

The strike that began on the 14th of August 1980 changed both Poland and the world. 17,000 workers went on strike at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk in protest of the rising food prices among other things. This was the first time that the Communist government had given into the demands of the workers. In September of 1980, the Independent Self-Governing Trade Union Solidarity (NSZZ) was formed. After a year, nearly a quarter of Poland ad joined the trade union. Solidarity was the first breakthrough in the Communist block of Poland. Leader of the shipyard strikes was Lech Wałęsa, who had nearly been arrested by the secret police the morning of the strike, but succeeded in climbing over the shipyard gate and join the rest of the workers.


Moberg, Beata. SolidarityUniversity of St. Francis - Joliet, Il. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.stfrancis.edu/content/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/btopics/works/Solidarity.html>.

Trade union was formed during the economic and social struggles in communist Poland. Workers of the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańśk started the wave of strikes on August 14th. The demand was more freedom from the communist management of the shipyards. Their request was for an increased pay, fair treatment, free trade union, and uncensored media. The strikers got a mass of support from the other citizens around the area and the church. On August 31st Mieczyslaw Jagielski and Lech Wałęsa signed the Gdańsk Agreement. This was a great breakthrough in the communist government and party. Solidarność became a nationwide organisation that revolutionised the communist involvement in industry. This was a big deal because the communist government did not tolerate loss of authority. Together the workers overthrew communism in Poland, and it all started on August 14th with the shipyard strike in Gdańsk.


"NSZZ Solidarność‡ History in Dates." NSZZ Solidarność History in Dates. Multimedia Productions. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <http://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/en/history-in-dates.html>.

The Solidarity movement has continued to make progress and provide more rights for the workers. They had managed to increase minimum wage up to 40% in 2006. The continue to set up campaigns in support of the workers in Poland and workers all across the world. They have trade union representatives from the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia; all countries that were formally under the Iron Fist. While they have taken a few steps away from directly being apart of the political scene, they are still have a great influence on it and often meet with parliamentary representatives.


"NSZZ Solidarność‡ Objectives." NSZZ Solidarność‡ Objectives. Multimedia Productions. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <http://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/en/objectives.html>.

The object of Solidarity continues to be the guarantee of workers rights as in all areas, fight unemployment, improve vocational qualifications, protect the interests of the workers and their families, maintain and mediate for a proper management, influence economic and social polices, promote democracy, foster patriotic attitude, help those with special needs and care, strengthen family life, cooperate and collaborate with other international organisations, protect culture and education, advocate for environmental protection, as well as represent the workers. Solidarity will achieve this by continuing to represent their members before their employers, the government and other institutions, monitoring the workplace, provide legal counselling, union training, and just being there for the workers and attend to their needs.



NSZZ Solidarność. Multimedia Productions. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <

www.solidarnosc.org.pl/en/history-in-dates.html>.

On July 1st 1980, the government introduced commercial prices on food and other everyday objects, provoking the workers to protest. August 14th 1980, the Gdańsk shipyard goes on strike, soon after inspiring other shipyards in the region and country to go on strike as well. Main demands were the reinstatement of Anna Walentynowicz and the erection of a monument for the fallen shipyard workers killed in the December revolt in 1970. On September 13th, the agreement for a free and independent trade union is ratified. Supreme courts and committees begin to adopt and acknowledge “Solidarność.” In December the monument for the Fallen Shipyard was erected outside the Gdańsk shipyard. 


Siegelbaum, Lewis. "1980: Solidarity in Poland." Seventeen Moments in Soviet History. Soviet History. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://soviethistory.org/index.php?page=subject&SubjectID=1980solidarity&Year=1980>.

The formation of the Polish trade union, Solidarity, in 1980, disturbed Soviet Authorities. It was considered a embarrassment for the Marxist-Leninists to be confronted by the workers with such widespread support. The start of Solidarity was the Lenin Shipyard, which was the same shipyard whose workers went on strike in 1970 over raised food prices. There were many other protests over raised food and commercial goods prices and unfair treatment between 1970 and 1980. On the 3rd of September 1980, the Politburo came up six “theses.” Solidarity was characterised as an “anti-socialist opposition” which caused for of a threat to the communist government. In December 1981, there was a declaration of martial law, where the Soviet leadership extended economic assistance.


"The Story of the Solidarity Movement." Solidarity Gdansk Poland. Gdansk Life. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://www.gdansk-life.com/poland/solidarity>.

Solidarity was established in September 1980 at the Gdańsk shipyards. It was an independent labour union that was the catalyst in the transformation from communism to democracy in Poland. In 1980, Poland was suffering from an economic crisis, which forced the rise in price of goods and curbing the growth of wages. The firing of Anna Walentynowicz, as well as the previous firing of Lech Wałęsa sparked the shipyard strike at the Lenin Shipyard. The strike started on the 14th of August. On the 16th, many other strike committees joined the strikes. By the 18th the Szczecin shipyard joined the strike, which began a wave of more strikes along the coast of Poland. Solidarity was the first independent labour union in the Soviet Bloc.



"1980: Shipyard Poles Strike for Their Rights." BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/14/newsid_2802000/2802553.stm>.

Shipyard workers in Gdańsk stage strike over the dismissal of Anna Walentynowicz. The strike was apart of the growing campaign to improve the economic situation for the workers and gain political freedom. Around 16,000 workers succeeded in getting Walentynowicz reinstated and a compromise for more accurate media coverage, and the right to form their own representative bodies instead of using official trade unions. In the 1970 riot, the workers succeeded in getting the Communist Party leader, Wladyslaw Gomulka out of office. They also got the authorities to allow the construction of the Monument for the fallen shipyard workers. The workers also got a 40% pay rise.

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John Brown's Revenge-Arlana Brown(NHD PROJECT)

​VIDEO:http://dl.dropbox.com/u/2236335/John%20Brown%20-%20Medium.flv

Arlana Brown

Senior Division

NHD 2012

 

Process Paper

 

 

Out of all the possible topics, I wanted to go for one that reflected my beliefs in the past. The National History Day theme this year was Revolution, Reaction, and Reform in History or the 3 R’s for short. I chose to focus on John Brown and his involvement in slavery. I discovered on my journey that John Brown was an abolitionist but did not just care about saving people he wanted to abolish slaves.

 

I started my research by searching the Internet for letters or just simple information on his background. What shocked me the most was that he stopped at nothing and he was white. He sacrificed his life to save others and I started to dig even more. For primary sources I searched through personal letters and pictures provided by archives from different magazines. The most interesting part I found out is he refused services before he died, he didn’t want anyone spreading the gospel to him he wanted to be punished for his beliefs in abolishing slavery.

 

This was my first National History Day project so I chose a documentary video. It allowed me to use my creative side in a formal presentation. In using the documentary video I chose to do more of an informative theme. I did a voice over and at the end I played a actual video clip of a movie showing John Brown going to his “death”. I put text in there occasionally and used actual historians. I chose the pictures in my video to show the reenactment of the trials and tribulations individuals’ back then went through. To edit my pictures I used Photoshop.

 

John Brown gave others the opportunity to finish a dream he had.  He didn’t know the outcome his ideas would have but he did try. He never felt he was wrong even through his trial. He saw it as a chance to improve America and their way of being. Even though he wasn’t successful he shifted America’s attitude toward slavery. Thus, slavery did not end but for years to come it became better. The debate over John Brown’s intention is a very mixed feeling. Some feel like he was wrong for pursing slavery and knew the outcome of his actions but others feel like he started something and brought light to a very complex topic. John Brown’s Revolution highlights many aspects individuals did not know about.



Annotated Bibliography:

•John Brown on Harpers Ferry. N.d. Painting. Turboverbal, Philadelphia.
Annotation: I think this is important because this is a painting or depiction of the fight between him and the generals. I think this is important because I can actually show what I mean and not just talk about it. We can see that John Brown is still standing with both sides are wounded.
Brown, John. "John Brown to his Brother Frederick. John Brown to his Brother Frederick. John Brown letter." West Virginia Division of Culture And History. (1834): n. page. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.
<http://www.wvculture.org/history/jbexhibit/oldsouthbrownletter.html>.
Annotation: I think this is important to my research because I can compare letters he sent to other people and his brother. It can be a comparison on his style and if he withhold information from certain people. I also like this source because this letter can be
"John Brown Papers held by the Jefferson County Circuit Clerk's Office ." Folder 1 . Jefferson County: Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.wvculture.org/history/johnbrown/jbjeffcc.html>.
Annotation:I think this is a good source because these papers are like his certificate and different legal documents. I can use this in my documentary video to show the comparison between now and then. And how the legal process is different from similar cases to John Brown. I can compare human and inhuman things they do.



Secondary Sources:
Douglas, Fredrick. "Frederick Douglass on John Brown’s Revolutionary Vision." Kasama 16 October 2009, n. pag. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://kasamaproject.org/2009/10/16/slave-leader-fred-on-john-brown/>.
Annotation: I think this is a great source because Fredrick Douglass is talking about what he thinks of the whole thing. I am using this because John Brown actually wanted Fredrick Douglass to go with him and fight but because of illness he reclined. I think this can be important to my research because I can get his opinion and if illness was the true reason he didn’t go.
Flounders, Sara. "Cuba, Haiti and John Brown – To Rebel Is Justified." [New York, NY] n.d., n. pag. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.iacenter.org/haiti/john-brown.htm>.
Annotation:I think this is a great source also because it is comparing some of the biggest revolutions in the world with John Brown. They are saying why is a street named after John Brown who created so much trouble. I can get very many opinions of John Brown and contrast and compare the effects of his actions. How he has changed America in an American eye.
Faust, Patricia. "John Brown." Civil War Home. n. page. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.civilwarhome.com/johnbrownbio.htm>.
Annotation: I think this is a good source because this basically a little biography of him. I am seeing a lot of different things about him. Some people facts about him differ so I can find out why and get a lot of information about him through this.

•Brown, John. "John Brown Speech." John Brown's Speech to the Court at his Trial. Charles Town, Virginia, Virginia . November 2, 1859. Speech.
I am using this information because this site goes and uses a passage of what John Brown actually said at his trial. It’s essential because of the major event that led to his death. I think this essential because it can help me and I can find some videos or a voice with him at his trial would be great. In my presentation I incorporate the voice so it sound more real.
Brown, John. "John Brown letters for the years 1833 thru 1859." Family Tales. Springfield, Massachusetts . 16th Jan., 1848.. Reading.
I am using this information because this is actual diaries from John Brown. This letter I will use because it concludes and leads up to his raid on Harper’s Ferry. This is essential because his thoughts are present in this diary.
•Brown, John. Personal Interview. 10.18.1859.
I am using this information because this is an interview at jail with John Brown and a senator. The senator ask him all these questions on how he feels. I think this is essential because this gets his feelings inside the jail. He always goes and says he doesn’t believe that he has been treated unfairly which is very well in this case. He’s at peace for the decisions.
Life and Letters of John Brown; Liberator of Kansas, and Martyr of Virginia, 1885, F. B. Sanborn.
I am using this information because this is another diary of John Brown. This time he decides to write to someone different who he just basically tells them how he is doing. Which I can use this at a different time to depict two different things.
• Virginia State of. John Brown. 1859. Photograph. Library of Virginia, Virginia.
I am using this information because this a photograph of John Brown in court. This is his actual court date and I think this is essential because I know how the court room looked and can focus on that surrounding and how it’s suppose to be incorporated.

Brown, John. "John Brown Speech." John Brown's Speech to the Court at his Trial. Charles Town, Virginia, Virginia . November 2, 1859. Speech.
-I am using this information because this site goes and uses a passage of what John Brown actually said at his trial. It’s essential because of the major event that led to his death. I think this essential because it can help me and I can find some videos or a voice with him at his trial would be great. In my presentation I incorporate the voice so it sound more real.
•Linder, Douglas. " The Trial of John Brown: A Commentary." 2005. Lecture.
-I am using this information because this is a commentary of everything that went on that day. This essential because it’s a historian who study this in depth and gave everything he knew about it. I can use this to find out thoughts of the jury and the judge.
Brown, John. "John Brown's Speech to the Court at his Trial." John Brown's Other Statements at his Trial. Virginia. 1859. Speech.
-I am using this information because the speech he uses has key points. I can point this out in the presentation because it shows the different views and how he feels his self. I think this is important because it also other quotes from him. “I feel entirely satisfied with the treatment I have received on my trial.” I think he played the devil advocate which is in good because it’s not so bias.
•"Virginia v. John Brown." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 5 Jan 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_v._John_Brown>.
-I am using this information because this is the trial that day. It goes in to depth of the state of Virgina vs. him and it gives information of really happened. I could incorporate this because I can factor in the tone of the court room if it was more so they were being mad at him for choosing to live that way..in way of trying to help others and wanting everyone to have equal rights.
•Brown, John. "The Trial of John Brown." The Trial of John Brown. NEW YORK. Charlestown, Virginia. 1859. Lecture.
-I am using this information because this is also another copy of the lecture. It also shows a depiction of a photo of John Brown at his execution being hanged. I need this information because the whole way his body structure is can play a big part of how I depict it in my presentation.

The Hanging ." PBS. Web. 5 Jan 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/brown/peopleevents/pande10.html>.
-I am using this information because this is in depth more of the execution. What they did to him? What time he was executed because I want to do a movie or perform it live it goes in to the costumes and the lighting of every scene.
•, and Victor Hugo. The Hanging of John Brown. 1860. Photograph. n.p.
-I am using this information because this is another picture of him being hanged from a different view. Another reason I need this is because of the body structure and his face. In this source I would merely focus on the people around him rather then focusing on him.

 

•Aftermath." Web. 5 Jan 2012. <http://www.vahistorical.org/johnbrown/aftermath.htm>.
-I am using this information to end my presentation. This is the aftermath of the execution which I will focus on every one's reactions. I will be the devil’s advocate and get one good review and one bad review. All to conclude the presentation.
•, and Horace Pippin. John Brown Going to His Hanging. 1942. Photograph. PAFA, Philadelphia.
-I am using this photograph to be the near ending part of the presentation. In this photograph John Brown is being carried to his hanging. I will depict it a little differently though but while going to his execution I can zoom in on people’s reaction. In the picture its just every standing around while about 4-5 guys carry him.
•John Brown Hanging. 1859. Painting. n.p.
-This is another depiction of John Brown Hanging a painting. This can be used because everyone has a different view on how he was hung and how it happened. But these pictures seem to be so real because they include very much detail. This picture can be used because the picture kind of zooms just on him. Something that is different. The background is very important to. I can figure out where he actually is.

 . "John Brown's Raid." U.S History. U.s History, n.d. Web. 6 Jan 2012. <http://www.ushistory.org/us/32c.asp>.

-I wanted to use this source because it goes in depth of how the raid happened. It also includes visual explanations. I want to use the first paragraph to explore in depth on the history on why he wanted to raid Harper’s Ferry and how many people were involved.
•, and First Last. John Brown Raid Photos. N.d. Photograph. West Virginia Archives and History, Virginia.
-I wanted to use this source because this is an picture of John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry in Virgina. I think this is essential because I can compare pictures of the Harper before he invaded it and the ruins(aftermath) of the effects.
"John Brown's Raid, 1859" EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com
-I wanted to use this source because this is also an eye witness account of what happened. This includes quotes from John Brown from that day. I think it will be essential because in my presentation while presenting I can make these points very big and important.
•John Brown." Harpers Ferry. Web. 6 Jan 2012. <http://www.nps.gov/hafe/historyculture/john-brown.htm>.
-I wanted to use this source because it gives a little more information of the situation. I use this because it goes in to what he was charged with him due to the crimes he committed. I think this is essential because I need to use something and the presentation would be way better if I knew on how to incorporate his crimes and how it would flow together.
•"Raiders." Harpers Ferry. Web. 6 Jan 2012. <https://docs.google.com/a/scienceleadership.org/viewer?url=http://www.nps.gov/hafe/historyculture/upload/Raiders03-2.pdf>.
-I wanted to use this source because this is the perfect thing to incorporate on who also was involved in the raid with John Brown. Without them he wouldn’t even be able to get  that far with the crime. I think it’s essential because I can find some documents and see if they were convicted of any crimes with John Brown.

 

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Process Paper Kimberly Parker Jordam Mc & Becca Fenton

All of the members of the group practice the religion Christianity. None of us really knew how our religion became so popular. As soon as this project was given to the group, within the first five minutes of thinking about what we wanted to do our research on, we came up with the idea of the uprising of Christianity. We thought that the best time period to study for this particular topic would be the Crusades. We started our research right away. We explored many different websites and went to the library and took out books to read about Constantine and the Crusades. We decided who’s going to to do what specific event and we got to work! We gathered up all of our information and put it together. We found that our information flowed together so well that we thought it would look best displayed on a website. So we made a website and then later modified it to be a bit better. 

Our project relates to NHD theme because we took a very interested time period and explored it. We became reporters from over a thousand years ago and spread the good news of the uprising of Christianity. We got to witness first hand Constantine declaring that he is converting into a new religion. We got to explore this time period knowing what we know already, knowing that the dates we visited are dates where events happened that changed our world forever.

http://54959405.nhd.weebly.com/

Here is our website w/ everything included. Our sources are under "More".


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National History Day: The Last Veracity


    To summarize the importance and meaning behind the project in essence would be insufficient (considering the detail and history). This summary is only a small portion of the intensity and analysis behind the simplicity of these maters makes the entirety of it most important. The Civil Rights Movement heavily influenced the sound of poetry as poetry expanded into modern day culture. Hence, expanding into new genres that reflected not only things related to the movement, but a reflection of world issues and surrounding environments. When everything is placed into perspective, a chain reaction of opportunity, luck, and dedication created the expansion of mainstream media, as well as diversified the culture of America. Though at first hand this may not seem clear, you must first step from outside of the frame in order to see the picture.
   
The Last Veracity

(Side Note: There are two pages to the website, make sure to click the side tabs.)
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"Singing Is My Forte"

  • While interviewing Jessica Kyle, for her crossing boundaries meant being successful in the music industry at her age. That success means being able to constantly perform her own music instead of others. Jessy’s interview taught me how difficult it can be to chase a dream. Her interview also taught me to continue to achieve greatness if it’s an option. I discovered more about my cousin that I didn’t know. I knew the basic story of her success, but with her retelling her story, I discovered steps I would’ve needed to take to be just as successful. With Jessy not going to college- when most felt like she should’ve- and not going, she viewed that as crossing a boundary. Despite getting a college degree, she’s still successful by performing and composing. 
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Drive Review - Emma Hersh

It is clear that Drive will be one of the best movies ever by just watching the first 10 minutes of the film. Immediately the audience is greated by a dark Los Angeles skyline as the camera soars over the city, a shot that frequently appears, and by a man in a scorpion jacket. As more about his character is revealed it becomes clearer that the scorpion represents how he will never really let anyone through his hard shell and is always defensive and protective of his true identity. He also never carries a gun on him and only uses what is readily available to him (much like a scorpion because they only use their tail sting). He turned out to be a very compelling and intense character to follow and watch as he moved with such swagger and hardly talked, as he met the girl (Irene) he became even more interesting because there was now a romance to be invested in. One of the cutest scenes was where her son came in with a mask on, Driver just said very flatly, "Scary. Want a toothpick?" This opened him up in a new way and as a result made him more involved in that family which lead to different choices that character happened to make. 

It may be because I have a soft spot for romances, but the best story happening was the one with Irene and Driver because she caused him to move out of his comfort zone in a few ways, but also gave him someone to protect. That said, the most important relationship in the movie was that between Driver and the little kid because all of a sudden everything that Driver was doing was for the safety of the kid. A scene where there was obviously a lot of character growth was where Driver and the kid where sitting on the couch together right after the incident with Standard in the parking garage. The kid was traumatized about what he had seen and was also given a small gold bullet, at that moment Driver knew that the kid's safety was one of the most important things to him because it would protect the family. It was where Drive really shifted gears to more of a gangster movie than a love story because Driver had a new purpose and decided to interject into the family's issues and help Standard out. 

This scene also brought a new theme to the table: the lengths someone would go to to protect what they love. This was incredibly apparent in the elevator scene (without a doubt the best scene in the entire film) where Driver knew what he had to do to protect Irene and the kid. He first went in for what seemed like a two-minute-long good-bye kiss with holy music playing in the background followed by a brutal head smashing of the bad guy with a piece. It was completely nuts, and after that, Irene definitely didn't talk to him anymore, so their entire relationship was down the drain, yet there was a full sense of closure. After that, Driver was probably a bit freer to do all of his work because he could still use his passion for completing the deed of finding where the money went to, but I honestly was a little confused about the mafia the whole time and didn't really understand the whole role they played because it seemed like all they really wanted was for Standard to bring them their million bucks and to kill some people. That was definitely they only aspect of the movie that I was entirely detached from. 

The kill scenes were all super epic because each time Driver had to kill someone we saw him from an extremely low angle which made him look so empowered over these people who would usually have the power over him. For example in the elevator scene, in the scene with the hammer in the strip club and where he kills the final gangster who stabs him. He also managed to stay somewhat anonymous in his work by never giving away his real name which meant that people looking for him could only find him through where he worked or where he lived, which he also kept very private. Every shot he was in was planned so that something new was revealed about his character even though he hardly talked, there was something that brought to life in his actions and the few words he did say. Another aspect of the film that brought his character to life was the bizarrely fitting 80's female vocal pop songs as a soundtrack to his actions. The words were so reflective of what he was doing, thinking and saying that it was almost difficult to consentrate on what he was really doing at times. It was definitely not the soundtrack I would have picked for the film, yet it seemed to work so beautifully as a contrast that it didn't really matter that it didn't fit the crazy murderous theme that was so prevalent. 

I have not stopped talking about this film since we first started watching it and I don't think I'll be able to stop for a while either. Everything about this film was just about perfect, from the soundtrack and the score, to the romance and his personal relationships, from the intense kill scenes to the car chases. The title Drive acts not only as a motif where Driver is actually driving, but also as a theme of what drives certain people to do certain things. 

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National History Day: Stonewall Riots

By Maximilien Marton and Sam Lovett-Perkins

For the third quarter, groups had to create a project for national history day. Maximilien and I made a documentary about the Stonewall Riots. Our process paper and bibliography can be accessed here. Below is our documentary  Stonewall Riot: Achieving Equality One Sequin at a Time where one can simply click to watch the final product.
Stonewall Riots
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NHD PROJECT: Q3 (Paige and Kimberly) water stream

FAST FOOD

        Originally, our topic was going to be fashioned around the idea of kids and fast food, and how it’s damaging their health, but we came into recognition that the NHD theme has to be in correlation to a revolution, reaction, and reform, in which I felt as though wouldn’t fit into the NHD theme criteria. So we decided to analyze another topic, one that would stay within that similar boundary of kids, and fast food. As a result, we decided to focus my topic more on fast food and how it revolutionized and reformed society today, and the peoples reaction towards such a huge industry.


Link to process Paper:  

https://docs.google.com/a/scienceleadership.org/document/d/1mzvxyCFyiIJYraeQpbEESWHWi1fUVUWAUkonzAhR-_8/edit
MCDONALDS 2
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Drive

Drive is a movie i've never heard of until it was brought up in my Digital Video Class. When I saw the trailer I thought to myself, "Oh it's gonna be like fast and the furious mixed with the god father." that was my initial assumption based on the trailer for the movie; which is why most of you I assume came to read this article. The movie is spectacular in almost every aspect. The film included things I feel could relate to all of the viewers, it was a very fast paced movie that kept me at the edge of my seat.

Within the movie Goslings' character, tended to keep to himself. As the movie progresses he begins to develop emotions for a woman, who is currently married due to her husband being in Jail. Despite that she continues to develop the relationship between he and Golsing they're relationship is what drives the film forward without Irene the movie would be completely different. The director of this movie has a very unique way in making the relationship between characters stand out; whenever two characters within the movie in general the author takes into account the type of views each character has of each other he uses, angles, lighting, and the music to his advantage.   

As I watched the movie the Style of the movie gave you could say turned me on towards the movie. It was very retro style but it used it in all of the right ways no part of the movie was bad or unoriginal. Without a doubt as you watch may things will get you hooked but to me the thing that will have the largest effect on you is the musical note pad for each individual person. 

When it comes to the movie aside from being very retro its very dark. The colors always kept to a certain type of font along with a general lighting that was very well done. Like in the scene where the drivers boss arm gets slit. At that very moment it seems as if time slows down to the point where he could stop it but the lighting and the music end up making it unreturn able.

Overall Drive is a good move; one man, one car, one girl, and one life. This movie also consist of a very good back story to all the characters and is unraveled to the viewer as the movie progresses which allows it to make more sense.

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Nathan Kamal Drive Review

Drive, a 2011 film directed by Nicholas Refn starring Ryan Gosling, follows a Los Angeles stuntman who moonlights as a getaway driver for criminals. The film is a traditional heist-gone-wrong thriller, paying homage to numerous action films of the late 20th century.

Gosling's character, who remains unnamed for the duration of the entire movie, falls for Irene, a single mother, and when her ex boyfriend, Standard (whose thematically symbolic name is obviously not a coincidence) is forced to rob a pawn shop, the driver offers to help. The relationship between Driver and Irene was probably the most poignant in the film. The actors had very little dialogue onscreen, but still managed to establish a high level of complexity with just their body language.

Gosling keeps his hands in his pockets for a noticeably large chunk of his screen time, and maintains a constant nondescript, passive expression. I think that his control is what makes his character so fascinating. He manages to give his character a level of softness for the entire first half of the film. This creates a great deal of tension for the viewer, who knows what a dangerous man he really is. This tension is finally broken with his line "I'll kick your fuckin teeth down your throat" delivered to a former colleague at a diner. It is this line, in my opinion, that starts the second act of the film.

Refn spends a great deal of effort referencing other bodies of work. The central chase sequence, after the robbery occurs, is highly derivative of what is seen in Bullit in 1968: low angles of muscle cars, no music, and roaring engines. He also is heavily influenced by the work of Martin Scorsese, having dedicated the film to Taxi Driver. In fact, the film ends in a similar way: in trying to help a woman who he has had little contact with, he faces a near death experience, brutally killing everyone in his path. Like Taxi Driver, the climactic scene ends with him critically wounded, but still victorious, and, like Taxi Driver, there is ambiguity regarding whether he survives, or whether he dies and the final scenes are merely a dying vision of sorts.

Driver's transition from a cold, disconnected, businessman into a mythical superhero plays a very apparent role in the film. For instance, when he kills Nino, a Jewish gangster who originally blackmailed Standard, he wears his stunt-double mask. While he obviously doesn't need to hide his identity in order to kill him, there is still something inside of him that is ashamed. Perhaps this "hero" identity is not something that Driver is particularly fond of, having spent his entire criminal career emotionally detached from his crimes, and therefore the mask represents his discomfort around moral responsibility.

The soundtrack of the film, composed by Cliff Martinez, is heavily influenced by 80s pop music. The lyrics contain themes of heroism and redemption, emphasizing Driver's moral transformation throughout the film while at the same time trivializing it.

There is, however, a part of me that feels squeamish about such a heavy amount of homage. It seemed almost as if this film wasn't Refn, but more a "greatest hits" playlist of his predecessors. And while it can certainly be argued that all art is derivative, and therefore unoriginal, Dive does it in an incredibly self-conscious way. I see Drive less as a stand-alone film, and more as a comment of filmmakers of the past. I may need multiple viewings to decide how I feel about such a high amount of throwback.

But what makes Drive truly shine, is the film's iceberg approach to storytelling. By only explicitly revealing 10% of the film's identity to the viewer, the other 90% is up to us to decide. Refn is truly a master of minimalism, telling us a lot by only showing a little. Everyone has a something inside of them that drives them to do even the most radical things, and that internal drive is what makes this film so relatable, so heartbreaking, and so damn fun.
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NHD BM Candace Blocker & Jakobi Howard

Candace Blocker and Jakobi Howard
Topic: Women In The Navy

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eBX8sbDMeaE&feature=youtu.be

We chose this topic because we wanted to know how women got involved in the arm forces and what they had to go through to become involved. We conducted out research by going on google and asking people we knew that were apart of the movement and organizations that were taking place. We knew we wanted to do a video because it would be the best way to get our information across and clear with the topic we had. This project related to the NHD theme because we had to focus on the revolution that the women started when they wanted to join the navy, the reaction of America as a whole, and the reform of American when they finally decided to let the women join the arm forces.


1) . Women in the Navy. Navy Recruiting Command, 2011. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://www.navy.com/inside/winr.html>.

This was one of the best ones because it got straight to the point about everything that had to do with women and them being in the Navy.

2) . "Women in the navy." Naval History & Heritage command. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://www.history.navy.mil/special highlights/women/women-index.htm>.  ("Naval History & Heritage command")

This is another website that links off to other websites that have to do with our topic which was extremely helpful.

3) Wilson, B.. "Military Women "Firsts"." Military women "firsts". AUG LINK Communications, 1996. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://userpages.aug.com/captbarb/firsts.html>.

This website shows the history and "firsts" of women in the navy

4) . "Highlights in the History of Military Women." Womens memorial. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://www.womensmemorial.org/Education/timeline.html>.

This website shows highlights and important moments from women in the military and navy.

5) . N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://www.intrepidmuseum.org/CuratorsCorner/March-2009-(1)/Women-in-the-U-S--Navy.asp&xgt;.

6) NavyGirl, Women in the navy. N.p., 2002. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://www.navygirl.org/navywomen/navy_women_history_page.htm>.

7) http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&biw=1288&bih=683&authuser=0&tbm=isch&tbnid=Rm5wI14VYU0IFM:&imgrefurl=http://www.oldmagazinearticles.com/WW2_Navy_Women&docid=RPQhTWp5ElscmM&imgurl=http://www.oldmagazinearticles.com/pdf/Navy_Women_WW2_0001.jpg&w=880&h=1463&ei=xr1XT6W6EuHe0QG91vmYDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=400&vpy=112&dur=721&hovh=290&hovw=174&tx=136&ty=106&sig=107693261640696927569&page=1&tbnh=156&tbnw=94&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0

8) , . "Early Women Soldiers." Women in the US Army. U.S. Army, 1996. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://www.army.mil/women/history.html>.

9)  America's Navy, . "Ferquently Asked Questions." America. United States Navy, n.d. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://www.navy.com/faq.html>.

Requirements for joining the Navy.

10) . "Women in the Navy." A HALF CENTURY CHRONOLOGY. WGBH, n.d. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/navy/plus/cron.html>.

11) . N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://www.federalnewsradio.com/?nid=412&sid=2774527>.

12) . "Yahoo Search." Treatment Of Women. N.p., 2012. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20120228065729AAb53Qn>.

13) Gerd W. Rodel, . "A VALIDITY STUDY OF WOMEN IN THE NAVY." . N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://www.ijoa.org/imta96/paper57.html>.

14) . All navy women. N.p., 2009. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://www.anwna.com/>.

15) . "Women In The Navy." . N.p., 2008. Web. 7 Mar 2012. <http://www.whidbeynewstimes.com/news/22068474.html>.

16) http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&authuser=0&biw=1288&bih=683&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=BaNQ9LnDfs-TWM:&imgrefurl=http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/product-reviews/research-institute/new-rules-on-submarine-service&docid=8fVdAQWc5hlOcM&imgurl=http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/cm/goodhousekeeping/images/VintageNavyWoman.JPG&w=396&h=500&ei=9shXT8KJFMbZ0QH_s4DiDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=381&vpy=312&dur=1235&hovh=252&hovw=200&tx=107&ty=159&sig=107693261640696927569&page=1&tbnh=142&tbnw=113&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:0

17)  http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&authuser=0&biw=1288&bih=683&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=grqWjh_UrK-mTM:&imgrefurl=http://www.usmilitary.com/16703/steps-for-women-interested-in-joining-the-navy/&docid=m-ipHFPw19C31M&imgurl=http://www.usmilitary.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Women-join-Navy-3.31.11.jpg&w=400&h=300&ei=9shXT8KJFMbZ0QH_s4DiDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=599&vpy=188&dur=480&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=133&ty=95&sig=107693261640696927569&page=1&tbnh=140&tbnw=182&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0

18) http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&authuser=0&biw=1288&bih=683&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=BuoFnOiTSzyh2M:&imgrefurl=http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/prs-tpic/females/wave-ww2.htm&docid=S_WnTSQmcH654M&imgurl=http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/k14000/k14518.jpg&w=590&h=765&ei=9shXT8KJFMbZ0QH_s4DiDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=469&vpy=157&dur=206&hovh=256&hovw=197&tx=117&ty=141&sig=107693261640696927569&page=1&tbnh=140&tbnw=116&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0

19) http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&authuser=0&biw=1288&bih=683&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=4aRHedpc7ueTZM:&imgrefurl=http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/prs-tpic/females/wwii-1969.htm&docid=t0kxpP3x6ZCTjM&imgurl=http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/i06000/i06771.jpg&w=740&h=605&ei=9shXT8KJFMbZ0QH_s4DiDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=187&vpy=307&dur=497&hovh=203&hovw=248&tx=121&ty=144&sig=107693261640696927569&page=4&tbnh=146&tbnw=182&start=72&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:72

20) http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&authuser=0&biw=1288&bih=683&tbm=isch&tbnid=nRoE1SZuZn_Y3M:&imgrefurl=http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/prs-tpic/females/wave-ww2.htm&docid=S_WnTSQmcH654M&imgurl=http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/k04000/k04563.jpg&w=585&h=765&ei=aclXT5TYKej20gHf4InbDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=403&vpy=133&dur=541&hovh=257&hovw=196&tx=107&ty=122&sig=107693261640696927569&page=1&tbnh=164&tbnw=128&start=0&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0


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Film Review: "Drive"

"Drive" opens up with a similar view from the movie "Transporter" with a robbery and a get away car. With Ryan Gosling as the driver and techno music playing to set the scene of the "get away." Ryan Gosling's character shows no emotion in his face from the scene where he is waiting for the robbers to come out of the building no sign of impatience or anything just an emotionless character. I personally dislike his character because of how emotionless he was. I would prefer his character to be a bit more outrageous and unexpected because of the fact that he is a professional driver in films and out on the streets of Los Angeles. His character is very traditional because in the films such as "Transporter 1 2 & 3" Jason Stathman's character is emotionless just as seen in the film "Drive." I personally think the reason for this is to try to make the character as ordinary as possible. In the first several scenes of the movie there are many close-up, reflection shots. One of them being in the very beginning when Ryan Gosling is speaking on the phone with someone and hoe he was looking out the window, with the camera at a angle showing his reflection. Also another scene in the beginning where Ryan Gosling is driving in his car through Los Angeles and having the camera on the inside showing his reflection through the mirror. There are many of these shots throughout the film I believe that the director chose to do many of these reflection shots to prove and make the scene and create the character that was being shown.

The sound in this film is very natural I would say because the movie is very quiet. Most of the scenes  lacked in dialogue not exactly creating much. I disliked the lack of dialogue throughout the film but the music in the background created so much. Tense building up in the viewer, the scene in the elevator where Ryan pushes Irene to the side and the song "A Real Hero" starts to play sung by College Featuring Electric Youth. The lyrics of the song creates the scene and I believe expresses what Ryan is bound to do at that very moment getting ready to save the one he has a great interest in. Irene automatically speeds out of the elevator right after her intense, spotlight scene kiss with Ryan. As soon as she notices the dramatic fight that goes on in front of her eyes and the close-up with Ryan stomping on a mans face she speeds out in shock. The lighting of this one scene is a spotlight because it only focuses on the two characters at the moment and just when the lighting expands and allows the next character comes in, you can feel the presence of something bound to happen. I don't believe this scene was as realistic as it could have been. The way Ryan's foot drove down onto the mans face I felt not connection or relationship to realism. I felt as though the characters could have grunted a bit more and actually had an angle on the mans face as Ryan was stomping down.

The props in the film I believe created the characters and made them look more scary and intimidating. The way Ryan gripped his hands around a bat while wearing leather gloves in the scene where he was speaking on the phone with Albert Brooks who is one of the most powerful men in the movie. This scene created how intimidating the characters are meant be. The style of the characters and costumes they wore from Ryan being casual and ordinary to the big bad "Gangsters" of the film wearing professional clothing such as suits creating how powerful they can be or how to present themselves to the public. The environment in, which each of the characters are set in is very private yet very open. I wish why the director chose these setting for each Ryan and Albert individually. The way the director chose to create the film is very traditional. A typical person acting on an ordinary lifestyle but finds a great interest in one but ends up getting into trouble and having to face the consequences by having the one they care about get threatened in some way.

Ryan Gosling's character takes great interest in his neighbor and as he gets to know her a dramatic twist occurs her husband is returning home from prison. Throughout the movie the husband gets into some kind of trouble involving money and Ryan steps in to save the day but a big problem occurs and later on the husband is murdered and now Ryan is ready to step up to plate in order to protect Irene and her son no matter what the consequences and what dangers step in his way. He is ready to end this. This all ends when Ryan tells his friend to leave and never return in order to escape everything going on. His friend is then murdered in garage where Ryan works as a mechanic. Ryan goes after the men after he realizes his friend was just murdered and gets his revenge. He makes one last phone call to Irene and she answers but never speaks and Ryan feels like its to late that she will never forgive him so he hangs up and kills the "gangsters." He then drives off in the end and a back and forth shot between Irene and Ryan comes up where Irene is walking towards Ryan's apartment realizing that she will forgive him while he is driving off.

The main scenes that grabbed my attention throughout the film was the elevator scene when Ryan had stomped the guys face continuously. I felt this scene is important because it showed a sign of protecting and wanting between who he really was and what he was willing to do in oder to protect those he cared about. Another scene was when Ryan had first met Irene's husband he came off as intimidating. I felt this was important because a the saying goes "looks can be deceiving." I believe this is what his character did. When Ryan saw his close friend murdered in the garage emotion finally appeared in his eyes and the yearning for revenge came along. When Irene's car broke down at the grocery store this I feel is important because this is when their entire bond connected. In the end I don't think it was about him developing a relationship with the another human being but the fact of him continuing his relationship with driving. It all connected in the end with him driving off. I would say this all developed because of both of his careers his one career of driving for movies and another for illegal acts.

The most compelling scene of the movie as well connected to the storyline was the relationship between Ryan and his skill of driving. Not exactly his relationship with Irene because it was obvious thats where the story was heading. The storyline I felt was more compelling with his relationship. I felt as though it wasn't obvious that he was going to drive to off. It left the audience guessing and left everyone wondering if Ryan would randomly pop up behind Irene after she knocked on his apartment after no response. But no, nothing I felt this was the mystery and the continuing of his life and wondering if he would continue the same path except in another city/town. "Human Curiosity" is what filled the air at the end of the film.
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Matthew, Allen, Nick NHD Q3

Earths Angel's of Hostility

Our documentary consists of three different parts. Nick was responsible for his Industrial Revolution, Ginnetti was responsible for the Space Race and Allen for his Aerial Warfare Revolution (Airplane: Revolution in Warfare). We linked up all three topics together and created a time-line like video process. Using many videos taken from online and amassing lots of information from various sites to prove and also create an intense documentary. The entire documentary was created using iMovie, with the addition of voice overs to display our knowledge.

To view our process paper to our sources click here.

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