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I conducted my research in many different ways. At first, I typed “Invasion of Kuwait” into google and got some sites but not many. Then I used DEVONagent, a research database browser, and did more in-depth research on the Invasion of Kuwait, the Allied forces taking back Kuwait and the sanctions that the UN put on Iraq. To get the modern day information, I talked to my brother who recently went to Afghanistan and knows about the conditions over there and in Iraq and used some emails we shared while he was over there.
To select my project format for NHD I chose what category I’m best with which is site creation. I normally make sites for my projects so I decided to do another one.
My project related to the NHD theme of Revolution, Reaction and Reform because the Invasion of Kuwait was the reaction to many actions that occurred between Kuwait and Iraq that made Saddam Hussein invade Kuwait. The Take back of Kuwait by the UN forces was the Revolution because the Kuwaitis revolted against Saddam along with 31 other countries to end the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. Finally, the Reform is the sanctions placed on Iraq after they were kicked out of Kuwait because to prevent the Iraqis from occupying another country, the UN placed economic sanctions that prevented Iraq from importing anything but essential needed to maintain life in Iraq into Iraq.
I picked this time for my project because first of all, I’m Filipino. Second, I live here in America and the history that is taught in class is not Philippine history. Third, people can learn about the Philippines, the country where I came from. Fourth, this is a nice way to learn about my country’s history! When Mr. Herman told us that we could pick any time and place, the first thing that popped into my head was, Philippines. I was so excited that I even pulled my friend, Longnu Nhan, to be my partner and work together. She also was interested on the Philippine history hence the reason why we just started to work together.
The first thing that we did before picking a certain time was we searched what would be an event where there’s a huge impact and reaction in the Philippines. There’s a part with Ferdinand Magellan but we thought that was overrated so we picked the sort of recent time where there was a revolution. That is when we found the time where martial law was first declared. The good thing about it is that my parents and grandmother was around during that time.
When Lulu and I already know what we need to work on, we started to research. Lulu looks for secondary resources and I look for primary resources. I already have a lot of primary resources because I have my mom, dad, aunt, and grandmother to interview about the martial law and Ferdinand Marcos’ regime. Then when Lulu and I finally have all of the information that we needed. We started to pick important dates and events and make our own version of martial law time line. We also added some pictures to have some visual picture on what martial law in the Philippines looks like.
The design of our tri-fold board was a little simple; all we did was paint the Philippine flag. While doing so, we found out what was the meaning behind the colors and symbols in the flag. The three starts represents the three major geographical regions of the Philippines, which was Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The sun represents the independence and the eight rays of the run represents the eight provinces that led the Philippine uprising against the Spanish rule. The top color of the flag, which is blue, represents peace, patriotism, and justice. The bottom color of the flag, which is red, represents the valor and the blood that was split for freedom and independence. The triangle in the flag represents equality and the Katipunan nationalist organization. While the color white of the flag represents peace and purity.General Orders
General Order No. 6 – No person shall keep, possess or carry outside of his residence any firearm unless such person is duly authorized to keep, possess or carry any such Philippines except to those who are being sent abroad in the service of the Philippines.
December 30, 1965
Ferdinand E. Marcos became a president.
September 21, 1972
The alleged bombing attack in Enrile’s car.
September 21 1972
President Ferdinand Edralin Marcos, President of the Republic of the Philippines signed Proclamation No. 1081, placing the entire country under his firm grasp.
September 22, 1972
Proclamation No. 1081 was enforced.
A new constitution gives Marcos absolute powers.
Opposition leader Benigno Aquino is sentenced to death. Marcos delays the execution.
April 7, 1978
First formal election since 1969 for the regional representatives to the Interim Batasang Pambansa (the nation;s first parliament).
June 12, 1978
Ferdinand E. Marcos becomes the Prime Minister of the Philippines
Aquino allowed to travel to the US for medical treatment.
June 16, 1981
Marcos won his third term to be a president.
June 30, 1981
Marcos was re-elected as a president.
Marcos lifts Martial Law.
August 21, 1983
Benigno Aquino Jr. is assassinated when he leaves his plane.
February 22–25, 1986
EDSA Revolution (the fall of Marcos regime)
February 25, 1986
Corazon Aguino becomes president, ending martial law.
September 28, 1990
Military officials are convicted of the murder of Benigno Aquino.
Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) ends the guerrilla war with the government.
June 30, 1998
Joseph Estrada elected president.
Impeachment proceedings start against Estrada on allegations of corruption, betrayal of public trust, and violation of the constitution.
Impeachment trial is suspended on the 16th. There are mass street protests. The military withdraws its support. Estrada stands down on the 20th, proclaiming his innocence. His vice-president, Gloria Arroyo, is sworn in as president.
The MILF declares a ceasefire and says it is ready to hold talks with the government.
December 12, 2004
Presidential election takes place. Arroyo's closest rival (a dear friend of Ex-President Estrada) is film actor Fernando Poe, Jr. Arroyo narrowly defeats Poe, taking 39.5% of the vote to Poe's 36.6%.
Former President Joseph Estrada is convicted of plunder, the first ever in the history of the Philippines.
December 4, 2009
Proclamation No. 1959, President Macapagal-Arroyo has officially placed Maguindanao province under a state of martial law.
June 30, 2010
Benigno "Noynoy" Aquino, son of Cory and Ninoy Aquino, becomes president.
|PROCESS PAPER||ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY|
I will interview my parents because they were young when former president Ferdinand Marcos signed the petition for Philippines to be placed under Martial Law. It will help me put more depth to my project because I will have someone who I can interview that experienced what was going on throughout the time. It is nice to get an opinion of a parent, since my grandmother already have my aunts and uncles’ back then when Martial Law was passed. It would be great to know what she felt about her kids and their surroundings. How it was different before and after the Martial Law.
The gif document is basically a set of photos but it shows the different ways the people protested. It’s like a growing picture when each photo have a lot of people in it with their arms linked together or have huge banners with red tinted inks with slogans written allover it. Instead oh having a whole bunch of picture, I can use the gif to at least minimize the picture usage. It’s old picture too so its kind of hard to see but even then, you can still see the people around. This will help me with my project because it’s showing different rallies that was going during Martial Law.
I will interview my parents because they also have experience things about the Martial Law. Even though they were little back then and do not really know what was going on, their opinion still matters because different people have different views and perspective about the issue. It’s nice to know how their opinions developed once they started to figure out what was happening and how they reacted to the things that are going on around them. For short, its like seeing things from their perspective (in a kid vision) and how it changed when they grew older and learned things in school that they didn’t understand before.
EDSA People Power at 25th Anniversary
This resource was from a person who had some sort of experience with the revolution. For the past 25 years, Philippines became the big man. What do I mean by that? Well, they were able to break their silence and fight for their rights. They were able to create businesses without having to worry about the government taking it away form them. And most importantly, they were able to express their opinions. This source talks about how they Philippines improved since the day of their revolution. Not only did it affect their own country, but it also affected other countries. For example, Russia went from being a communism government to a democratic government. All in all, 25 years ago, the Philippines gave hope for themselves and others.
Milestones after EDSA 1
This resource gave me a list of things that shaped the Philippines today. Within 25 year, a lot of different and important events happened. In 1987, congress reopen and it allowed the Filipinos to vote for a leader who can represent them and be the leader of their government. As time goes by, the American Military bases were in the Philippines but that didn't last that long because there was an eruption of Mount Pinatubo, which cause it to end in 1947. Technology was a huge help for the Philippines because without that, they wouldn't be able to update the world with what was going on in their country. This source taught me how all the events that happened in the last 25 years can still have an impact on others today.
The Philippines After:
This was one of the best resources that I had. I think someone did this as his or her project. I was mainly on this source because it legit had every single details of this revolution and it was so easy to understand. It had videos, a timeline, pictures, and many more. I’m more of a visual person so I was able to understand it more clearer.It mentioned about another revolution that happened on January 20, 2001. It seems like the Philippines is the master of having a revolution without any violence. A few months later, Gloria Macapagal Arroya became president and she was prepared for it. She then fought against the Arroyo administration because they wanted her to step down but she didn't want to. She continue to fight them until August 1, 2009, which then led to her death.
Choosing a topic is a very important part of any one project. I however, already had an idea of a research in mind, before I even learned about NHD. One of my old history teachers from Russia (that I still am in contact) was making fun of me, because I did not know the basics of my own country’s history. At that point in time, I had decided to pick an event, and find out about it, as much as I can. I picked up a book that was written by Leo Trotski about 1917 democratic and communist revolutions. Little did I knew, that on the next day, my history teacher was going to tell us about the NHD.
My research started from the book that was mentioned above. I wanted to educate myself about that time period, and so within that week, I almost finished the first half of that book. After my teacher told me about this project, I decided to stop at the point that I had gotten to, and look for specifics about events online. I was searching throughout the internet for websites and diaries that could explain me, what drove people to come out to the streets, forsake their very lives, and fight for what they believed was equality. People like that deserve to be praised, and not squished into one event by a powerful compressor which is history.
The category selection was the hardest thing to choose for me. I was unsure of what my biggest strength is, but in the end I choose a website, because in it, I had the opportunity to express my opinion on paper, and also support it with as many claims as are needed. While a research paper would have a similar concept, I felt a lot more comfortable with actually having an opportunity to have a website that is a bit more interactive than a paper can possibly be.
When I was doing a project, I had a very important choice to make. I could have choose one particular revolution, and while concentrating on that, I would be able to explain everything in a lot more details, however I felt that it would not be as strong of a project. I decided to combine 3 revolutions, and I am claiming that the true change in them was not as simple as the cosmetic change from one government to the other. I decided to attempt to show that the way people behaved changed, and while their reasons were the same, and all of the reforms were simply cosmetic, throughout those 3 events, the true reform occurred inside of everybody who was inspired to go out, and sacrifice his own life for what he believed.
I started this project unknowing to the amount of interest I would find myself having, and the amount of desire I craved for information. As my research broadened I began to discover facts that went beyond basketball. Characteristics of humanity, that shocked and appalled me. The basketball fan in me enjoyed seeing the past and how our future has evolved so much. It is extremely interesting to compare someone like Earl Lloyd to a modern day player such as Kobe Bryant. The contrast is evident but considering the amount of time that has passed since these two first put on their jerseys it is understandable. What is really interesting are the similarities. Players like Kobe and Jordan dominated their era, era’s with constant media coverage. Earl dominated his era but with much less publicity so he gets much less credit then he deserves. Moving past basketball I saw the effects of social movements and integration happen around Earls career. He directly affect the way people perceived African Americans in a very tense time. His demeanor and professionalism on and off the court are beyond admirable and his play speaks for itself. After reflecting on this project I have found how interested I am in the past of basketball. The great players who didn’t get a chance to have their name imprinted in every media clip of the decade. Without Earl Lloyd basketball could have had its first African American player be a sham and ruin the credibility of all African Americans simply based off the enormous stereotyping pressure that was put on whoever first integrated the NBA. The world changed because of him and we still feel the impacts today. How many kids were inspired by the famous dunks of Michael Jordan? or the Showtime glamour of Magic Johnson and his Lakers? Athletes are treated as role models and idols in today’s society and the integration of the NBA was a crucial turning point in the public’s ongoing battle against segregation. Earl Lloyd exemplified courage on this day and should be recognized as not only a great player but also a great icon of humanity and equality. As I complete this project I will remember everything I learned not only about Earl Lloyd but about what interesting facts can be revealed just by starting to look in the right places at the right times.
Music is an omnipresent influence in human history as well as one of the most important parts of my life. From the beginning of this assignment, I knew that I wanted to do something related to music history. I was inspired for this topic by an article I read online about the Arab Spring and the revolutions in Libya. The idea that hip hop, which has become such an enormous part of the entertainment industry in America, could play an integral part in a revolution overseas. Instead of existing simply as a flashy, lucrative business, hip-hop was being used as a tool to allow oppressed people to speak out against their government. I had done a small amount of research on the history of hip hop in the Bronx for my English class a few weeks earlier, and I noticed that the two revolutions began in a very similar manner.
To gather information about my topic, I used online search engines. The sources that I looked for were interviews with hip hop artists and other figureheads from important time periods, timelines that included specific dates of important events, and information about the music behind the lyrics of hip hop. I also watched two documentaries: Style Wars, about the graffiti uprising, and The Black Power Mixtape. I incorporated my information into three fictional news articles, each of which illustrated an important time period in the development of hip hop history.
To construct my project, I used information from my three news articles to create an interactive timeline. I then selected the photographs that I felt would best fit my project and printed out subtitles for these pictures. I chose not to divide the board into sections, so that it would look less like a set timeline. I added a short synopsis that I had previously written to the top of the board.
The hip-hop culture was a revolution in New York. Fueled by a new, expressive kind of music, the young citizens of the Bronx made their way into the streets. From street to street and corner to corner, Bronx youth danced, rhymed, and spray-painted to express their self-chosen identities. To the outside world, they were just another group of kids who were making trouble. Believing that such behavior would only lead to more crime, the police cracked down and enforced strict policies. In the meantime, hip-hop music was becoming a powerful force in the record industry. As it became more and more popularized through film and commercial music, hip-hop’s lyrics began to become more streamlined. Eventually, hip-hop evolved into the form of entertainment that it is today. However, this cycle of revolution, reaction, and reform has begun all over again in the Middle East.
"The Mish B3eed Mixtape." Enough Gaddafi.
Enough Gaddafi, n. d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://enoughgaddafi.com/>.
This is the official website for the anti-Gaddafi movement in Libya. It contains blog posts with updates from various resistance movements and, more importantly, the official mixtape compiled by Libyan hip hop artists that is fueling the movements.
Ehrlich, Dimitri, and Gregor Ehrlich. "Graffiti in its Own Words." New York Magazine. 25 Jan 2006: n. page. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. <http://nymag.com/guides/summer/17406/>.
This is a compilation of interviews with 70’s graffiti artists, who give their opinions on and share memories from hip hop’s early days. They cover topics ranging from turf wars to police response to the graffiti artists.
Durat, Abdulla, perf. "Hip-Hop for Revolution." WPRI's The World. WPRI, 08/02/2011. Web. 6 Oct 2011. <http://www.theworld.org/2011/02/african-songs-become-anthem-for-revolution/>.
This source contains direct quotes and excerpts from songs from the aforementioned mixtape. These lyrics are interesting because they resemble the lyrics from the early hip hop movement in America, and express the same sentiments. This will be one of the central points of my project.
Joe Conzo. Afrika Bambaataa. 1981. Photograph. Cornell University, New York City. Web. Jan 2, 2011.
This is a photograph of one of the creators of hip hop, Afrika Bambaataa. I will use this picture in one of my primary source articles for the project.
Public Enemy. “Fight the Power”. Fear of a Black Planet. Def Jam Recordings. 1990. <http://www.publicenemy.com/index.php?page=page5&item=3&num=74>.
It is important to cite a sample of lyrics in my project. I chose this song because the verses effectively explain the connection between music and the hip hop movement. This is valuable because it comes from the end of the 80’s, during a time when the hip hop movement was widespread. I have some apprehensions about this source because the song was released by the Def Jam company which, by this time, was no longer an underground record label. An important part of my NHD project will be to discuss the eventual commercialization of the hip hop culture, and this could be a good starting point.
Lott, Joanna. "Keepers of History." Penn State Featured Articles.
Penn State University, 8 May 2002. Web. 23 Feb 2012.
This is an article about the African griot tradition. I used the information in this article for the "The Roots" section. This was important to my project because it allowed me to further explain where the style of music on which hip hop is based came from.
"Style Wars." PBS: KAC, Philadelphia, 1983. Radio. 6 Oct 2011. <http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/style-wars/>.
This is a documentary about graffiti, one of the four facets of the early hip hop culture in New York. It gives details about the young people who were being influenced by early hip hop music, and how it manifested itself in their culture. What’s interesting about this documentary is that it was made in the early 80’s, and contains many video clips and interviews from people who lived during the time that this culture began to form. In this way, it contains many primary sources as well as being a secondary source itself.
Durat, Abdulla, perf. "Hip-Hop for Revolution." WPRI's The World. WPRI, 08/02/2011. Web. 6 Oct 2011. <http://www.theworld.org/2011/02/african-songs-become-anthem-for-revolution/>.
To make my project more relevant to modern issues, I will discuss the ways in which hip hop is affecting the revolution in Libya. This article includes interviews with Libyan civilians who have been affected by the music, as well as lyrics from some of the songs. I am also including this in the Primary Source section because of the lyric excerpts.
Williams, S. "Hip-Hop Timeline 1970-1989." Digital Dream Door. n.d. n. page. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. <http://www.digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_rap-timeline1.html>.
This is a timeline that includes important events in the formation of hip hop and key moments in the history of hip hop culture. Because the project is structured like a news article, a list of specific events is a valuable resource.
Ehrlich, Dimitri, and Gregor Ehrlich. "Graffiti in its Own Words." New York Magazine. 25 Jan 2006: n. page. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. <http://nymag.com/guides/summer/17406/>.
This source is valuable mainly because of its credibility. The first page is a summary of the events of the graffiti trend of the late 70’s to 80’s. It provides information about the beginnings of graffiti, as well as some very interesting details about the eventual “war” declared on graffiti by the mayor of New York. I have also included this source in the Primary Source section because the other pages are interviews with graffiti artists.
"Breakdancing." NPR. 14 Oct 2002: n. page. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. <http://www.npr.org/programs/morning/features/patc/breakdancing/>.
This source discusses the effect that “breakdancing” had on the urban communities in New York. The most interesting details are the descriptions of how gang members would settle their arguments with dance contests, in which the dance moves symbolized fighting moves.
DJ Kool Herc
It’s something so beautiful about tragedy, about hearts breaking into terroristic hands. There is a story lying beneath the ashes, the body, Someone’s soul died inside of that building,
He was a husband, a son, a
father and Pinochet took his titles away from him.
Who gave him the right to play god?
No one spoke of it in Chile; my people are losing all hope for something greater than them, an idea that can change how their kids and grand children will view their heritage and country,
I never want them to be ashamed of where they come from,
The mesh of tracery and triumph that shifted the way the world looked at us.
I think we are allowing outside forces and Pinochet to destroy us because we depend on the idea of liberation from all of the horrible things in the world,
We fell for his tactics,
We allowed him to twist our thoughts and bullets through our skulls,
How many lives will be lost lessoning the chance of ever gaining happiness.
I was told the United States decided to help wreck my homeland and leader because they felt it was necessary to force the American dream through our soil that my parents grew crops on to feed us,
They never put food on the table for us they just stripped us of everything we owned
Allende was found with bullet wounds and our future, all we ask is why wasn’t there any say of the people?
Just the United States and Pinochet opinions on how we should live
Oh the glorious wonders of destruction,
On September 29, 2003
It was revealed that the United States government helped create a monster.
We worked so hard for a revolution it was disregarded because the peoples weren’t good enough for a vote or valid explanation. “Voting boxes are like suggestions not everything inside matter”
At first our group was going to investigate the different stories of the holocaust and what exactly triggered it and who had known about the holocaust. Then we had all talked and out and agreed that the holocaust was too much of commercial topic, so we focused on genocide, which is less of a commercial topic. Choosing just one genocide was hard for us to do, so oat first we had did research on the different types of genocides that there were. At the end we had all agreed that it was best for us all to do different parts of different genocides and to put them all together in one informational project that would practically sum up everything that a genocide was about and the people who have already lived through one.
To just simply Google genocide isn’t enough to understand everything that you need to know to illustrate and to do the perfect genocide project. We had to work really hard at exactly what we were looking for. We had looked for plenty of survivor stories to get head on to what exactly had happened and what it felt like. Also we had did little secondary research just to get the basics of everything that had happened and also everything that the media might have known about. Generally our research periods were very long and hard; also we took specific facts from each source that was used. Then after all of the research on the major things like background information and up close facts on what had happen in each genocide that was researched we had to research the little things such as pictures and videos.
For our presentation category we wanted to go out and above. We chose to do a presentation board because visuals are everything. Also we had wanted it to look really ragged and old, as if it was something that we had literally taken from a history book. Going through the creation process was just as long as doing the research to start the project. First we had to get a board then make sure that we had decorated it according to occasion. We didn’t want our board to be really boring and something someone had seen before. Also we wanted our project to stick out like a sore thumb so we used our best of might to add things to it and to add little details to everything so everything looked tattered and like it belonged to someone who was in the genocide.
Our project relates to the national history day theme of reaction, reform, and revolution because we show different sides of the genocide. Also we take different types of genocides and put them into one total and complete project, which brings them all together in the never again convention that is also in our project for revolution. All together our project shows that there is always a reaction to a situation that follows with an reform and usually a revolution.
This is a documentary about the history of marijuana. In the documentary multiple PSA’s and other scare tactics from the government are shown. The film shows both sides of the history, the whole story with facts and historical references. It talks about how the Mexicans from across the border brought the weed into the states. They say that a Mexican who was high went crazy and killed a bunch of people so the El Paso Ordinance 1914. Harry J. Anslinger is introduced as taking down drugs. The whole movie is filled with primary sources mostly videos and pictures from different times. The anti drugs campaign seems to be the one with the most PSA’s.
This source also talks about how the drug was originally grown in one certain location because of the environment it needed, thinking maybe around Central Asia and around Afghanistan area. It isn’t certain because of how widely it has spread and how fast it happened too. This site is also very useful because it talks about the plant and what type it is, for example it is a dioecious plant meaning it can have either the male or the female reproduction system. For cannabis the female systems produce the best. Cannabis was also present during the time of the Silk Road and was commonly traded. Many smoked it because it was believed that it helped release one from their anxiety, which is still a common belief.
This newspaper article is from 1914 and talks about the crazy outbreaks smoking marijuana causes a person to have. It highlights one story about one guy that smoked marijuana and then killed a cop and badly injured three other men. He stated that he was crazy and he was put in a strait jacket. They also talk about how smoking marijuana causes a person to lose their mind and they will never became to recover it again after that. The article raised the issue of soldiers in camps smoking marijuana and how it had to be smuggled and was illegal, smoking it caused a headache at first and then caused hallucinations involving seeing things that weren’t there. This newspaper article is helpful because it shows the thought people believed about weed and shows the causes that later down the road helped make marijuana illegal in the United States and Mexico.
This source talks about why exactly marijuana is illegal today and what caused it to get that way. For example it has a lot to do with racism, greed and companies profits, which isn’t what most people think. Most people get the idea that just because its illegal it means it’s bad, which the site also talks about, the level of ignorance. The site also talks about the basic history of marijuana and how it has been legal for most of its usage time, it has only been illegal for 1% of the time the plant has been in use. The site also has a section on the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 which is important because it is obviously not enforced today and there is also a section about the relations that involved the Mexicans and also a section that talks about the prohibition laws in place. This helps learn the facts and how they have changed with the fact that make up the background to give us a good base of understanding.
This source is very important because it helps give a good idea of how things involving marijuana started to become more popular and how things exactly started to spread. This mainly outlines the use of hemp and when people started to learn new ways to use it. This site is a timeline that dates as far back as 8000 BC and goes all the way up unto 1998. This gives a basic idea and helps us be able to map things and understand the large issue and concept of this ongoing problem. The timeline includes facts and events from anything like someone eating a seed to help them stay alive to the word hempe being listed in the dictionary to when it became legal to have hemp farms and to mass grow.
The time line starts in the 1600’s talking about the growing of marijuana for hemp up to the 1890s. The 1920’s are when things become interesting as Mexicans who have crossed the border bring over Marijuana as a recreational drug. In the 1930’s drugs are making a rise in America and the fear is rising so in an effort to fight the new drugs the Federal Bureau of Narcotics is created. The timeline talks about different PSA’s. There is an interesting tidbit from World War two where a program “Hemp For Hope” is program where people will grow hemp so that there is more rope and cloth for the war.
This source shows pictures with captions and little explanations of the Yanghai Tombs from over 2,700 years ago that contained marijuana in them. The tombs also contained other produces made from hemp. The site also has pictures of seeds and leafs of this 2,700 year old marijuana. This site helps show how far back marijuana could possibly go. The Yanghai people could have been the first people to have marijuana and use it in its many ways or maybe they weren’t. Its not certain if they smoked it or where it was grown or if they even were the ones that put it in the tombs, but it does answer some questions while it raised many more unanswerable questions.
This source continues to talk about the Yanghai Tombs in much more detail. They used the hemp to make clothes and ropes. The site proves that the Yanghai people did indeed smoke the marijuana, but in the tomb and from what we know about the civilization it is unknown how exactly they smoked it. From inspecting it is known that marijuana is a complicated plant and took brains to create. The stuff they smoked was very similar to what we have today but if the stuff that was found was smoked there would be no effect because of the decomposition of the main chemicals including THC. This cite helps me to further understand the oldest dated back marijuana in detail.
This source is useful to my project because it talks about how early traditions started, like people sitting around in a circle smoking and meeting in groups of people. Also as far back as 2737 BC marijuana has been used as a medicine, maybe even farther back. Also the drug was referenced in Homer which helps date it back even more. The site also talked about how it was used as a punishment in an early form, people were made to smoke it until they passed out if they committed a misdeed, but on the flip side it was also encouraged to smoke because it gave lots of energy and made people work better. This site also proves as early as 1378 there were people that wanted cannabis destroyed, it worked but then eventually came back, which happens many more times in history and even to the present day.
This source is useful because it talks about where the natural habit of marijuana and where it originated from. Cannabis homeland is just north of India and many of the early civilizations had to travel through that area on their way to settling and traveling to find and conquer new land. At this time is when most people found and picked on cannabis. This is most likely the reason that the plant spread so much and is now present and easily found everywhere. Early on the plant was referred to as the Mother of Agricultural Civilization because it had many helpful uses such as making ropes and fabric, medical uses and it contains vitamin B and protein. The writer of this cite is both a former user and a researcher who strongly feels that marijuana should be legal and talks about the many positive things that the plant and drug can be used and was used for. It is also mentioned that the use of the drug causes hallucinations and at a certain balance it can be good and that is what is believed to have started the ideas of many world religions today.
The first thing we all did was research Marxism. We used sources that helped us get a solid grounding on the topic, and then used that knowledge in our research of the revolutions. Each of us chose smaller battles/protests in each of the revolutions. These studies include the Bolshevik revolution, North Korea vs. South Korea, and the May Fourth Movement. As we did our research, we found sources that gave accurate information about the time period as well as the event. We needed this because we were writing fictional journal articles as if we were from the time period. This was how we chose to display our information at first.
The majority of our sources are reports from college professors, online articles, or just informational documents. We did try and tackle the famous “Economic Philosophic Manuscripts,” but that turned out to be really very dense, and it was detracting from our overall message. Instead, we used videos given to us by our teacher. David Harvey, a professor who specializes in Marx, turned out to be a very useful source for us. We watched videos that gave us insight into Marxism that would have taken us a lot longer if done on our own.
In the end, we learned a great deal about the flaws of governmental ideals, and how crucial it is to have a system that falls in the middle of the spectrum. A system that is amalgamated with ideals from both Marxism and its antithesis can create a governmental set up that works just as efficiently as any seen today. Marxism has had a nominally latent existence, and has been pidgin holed by the common public as a corrupt system or a flawed system. However, the goal of this project was not to defend this idea or counteract it; it was to show that there is no country that has followed the doctrines and philosophies of Marxism to scrupulous detail. We found this to be true.
Marx, Karl. "Economic Philosophic Manuscripts." Economic
Philosophic Manuscripts(1932): 1-81. Web.
This is a link to the PDF of Karl Marx’s Economic Philosophic
Manuscripts. This is a primary source, because he was the author in 1844. This
is essay will play a critical role in the way we conceptualize our idea of
socialism. There are a lot of interpretations of what it means to have a
Marxist government, and those interpretations originate from Karl Marx himself.
That is why this primary source will be useful for the project. He mentions a
lot of German ideologies that he uses as an influence for his writings. This
inspires the idea of possibly connecting some of the older beliefs of Germany
to the beliefs of Germany in the 20th century. Because the Russian revolution
began in the early 20th century, the manuscripts would have had to have played
a major role in how the leaders of socialist movements later assessed
their own ideals in the founding of the new governments.
Von Kühlmann, Richard. Richard Von Kühlmann on the Russian Revolution. Germany. 30 Nov. 1917.
This is a speech
that the German foreign secretary, Richard Von Kühlmann,
gave to the German Reichtag on November 30th, 1917. The speech presents his
opinions on the Russian Revolutions and the way the world is reacting to them.
He then goes into his opinions on the governments of countries such as England
and France stating that “freedom of though and freedom of speech have been
suppressed.” This source is valuable because it portrays the opinions of the
revolutions from another country. Richard Von Kühlmann relates what is happening in Russia to what could possibly
happen in Germany, which shows the international effect of the revolutions. His
underlying tone is that Germany will prevail against other countries that are
filled with “greed and power.” He believes that the powers of the east will be
able to rise up against the inhumane powers of the west, which is not only a
statement about Germany but a statement about much of the European continent.
Lenin, Vladimir. "Proclamation of 7 November 1917." Proclamation of 7 November 1917. Russia. 7 Nov. 1917. Speech. <http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/lenin_25oct1917.htm>
source is a speech given by Vladimir Lenin, a Marxist and communist
revolutionist who led the Russian Revolutions, on October 25, 1917. In this
speech he warns against a counter revolution and uprising of the military
against the new government formed after the overthrow of Alexander Kerenski. He
states that all military men must openly support and join the new government or
else they will be arrested. The speech lists what the Petrograd Council of
Workmen and Soldeir’s Delegate’s (new government) sees as its top
priorities, which includes but is not limited to, giving land to the peasants
and a transfer of all power to the council. This source is valuable because it
displays the intended goals of the new communist party in Russia and what the
party was based on (its ideology).
Lenin, Vladimir. "Call to Power." Call to Power. Russia. 24 Oct. 1917. Speech.
is a writing by Lenin titled “Call to Power,” on the 24th of October in 1917.
In it he requests that power be taken away from Alexander Kerenski’s
provisional government and be transferred a committee/party chosen by the
people specifically the poor and starving. He warns that the government in
place at the time was going to fall and that as a revolutionary/revolutionists
they must not wait. It is written to the Soviet Central Committee and supposed
to represent the voices of the people. He uses a very urgent tone warning that
if something doesn't happen immediately the Soviet Union as a whole will lose
everything. This source is valuable because it was one of the major factors
contributing to the fall of the provisional government. The day after being
written Kerenski’s government was overthrown which really shows the power of
these words. Although technically a call to the Soviet Union, it addressed the
protesters/revolutionists in hope of motivating them.
Lenin, Vladimir. "April Theses." April Theses. Saint Petersburg, Russia. Apr. 1917. Speech. <http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/apriltheses.htm>http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/apriltheses.htm
The April Theses
was a chain of "directions" which was created by Vladimir Lenin when
he returned to St. Petersburg, in response to the war. In the Theses, he
summoned the soviets to take power and criticized the liberals in the
Provisional Government. Before Lenin's return, the government was controlled by
socialist in liberals, which created a democracy. Most of the directives called
for new communist policies, also calling for a new government which would be
imperial to all other forms of government in Russia.
Duffy/ Firstworldwar.com, Michael. "Manifesto of Russian Council of Workmen and Soldiers." First World War.com. Web. 06 Jan. 2012. <http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/russian_councilofworkmen1.htm>.
The link is to a manifesto written by workers and soldiers. Its dated to may 15 1917. They start off by explaining that the are speaking in the name of / support of the “ Russian Revolutionary Democracy” and that as a people they didn’t wish to become involved with the war. They go on to explain the adverse effects of Russia losing its freedoms. Revolutionary russia was being threatened by a man power. They are explaining to the soldiers on the battle front that they must fight to win or else “Revolutionary Russia” will be destroyed. They are defending liberty in Russia because they are up against the German army that represents When describing Russia in modern terms its described as being a communist country.
Psychology: the study of the human mind and its workings. I choose this topic because I could personally connect to it. Growing up, my father was ill, so I wanted to know why and how. It was helpful because it helped me understand why he was ill and the chances that it can be passed down to me. Not only is it important to me and helped me, but it can help others as well. Understanding Psychology is the first step to understanding the mind.
While doing research for this, I found the site Marxist.com to be useful in finding written lectures by Sigmund Freud. Also since I already had some background knowledge on the topic, I knew who the “father of psychology” was so I started with him. From there I went to psychoanalysis, to the NYC Bomber and criminal profiling. Another website I found helpful was trutv.com It helped me with the research for the NYC bomber and Dr. James Brussel.
I mostly relied on books though. Not ones written the by people I was researching, but ones written about them. Since it was so long ago, I couldn’t find interviews or autobiographies that they had written themselves.
A problem I encountered during my research was finding articles written on an article about a book written about the person that I researching and not being able to use them because they were credible. It took a lot of digging to find a source that directed related to the topic of psychology. These articles did lead me books that I was able to use but even though these articles were great in number, the sources they provided were few in number.
I choose to relate my topic to all three words in the theme. For each word, I picked a specific date that showed how psychology has cause a revolution, who reacted and how it reformed our thinking on psychology. For revolution I choose the year 1883 because it was the year the Wilhelm Wundt began to voice his ideas to the scientific community. At first they were rejected because it was an unknown concept but soon some people were able to see it’s usefulness. Which leads us into reaction. Sigmund Freud gave his final lecture on psychoanalysis and psychology in the year 1932. It may seem strange to not use all of his lectures but I found that the last talked more about him as a human diagnosing people and not as a doctor diagnosing a patient. I also wanted to stay away from mentioning super ego, ego and id in my exhibit because I wanted to focus on him and the new concept he introduced, psychoanalysis. Lastly we have reform. Dr. James Brussel was able to enhance the concept even when he introduced criminal profiling to the FBI. In order to get the FBI’s attention, he first took it for a test run. He was able to profile the NYC Bomber in 1940 by analyzing his behavior.
Freud, Sigmund. "Lecture XXXV A Philosophy of Life." New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-analysis . Hogarth Press, 1933. Web. 1 Jan 2012. <http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/at/freud.htm>.
This source is of a lecture given by Sigmund Freud, written down. He talks greatly about religion and how it could influence behavior. There are a few times when he mentions Marxism but I do not understand if he relates that to Psycho-analysis. This source is reliable because it is form another man who has had a great influence in the world of psychology and he did change many things. I used the parts where he talked about how he got into psychology.
The layman's guide to psychiatry and psych-analysis. 3. California: Tantor eBooks of Tantor Media, 2011. eBook. <http://www.amazon.com/Laymans-Guide-Psychiatry-Psychoanalysis-ebook/dp/B005DNSSCQ.
This book is written for people who don’t have a profession in the field of psychology. It gives a general over view of the know how’s of the field. It talks about why people act the way they do and why others judge them the way that they do. It touches on a range of topics from emotions to dreams and from insanity to practical and impractical methods, all relating to the field of psychology and psychoanalysis. I used this to help created my loose definition of psychoanalysis.
"The History of Psychology." Discovering Psychology.WGBH Educational Foundation,2001. Web.1 Jan 2012.<http://www.learner.org/discoveringpsychology/history/history_nonflash.html>. This source is like a basic overview of how psychology has evolved from 1879 to 2000. It is a great place to start because it’s main focus is psychology but it also gives brief points on people and buildings that have influenced the advancement of psychology. The time line doesn’t stick to one person who has had an influence in this field but it expands to many people, which is why I think this source is reliable. I used this to help me find the people I would research on.
"Wilhelm Wundt and Introspection: the cultural contribution of the father of psychology." WilhelmWundt.com. N.p., Jan 3. Web. 1 Jan 2012. <http://www.wilhelmwundt.com/index.htm>.
This source is an essay written by someone on Wilhelm Wundt, a man otherwise known as the father of psychology. It talks about Wundt life in psychology and how he used introspection to evaluate the behaviors of the human mind. Essentially this text is a general overview of Wundt’s work through out his lifetime although it focuses mainly on introspection. It gives a clearer meaning on his work and it also included other sources that I can go to that may help me with my project. I used this source to help identify what part of Wundt’s work I was following.
M. Lothstein, Leslie. "The Transformation of Psychology: Influences of 19th-Century Philosophy, Technology, and Natural Science." The American Journal of Psychiatry. Psychiatry Online, 01, Mar 2003. Web. 1 Jan 2012. <http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=176134>.
This source is about a textbook that gave an interesting viewpoint of both psychology and science as a whole. It mostly talks about chapter 11. Also about how politics play a role in psychology. I found this interesting since you wouldn’t think that something like that could influence a person behavior and memory so much. To the point where people felt the need to study it and see just how far the influence was rooted. I used this source to help create my loose definition of psychology.
Madden, Melissa Ann. "GEORGE METESKY: NEW YORK's MAD BOMBER-The Profiler." TruTV. TruTV, n.d. Web. 4 Jan 2012. < http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/terrorists_spies/terrorists/metesky/8.html>.
This article talks about George Metesky, the first big case that Dr. Brussel profiled that lead him to want to continue and create a new section to the FBI. It talks mainly of the process of what the police went through in trying to apprehend the bomber on their own for close to 10 years until they called Dr. Brussel. Though the police were skeptical, they went along with it and they did catch their guy. I used this source to get a better understanding of the Bomber’s work.
Plucker, Dr. Jonathan. "Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) German Philosopher & Psychologist." Human Intelegence. Indiana University, 25 July 2007. Web. <http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/wundt.shtml>.
This page talks about Wilhelm Wundt’s start in opening an Experiment Psychology Laboratory. It catered more toward German, philosophers and psychologist but American and British philosophers and psychologist were also welcomed. Everything he did was considered experimental because he was the first to do it. He set the limits that could be reached for research because there were know for him. I used this source because of the experimental laboratory.
Madden, Melissa Ann. "The Profiler." TruTV. TruTV, n.d. Web. 4 Jan 2012. <http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/terrorists_spies/terrorists/metesky/3.html>.This article talks about Dr. James Brussel and how he profiled the NYC Bomber. It also talks about how he became involved in the case 10 years after it was opened. Though he had already began to profile the bomber before he was asked onto the case. He was doing because his inner psychiatrist was telling him to do it. I used this source because of the profile on the profiler.
A topic of interest for any further research is looked at at the easiest aspect of any project itself. For my partner and I, this simple task was not as easy as it was set up to be. We were fully aware of the fact that we wanted to have a topic that involved something with Cuba, The Cuban Revolution or The Cuban Missile crisis. Anything that had to do with Cuba in some manner, was the route my partner and I knew we wanted to take. We just randomly decided to research about Cuba because it is a place we wish we could visit but we did not know too much about it. Revolution, was the first word that came to mind trying to think NHD wise, so The Cuban Revolution it was.
Conducting the research was slightly all over the place in the beginning. There was not a set way to look for things. The idea was to just find anything that would be found on the topic, then later narrow the larger group down. So more direct articles could be found. After finding some of the sources that we felt were of quality use, dissecting what was needed became the next step. The idea behind the information was sharing pieces about The Cuban Revolution that any viewer who was not apart putting together the project, would find the information insightful.
PRESENTATION! Is one of the five core values, that Science Leadership Academy has, so choosing a way to display any information found just mean it had to be appealing to an audience. And what better way to do so than a website. To us the idea of a website, was something that would make any viewer want to see more. The first thought when most people are looking at a website for the first time is, wanting to explore to see what will be found. That is the affect my partner and I were going for.
The Cuban Revolution relates to the NHD theme, simply because it is national history. Revolution, reaction and reform, these terms gave there meanings when Fidel Castro transitioned from a Rebel to leader in the time that Cuba went through some of it’s changes. Fidel was the voice of his Cuban people, because his idea was to take over Cuba for the people. Fidel started to cause chaos, he then received the reaction he wanted from Batistia. Which allowed him to eventually take office. With that Cuba was going through a turn. Losing their sugar trade causing getting 80% of their exports taking away. A corrupt economy it was, retaliation was the next step. The first attempt was to furtively assassinate Fidel.
Bringing back the relics of a bygone Cuba was a challenge within itself. Aside from seeing how Cuba related to the NHD theme. My partner an I also wanted people to understand, that a revolution can slowly persistent even at its nadir.
Primary SourcesLatin American Studies. "Rebels Entering Havana (January 1959)." The Cuban Revolution (1952-1958). N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <www.latinamericanstudies.org/cuban-rebels/castro-1956-mexico-city.jpg>.
Fidel an his men were going into Havanna. The streets at which Castro drove down were filled with crowds of people on both sides, watching as he entered. Everybody seemed to be for Fidel and the ways he told people he was going to revolutionize things. Gaining much respect for the way he was, withing being in the public eye he was just trying to do what was in the ‘best interest’ of Cuba. This picture showed the expression on the faces of the people an Fidel as they enter. Which in turn sets the tone of the situation clearly.
This was an article out of the New York Times. Castro and a number of armed or armed forces swept down out of Sierra Maestra to attack the former field headquarters of the Cuban Army. Cuban Army headquarters issued a press release stating that the rebels had attacked the Estrada Palma post. This piece in a way explains the mind set of Castro and shows what he is capable of doing and what he will do to get what he wants. Giving ideas how he takes over and his approach to conquer along with the people involved in doing so.
Franqui, Carlos. "Cuban Revolution: Attack on the Moncada Army Barracks." Cuban history begins here. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012.<http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/moncada.htm>.
Brice, Arthur. "Memories of boyhood in the heat of the Cuban revolution - CNN.com." CNN.com International - Breaking, World, Business, Sports, Entertainment and Video News. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/americas/01/01/cuba.remembrances/index.html#cnnSTCText>.
This piece of information was from the New York Times years, after the Cuban Revolution happened. Many of Cuba’s richest people gather together to welcome the new-year, at which they thought would be better for them after 50 years. Most of the Cubans basic human rights was not good to the economy, it helped sink it. The soviet leaders than agreed to remove the missiles, Kennedy then promised that the U.S would not invade Cuba, again. This site to helped with a more general introduction to the topic and explaining how it began to prolong over the many years.
Why we chose this topic:
How I conducted my research: First we did a research on the WCTU and how the organization works, also we looked on the motifs and believe and value. And what are some of the thing they have done that had made a change in our history. Then while doing the research on the WCTU we found out that during the 1920 the fought to get alcohol illegal. And we also realize that this era was called the Prohibition era. This lead us to do our project /exhibit on the prohibition era through the eyes of the WCTU. While doing this research on the WCTU we saw the opportunity to do something on the prohibition which was a important part of the history. During this time a lot of significant things happen.
How we created the EXHIBIT: My group member and I started to organize the important points of our research. We created outline of the most important picture and quote of our project. We then look on the rule in the NHD rule book of how the exhibit should be for example the height width, 500 word limit. Then we collaborated and work on printing the picture and the font also we designed the broad so it looks presentable.
How our project related to the theme:
Or project is related to the theme because it is research done within a important time period in history. The theme for this year was Revolution, Reaction, and Reform in History and this was a event that happen 50 years ago. We were able to show what lead up to the revolution of the alcohol being illegal. The reaction after when the alcohol became illegal violence and crime rates rose ,flapper was stating to develop ,the women during that time the 19 amendment granted the women the right to vote ,illegal underground dealing of alcohol and the speakeasies were developed and the stock market also crashed. The reform was that the 21 amendment made alcohol legal again and it the amount was modified. This was a very important because never 200 years an amendment has been repealed. So this why our theme is related to the theme of the national history day’s theme ,it’s portray each term of Revolution, Reaction, and Reform each has a example of how the relate.
WCTU. "WCTU Opposes Amethyst Initiative." Welcome to the WCTU. Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 29 Sept. 2008. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <http://www.wctu.org/amethyst.html>.
I found this web page helpful because we have done the prohibition of alcohol through the WCTU. eyes and this a example of how the WCTU is still fighting the same issue they fought for 50 years ago. So this gave on information on what the WCTU is doing presently.
Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Minnesota. "Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Minnesota Records. Dates:." Minnesota Historical Society. Web. 2009. <http://www.mnhs.org/library/findaids/00106.xml>.
This a site which give information and the different WCTU conference that was hold over a consecutive year .This show how one of the subdivision of the WCTU how the run they run their meeting the order of protocols. Records related to statewide women’s organization focused primarily on raising public awareness of the personal and social problems brought about by the consumption of alcoholic beverages, and on the advocacy of individual abstinence and prohibition. Includes records of district and local unions (chapters).
Elizabeth, Wiillard. "Let Something Good Be Said: Speeches and Writings of Frances E. Willard - Frances Elizabeth Willard, Carolyn De Swarte Gifford." Google Books. Board of Trustee, 2009. Web. 06 Jan. 2012. <http://books.google.com/books? id=kt6w5t1YStcC>.
This is a book about the first president of the WCTU. Its autobiography on the president, and the many speeches she gives at every rally meeting and protest. It talks about her journey of campaigner all over the country to recruit. How the conduct a meeting and this book celebrate the effort Willard put in to form and get women to fight for the cause she stands for.
McGrewcalifronia, Jane Lang. "History of Alcohol Prohibition." DRCNet Online Library of Drug Policy. California Drug Policy. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. <http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/studies/nc/nc2a.htm>.
This a source that give a break down of the years of the WCTU. Its full with information of the different activity that happens. It also gives excerpt from interview with different members of the organization. The reason why theses women put their life on the line to support a good cause and get the government to make alcohol illegal.
Anonimous. "Alcohol Prohibition." EH.net. Economic History Associatio, 2 Jan. 2010. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. <http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/miron.prohibition.alcohol>.
This a very informative site that give you the step by step breakdown with the day when the the Prohibition ended. This will give me incite on what happen and the effect it had on the society after. One example after the Prohibition the crime rate raised. and the was uncover bars ruined and illegal Raids . EH.NET " e evidence on Prohibition and crime focuses on the homicide rate, since this is the only type of crime for which data are reported consistently both before, during, and after Prohibition.10 Figure 3 presents the homicide rate in the United States (measured as homicides per 100,000 population) for the period 1900-1995" This is one of the statics that the source gave.
Elly, Martin. "Prohibition Era Timeline - Timeline of Prohibition Era." American History From About. American History.com. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <http://americanhistory.about.com/od/prohibitionera/a/prohibition.htm>.
I used this source to figure out the different time and date that related to my topic . it help me to know the specific dates for each leg of the journey of Prohibition . I will used this to make a timeline to show on the blog to help to provide as reference .
WCTU. "| WCTU Drinking Fountains | Glendora CA |." Welcome to the WCTU. Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 29 Sept. 2008. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <http://www.wctu.com/Glendora.html>.
This a picture of a old WCTU fountain. this what they women of that organization put these outside of saloon to promote the men to drink water and not alcohol. This will help us to tell our story visually
Albalagh Children Home. "Prohibition of Alcohol." Albalagh Home Page. Albalagh Children Home. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <http://www.albalagh.net/kids/history/prohibition.shtml>.
This source has help us to understand the prohibition in a nutshell. I was able to get the main idea of what the prohibition was about and how it developed. This is really help I would recommend it to any one who is doing a project on the prohibition.
- This is a photo on one of the fountains that were made around the drinking problems started to occur. They where put up around saloons that where closing or selling very low products of alcohol. These where created for people to have a nice cold drink instead of running to the saloons to get a beverage that only caused harm to them. This was a way to relax those heavy drinkers and switch to something that where more refreshing. Many of these where set among the streets that supported the WCTU, and some in front of saloon fronts.
* WTCU. N.d. Photograph. Drinking fountain , Glendora CA. Web. 09 Jan 2012. <http://www.wctu.com/Glendora.html>.
- This photo reads "Lips That Touch Liquor Shall Not Touch Ours". Back then drinking was a crime and still is today. Many people do it for fun,but don't realize that effect it has on themselves and other people. It became such a problem back in the day when woman thought that drinking was a horrible thing. The smell of it on your breath or just around the person who abused drinking was ranked from it. They found it to be unattractive and a destroyer.
*WTCU. N.d. Painting. n.p. Web. 09 Jan 2012. <http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/FunFacts/Prohibition.html>.
It May Be a Losing Battle, but W.C.T.U. Is Out There Fighting
- I want to use this source because is shows the WCTU success in Chicago on August 06,1971. I am really proud too see that they loose very few battles. They all stood together to fight for justice, and that's what caught eye for other woman in other states to join then in this revolution. The WCTU union has been able to grow over the year in their time an d has reached more then 10 states to walk through this war with them. To this much liquor (--------------------------------------------------------------------------) in state attract to a small amount of this (---). The WCTU is still around, and many families still struggle with the drug abuse today. Mostly which can lead to child abuse, self abuse, abuse to others, and lead to mentally and physically distraction.
* *"It May Be a Losing Battle, but W.C.T.U. Is Out There Fighting." New York Times. 06 09 1971: 1. Web. 13 Jan. 2012.
Susanna Madora Salter --
First Woman Mayor
by Monroe Billington
- This is a story about a woman named Susanna Madora. She was elected by the W.C.T.U to be an officer for her district. She had a struggle making it in the WCTU because of the negativity that she had to go through just to get her votes in was ridicules. Men like today where jealous that woman was able to have such power and control over the organization they were running.There were so many hacks and scams they did from keeping her being successful in the WTCU. It's a shame that men where selfish to ever see a woman do good, or let alone see a woman do better then them.
*Billingtion, Monroe. "Susanna Madora Salter -- First Woman Mayor ." Kancoll. Kansas Collection: Kansas Historical Quarterlies , Autumn 1954. Web. 5 Jan 2012. <http://www.kancoll.org/khq/1954/54_3_billington.htm>.
- I want to use this in our project because it talks about the first woman who was the heading of the WCTU. WIllard was also the first dean of woman. I think talking about the first woman is import an because she is the one who had the most work, and the most compassion for this. I would add things about her old life when she was a child, until she was adult.I want to talk about what made her interested in starting the alliance agasint alcohol. There are a few interested things such as her not being married, and having a travel and sedentary companion for 22 years. She was a woman.
* Johnson- Lewis, Jone. "Womans History." Frances Willard. About, n.d. Web. 13 Jan 2012. <http://womenshistory.about.com/od/temperance/p/frances_willard.htm>.
My project is about Solidarity, the independent trade union that revolutionised the way the communist government of Poland governed Poland and the working people. Last summer, I had the opportunity to travel to Poland, and Gdańsk, the birthplace of Solidarity. I chose this topic because it is something that does not get much publicity or acknowledgement in the United States of America, but Solidarity, or Solidarność in Polish, revolutionised the country and influenced the world.
For my research I had read various articles from 1980; articles and papers that reflected back on the event; and the Solidarity and the Gdańsk website. I read the articles and papers and took notices for reference. I also looked for some quotes from people such as Lech Wałęsa from 1980 around the time of the strike.
I chose to do an exhibit because I thought it would best display the information that my project contains.
Solidarity is the independent trade union that was set up in Gdańsk, Poland during a time of economic struggles due to the oppression of the Communist government in Poland. Solidarity succeeded in improving the rights of Polish workers, such as employment, compensation, workplace and health & safety conditions, influencing economic and social policies, the protection and promotion of culture and education, and the overall improvement of the human rights of the workers. What made Solidarity so revolutionary was that this was the first time any group of people had successfully changed the way the strict and oppressive communist government of Poland governed. The creation and success of the Solidarity Movement is what led to the downfall of the communist government in Poland. Solidarity was also the influencing factor in reforming the Polish government. Together, with the people of Poland, Solidarity paved the way for other post-Soviet countries to become independent from their Soviet communist rule.
„Count on Me” - „Solidarity” Poster. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. „Count on Me” - „Solidarity” Poster. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/?document=63>.
As a part of their campaign, Solidarity created various posters promoting their cause. This poster is of two hands grasping each others wrists as if to show that they support each other and that they are there for one another. At the top of the poster is the text „Licz na mnie,” which translates into english to „Count on me.” The posters were used to visually promote the feeling that Solidarity was there for the workers and were trying to improve the working conditions and living quality for them as well as ending the communist rule.
"Europe's Revolution 20 Years on." BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation, 2 Nov. 2009. Web. 5 Mar. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7879687.stm>.
The Solidarity movement triggered the end of the cold war and the communist rule in Eastern Europe in Poland and Eastern Europe. The relationship between the United States and Poland has been strengthened because of the pro-democracy Solidarity Movement. Solidarity also influenced other countries to revolt and take back their country from the communist government’s rule. Followed by Solidarity’s victory in the Polish election, many other countries began to reform their government. The struggle between Solidarity and the Polish communist government lasted for a decade. But in the end, it really was Poland and the Solidarity movement that lead to the first non-communist government in Eastern Europe.
Górka, W. Anna Walentynowicz, Activist of Free Trade Unions, among Workers. 1980. Photograph. Solidarity, Gdańsk. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/?document=63>.
In the photograph, Anna Walentynowicz is talking to a group of Polish shipyard workers and other civilians. Anna Walentynowicz was the very dedicated shipyard worker who got fired just a few days before she was due to retire. She played an active role in the start of Solidarity. The strike was sparked by the shipyard workers’ outrage over the firing of Walentynowicz. Walentynowicz became a main speaker and advocate for the workers because she had worked so hard for the shipyard and for the defense of the workers. This photograph shows the passion that Walentynowicz had in the concerns for the workers and the interest that others had in hearing her words.
Karta. Gdańsk Memorial Unveiling Ceremony. December 1970. Digital image.Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/23/MSWiA%20198-15-113.jpg>.
This picture shows the unveiling of the Monument for the Fallen Shipyard Workers. The monument was erected as apart of the Gdańsk Agreement to pay tribute and honour the 42 workers who had died in the 1970 December strike. The monument is composed up of three large steel crosses with an anchor crucified to the top of each. At the unveiling of the monument, people packed in the surrounding area to see the monument located outside of gate 2 of the Lenin Shipyard. In the photograph, you can see that people were standing on top of buildings, fences, anything that would get them a better vantage point of the monument.
Kulish, Nicholas. "Poland Leads Wave of Communist-Era Reckoning." New York Times. New York Times, 20 Feb. 2012. Web. 5 Mar. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/21/world/europe/poland-leads-wave-of-communist-era-reckoning-in-europe.html?pagewanted=1&ref=poland>.
The Polish Court is now cracking down on the Communist Leaders and declaring them a part of a criminal group because of their martial law in December 1981. Other Countries that were formerly under the Iron First are taking similar action. Looking at the current situation in the Arab Nations has motivated Poland and other Eastern European countries to look back when the communists still held power. "Poland is wrestling with its past." The Communist government were oppressive and torturous to those under their rule.
Lewandowski, G. V-for-victory Sign Was One of Many Symbols of “Solidarity” (. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/40/OK_053.jpg>.
This poster shows the V-for-victory sign, which was one of the symbols of Solidarity for their great success over their first year in existence. This poster was created a year after Solidarity was formed. At this time, people were reflecting back on Solidarity and it’s progress. As the first independent and self-governing trade union of Poland, it was great feat for the workers and people of Poland in overcoming the communist rule. Solidarity had achieved a lot of great things in their first year, and had already become a very influential factor in the workers unions of other countries and the rule of the Eastern European communist countries.
"Poland." New York Times. New York Times, 05 Mar. 2012. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/poland/index.html?scp=2>.
Poland was the only post-Soviet country to come out of Soviet rule and not go into economic recession. On October 2011, Donald Tusk triumphed over conservative Jarosław Kaczynski in the Polish elections. Tusk is the new pro-European Union prime minister, who is in support of many contemporary concerns such as gay rights, abortion, and some drug legalisation. Because Poland is apart of the EU, it has embedded itself in Europe economics and politics. However, Poland does not use the Euro, which is considered a Euro-Soviet Bloc trait. Poland is trying to continue to independently raise above their previous oppressors, Russia and Germany.
McIntire, Suzanne, and William E. Burns. "The Value of Human Solidarity." Speeches in world history. New York: Facts on File, 2009. 502-505. Print.
“I belong to a nation which over the past centuries has experienced many hardships and reverse. The world reacted with silence or with mere sympathy when Polish frontiers were crossed by invading armies…” (Lech Wałęsa). “In July and August of 1980 a wave of strikes swept throughout Poland. The issue at stake was then something much bigger than only material conditions of existence.” (Lech walęsa). “In the brief history of those eventful years, the Gdańsk Agreement stands out as a great charter of the rights of the working people which nothing can ever destroy.” (Lech Wałęsa). “Our union—the Solidarity— has grown into a powerful movement for social and moral liberation. The people, freed from the bondage of fear and apathy, called for reforms and improvements. We fought a difficult struggle for out existence. That was and still is a great opportunity for the whole country. I think that it marked also the road to be taken by authorities, if they thought of a state governed in cooperation and participation of all citizens.
Michalak, T. Strike in the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk. 1980. Photograph. Solidarity, Gdańsk. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/?document=79>.
The picture is an aerial view on the shipyard in Gdańsk, where the strike started on August 14th, 1980. In the picture, you can see a mass of people gathering around the entrance of the shipyard. The crowd of people is composed up of both shipyard workers and other citizens who just came out to show their support for the shipyard workers in their strike. The people are crowded around the fence and entrance to the shipyard as well as a cross, located in the middle of the courtyard. The photograph really shows the amount of support the shipyard workers had from their community and fellow Polish citizens.
Poster Commemorating the Unveiling in Gdańsk of the Memorial to Killed Shipyard Workers. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/23/plakat.jpg>.
This poster is promoting the unveiling of the Monument for the Fallen Shipyard Workers, honouring the workers who were killed in the strike in 1970. The 1970 strike was violent; 42 people were killed when the security services fired on the workers’ revolting. As apart of the demands of the workers who when on strike in 1980, a monument honouring those who died was to be erected. The poster is of the monument and on the left of it is the word „Grudzień,” which in Polish, means December, which is when the 1970 strike happened. The monument is composed up of three crosses, each with a anchor on the top, to symbolise the shipyard workers.
Składanowski, S./Karta. Lech Wałęsa, Triumphantly Carried Shoulder-high after the Signing of the First Point of the Agreement. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/17/7-3,%20MSZ.JPG>.
Lech Wałęsa is held up on the shoulders of Solidarity supporters in celebration of victory after the signing of the agreement. This was a great accomplishment for the Solidarity Trade Union because it was their first break through in the communist bloc of Poland. Behind Lech Wałęsa are crowds of supporters and even people looking out of their windows; this shows the wide spread support that Solidarity had amassed. The first signing of the agreement was something that all Polish citizens in support of Solidarity celebrated, especially the workers of the Lenin Shipyard and other surrounding Shipyards.
“Solidarity” Poster Using the Colours of the National Flag. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/19/AOPL_000178.JPG>.
After the signing of the Gdańsk Agreement, posters such as this one were used to promote Solidarity and celebrate their victory. This poster used the colours of the Polish flag, and tie it into a knot as if to illustrate the new found unity of the workers at the Shipyard and the people of Poland. After the agreement had been signed, Solidarity’s main goal was gaining more support and organising itself to become very successful. Posters were used as an advertisement for their campaign, reaching more people than going from person to person.
Tagliabue, John. "Thousands at Gdansk Shipyard Join Polish Strike - New York Times."The New York Times. The New York Times, 3 May 1988. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/03/world/thousands-at-gdansk-shipyard-join-polish-strike.html?pagewanted=all>.
Strikes continued after 1980, demanding higher pay and legalisation of the Solidarity trade union. The government retained regional Solidarity leaders. “A strike wave is covering the country. They are not just local conflicts. They are across Poland because the cause is the economic crisis and lack of convincing reform policies that would offer prospects for the future,” (Lech Wałęsa). Crowds would gather around the shipyards and striking workers and leave flowers to show their support. Police would push the crowds back and away from the striking workers. The strikes were centred around more equal and fair treatment and higher pay as well as their trade union being more acknowledged.
Trybek, Z./Karta. Signature of the Agreement between the Interfactory Strike Committee and the Government Delegation. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <http://www.solidarity.gov.pl/gallery/gazeta/18/p-31-1-02,%20Trybek.JPG>.
The workers’ representatives and government commission meet together to sign the Gdańsk Agreement. The Gdańsk Agreement ended the strike and agreed to the demands of the workers, allowing the establishment of self governing trade unions. Lech Wałęsa can be seen signing the Gdańsk agreement with an oversized plastic pen, bearing the face of the pope, Pope Jan Paweł II. The workers’ representatives, MKS, met with Mieczysław Jagielski, who at the time was surviving as prime minister for the communist government. The Gdańsk Agreement was Solidarity’s big breakthrough. Unlike the strike in 1970, which ended in violence, the Gdańsk Agreement was what ended the 1980 strike in peace.
Alex. "1970-71: Uprising in Poland." Libcom.org. Libcom, 31 Oct. 2008. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <http://libcom.org/history/1970-71-uprising-poland>.
December strikes in 1970, when thousands of shipyard workers in Gdańsk marched into the city in protest of the increased prices on basic consumer goods. Their goal was to reach the local regional office of the Polish United Workers’ Party (PZPR). The protesters were met by police and engaged in fighting. The three port cities of Poland were placed under telecommunications block by the government. By the end of December, most of the shipyards in the main port cities had gone on strike. At the end of January, a more democratic strike committee was formed and an agreement was formed. This uprising was the first time the Polish workers had demanded a change and won. It paved the way for the strikes that changed Poland forever.
Blazejowska, Justyna. "Solidarity 1980-2010." Free Poland. Free Poland, 04 Oct. 2011. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <http://freepl.info/9-solidarity-1980-2010>.
More strikes continued but Solidarity stood as a mediator for the workers, reducing the amount of strikes but getting the workers their demands. Solidarity became politically involved giving them more power while slowly taking away the power of the communist leaders. Lech Wałęsa was put into power but resigned on December 12, 1990. The Union got about 5% of the support in the elections in 1990, which gave them 27 deputy seats. But the little votes for Solidarity throughout various elections were considered a failure for the Union. But in 1997, Solidarity received 33% of the votes. Then the Union left the political scene, but they had reformed the political scene completely.
Donovan, Jeffrey. "Poland: Solidarity -- The Trade Union That Changed The World."Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. RFE/RL, 24 Aug. 2005. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. <http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1060898.html>.
The strike that began on the 14th of August 1980 changed both Poland and the world. 17,000 workers went on strike at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk in protest of the rising food prices among other things. This was the first time that the Communist government had given into the demands of the workers. In September of 1980, the Independent Self-Governing Trade Union Solidarity (NSZZ) was formed. After a year, nearly a quarter of Poland ad joined the trade union. Solidarity was the first breakthrough in the Communist block of Poland. Leader of the shipyard strikes was Lech Wałęsa, who had nearly been arrested by the secret police the morning of the strike, but succeeded in climbing over the shipyard gate and join the rest of the workers.
Moberg, Beata. Solidarity. University of St. Francis - Joliet, Il. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.stfrancis.edu/content/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/btopics/works/Solidarity.html>.
Trade union was formed during the economic and social struggles in communist Poland. Workers of the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańśk started the wave of strikes on August 14th. The demand was more freedom from the communist management of the shipyards. Their request was for an increased pay, fair treatment, free trade union, and uncensored media. The strikers got a mass of support from the other citizens around the area and the church. On August 31st Mieczyslaw Jagielski and Lech Wałęsa signed the Gdańsk Agreement. This was a great breakthrough in the communist government and party. Solidarność became a nationwide organisation that revolutionised the communist involvement in industry. This was a big deal because the communist government did not tolerate loss of authority. Together the workers overthrew communism in Poland, and it all started on August 14th with the shipyard strike in Gdańsk.
"NSZZ Solidarność History in Dates." NSZZ Solidarność History in Dates. Multimedia Productions. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <http://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/en/history-in-dates.html>.
The Solidarity movement has continued to make progress and provide more rights for the workers. They had managed to increase minimum wage up to 40% in 2006. The continue to set up campaigns in support of the workers in Poland and workers all across the world. They have trade union representatives from the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia; all countries that were formally under the Iron Fist. While they have taken a few steps away from directly being apart of the political scene, they are still have a great influence on it and often meet with parliamentary representatives.
"NSZZ Solidarność Objectives." NSZZ Solidarność Objectives. Multimedia Productions. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <http://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/en/objectives.html>.
The object of Solidarity continues to be the guarantee of workers rights as in all areas, fight unemployment, improve vocational qualifications, protect the interests of the workers and their families, maintain and mediate for a proper management, influence economic and social polices, promote democracy, foster patriotic attitude, help those with special needs and care, strengthen family life, cooperate and collaborate with other international organisations, protect culture and education, advocate for environmental protection, as well as represent the workers. Solidarity will achieve this by continuing to represent their members before their employers, the government and other institutions, monitoring the workplace, provide legal counselling, union training, and just being there for the workers and attend to their needs.
NSZZ Solidarność. Multimedia Productions. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <
On July 1st 1980, the government introduced commercial prices on food and other everyday objects, provoking the workers to protest. August 14th 1980, the Gdańsk shipyard goes on strike, soon after inspiring other shipyards in the region and country to go on strike as well. Main demands were the reinstatement of Anna Walentynowicz and the erection of a monument for the fallen shipyard workers killed in the December revolt in 1970. On September 13th, the agreement for a free and independent trade union is ratified. Supreme courts and committees begin to adopt and acknowledge “Solidarność.” In December the monument for the Fallen Shipyard was erected outside the Gdańsk shipyard.
Siegelbaum, Lewis. "1980: Solidarity in Poland." Seventeen Moments in Soviet History. Soviet History. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <http://soviethistory.org/index.php?page=subject&SubjectID=1980solidarity&Year=1980>.
The formation of the Polish trade union, Solidarity, in 1980, disturbed Soviet Authorities. It was considered a embarrassment for the Marxist-Leninists to be confronted by the workers with such widespread support. The start of Solidarity was the Lenin Shipyard, which was the same shipyard whose workers went on strike in 1970 over raised food prices. There were many other protests over raised food and commercial goods prices and unfair treatment between 1970 and 1980. On the 3rd of September 1980, the Politburo came up six “theses.” Solidarity was characterised as an “anti-socialist opposition” which caused for of a threat to the communist government. In December 1981, there was a declaration of martial law, where the Soviet leadership extended economic assistance.
"The Story of the Solidarity Movement." Solidarity Gdansk Poland. Gdansk Life. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <http://www.gdansk-life.com/poland/solidarity>.
Solidarity was established in September 1980 at the Gdańsk shipyards. It was an independent labour union that was the catalyst in the transformation from communism to democracy in Poland. In 1980, Poland was suffering from an economic crisis, which forced the rise in price of goods and curbing the growth of wages. The firing of Anna Walentynowicz, as well as the previous firing of Lech Wałęsa sparked the shipyard strike at the Lenin Shipyard. The strike started on the 14th of August. On the 16th, many other strike committees joined the strikes. By the 18th the Szczecin shipyard joined the strike, which began a wave of more strikes along the coast of Poland. Solidarity was the first independent labour union in the Soviet Bloc.
"1980: Shipyard Poles Strike for Their Rights." BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/14/newsid_2802000/2802553.stm>.
Shipyard workers in Gdańsk stage strike over the dismissal of Anna Walentynowicz. The strike was apart of the growing campaign to improve the economic situation for the workers and gain political freedom. Around 16,000 workers succeeded in getting Walentynowicz reinstated and a compromise for more accurate media coverage, and the right to form their own representative bodies instead of using official trade unions. In the 1970 riot, the workers succeeded in getting the Communist Party leader, Wladyslaw Gomulka out of office. They also got the authorities to allow the construction of the Monument for the fallen shipyard workers. The workers also got a 40% pay rise.
Out of all the possible topics, I wanted to go for one that reflected my beliefs in the past. The National History Day theme this year was Revolution, Reaction, and Reform in History or the 3 R’s for short. I chose to focus on John Brown and his involvement in slavery. I discovered on my journey that John Brown was an abolitionist but did not just care about saving people he wanted to abolish slaves.
I started my research by searching the Internet for letters or just simple information on his background. What shocked me the most was that he stopped at nothing and he was white. He sacrificed his life to save others and I started to dig even more. For primary sources I searched through personal letters and pictures provided by archives from different magazines. The most interesting part I found out is he refused services before he died, he didn’t want anyone spreading the gospel to him he wanted to be punished for his beliefs in abolishing slavery.
This was my first National History Day project so I chose a documentary video. It allowed me to use my creative side in a formal presentation. In using the documentary video I chose to do more of an informative theme. I did a voice over and at the end I played a actual video clip of a movie showing John Brown going to his “death”. I put text in there occasionally and used actual historians. I chose the pictures in my video to show the reenactment of the trials and tribulations individuals’ back then went through. To edit my pictures I used Photoshop.
John Brown gave others the opportunity to finish a dream he had. He didn’t know the outcome his ideas would have but he did try. He never felt he was wrong even through his trial. He saw it as a chance to improve America and their way of being. Even though he wasn’t successful he shifted America’s attitude toward slavery. Thus, slavery did not end but for years to come it became better. The debate over John Brown’s intention is a very mixed feeling. Some feel like he was wrong for pursing slavery and knew the outcome of his actions but others feel like he started something and brought light to a very complex topic. John Brown’s Revolution highlights many aspects individuals did not know about.
•John Brown on Harpers Ferry. N.d. Painting. Turboverbal, Philadelphia.
Annotation: I think this is important because this is a painting or depiction of the fight between him and the generals. I think this is important because I can actually show what I mean and not just talk about it. We can see that John Brown is still standing with both sides are wounded.
•Brown, John. "John Brown to his Brother Frederick. John Brown to his Brother Frederick. John Brown letter." West Virginia Division of Culture And History. (1834): n. page. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.
Annotation: I think this is important to my research because I can compare letters he sent to other people and his brother. It can be a comparison on his style and if he withhold information from certain people. I also like this source because this letter can be
•"John Brown Papers held by the Jefferson County Circuit Clerk's Office ." Folder 1 . Jefferson County: Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.wvculture.org/history/johnbrown/jbjeffcc.html>.
Annotation:I think this is a good source because these papers are like his certificate and different legal documents. I can use this in my documentary video to show the comparison between now and then. And how the legal process is different from similar cases to John Brown. I can compare human and inhuman things they do.
•Douglas, Fredrick. "Frederick Douglass on John Brown’s Revolutionary Vision." Kasama 16 October 2009, n. pag. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://kasamaproject.org/2009/10/16/slave-leader-fred-on-john-brown/>.
Annotation: I think this is a great source because Fredrick Douglass is talking about what he thinks of the whole thing. I am using this because John Brown actually wanted Fredrick Douglass to go with him and fight but because of illness he reclined. I think this can be important to my research because I can get his opinion and if illness was the true reason he didn’t go.
•Flounders, Sara. "Cuba, Haiti and John Brown – To Rebel Is Justified." [New York, NY] n.d., n. pag. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.iacenter.org/haiti/john-brown.htm>.
Annotation:I think this is a great source also because it is comparing some of the biggest revolutions in the world with John Brown. They are saying why is a street named after John Brown who created so much trouble. I can get very many opinions of John Brown and contrast and compare the effects of his actions. How he has changed America in an American eye.
•Faust, Patricia. "John Brown." Civil War Home. n. page. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.civilwarhome.com/johnbrownbio.htm>.
Annotation: I think this is a good source because this basically a little biography of him. I am seeing a lot of different things about him. Some people facts about him differ so I can find out why and get a lot of information about him through this.
•Brown, John. "John Brown Speech." John Brown's
Speech to the Court at his Trial. Charles Town, Virginia, Virginia . November
2, 1859. Speech.
I am using this information because this site goes and uses a passage of what John Brown actually said at his trial. It’s essential because of the major event that led to his death. I think this essential because it can help me and I can find some videos or a voice with him at his trial would be great. In my presentation I incorporate the voice so it sound more real.
•Brown, John. "John Brown letters for the years 1833 thru 1859." Family Tales. Springfield, Massachusetts . 16th Jan., 1848.. Reading.
I am using this information because this is actual diaries from John Brown. This letter I will use because it concludes and leads up to his raid on Harper’s Ferry. This is essential because his thoughts are present in this diary.
•Brown, John. Personal Interview. 10.18.1859.
I am using this information because this is an interview at jail with John Brown and a senator. The senator ask him all these questions on how he feels. I think this is essential because this gets his feelings inside the jail. He always goes and says he doesn’t believe that he has been treated unfairly which is very well in this case. He’s at peace for the decisions.
•Life and Letters of John Brown; Liberator of Kansas, and Martyr of Virginia, 1885, F. B. Sanborn.
I am using this information because this is another diary of John Brown. This time he decides to write to someone different who he just basically tells them how he is doing. Which I can use this at a different time to depict two different things.
• Virginia State of. John Brown. 1859. Photograph. Library of Virginia, Virginia.
I am using this information because this a photograph of John Brown in court. This is his actual court date and I think this is essential because I know how the court room looked and can focus on that surrounding and how it’s suppose to be incorporated.
•Brown, John. "John Brown Speech." John
Brown's Speech to the Court at his Trial. Charles Town, Virginia, Virginia .
November 2, 1859. Speech.
-I am using this information because this site goes and uses a passage of what John Brown actually said at his trial. It’s essential because of the major event that led to his death. I think this essential because it can help me and I can find some videos or a voice with him at his trial would be great. In my presentation I incorporate the voice so it sound more real.
•Linder, Douglas. " The Trial of John Brown: A Commentary." 2005. Lecture.
-I am using this information because this is a commentary of everything that went on that day. This essential because it’s a historian who study this in depth and gave everything he knew about it. I can use this to find out thoughts of the jury and the judge.
•Brown, John. "John Brown's Speech to the Court at his Trial." John Brown's Other Statements at his Trial. Virginia. 1859. Speech.
-I am using this information because the speech he uses has key points. I can point this out in the presentation because it shows the different views and how he feels his self. I think this is important because it also other quotes from him. “I feel entirely satisfied with the treatment I have received on my trial.” I think he played the devil advocate which is in good because it’s not so bias.
•"Virginia v. John Brown." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 5 Jan 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_v._John_Brown>.
-I am using this information because this is the trial that day. It goes in to depth of the state of Virgina vs. him and it gives information of really happened. I could incorporate this because I can factor in the tone of the court room if it was more so they were being mad at him for choosing to live that way..in way of trying to help others and wanting everyone to have equal rights.
•Brown, John. "The Trial of John Brown." The Trial of John Brown. NEW YORK. Charlestown, Virginia. 1859. Lecture.
-I am using this information because this is also another copy of the lecture. It also shows a depiction of a photo of John Brown at his execution being hanged. I need this information because the whole way his body structure is can play a big part of how I depict it in my presentation.
•The Hanging ." PBS.
Web. 5 Jan 2012.
-I am using this information because this is in depth more of the execution. What they did to him? What time he was executed because I want to do a movie or perform it live it goes in to the costumes and the lighting of every scene.
•, and Victor Hugo. The Hanging of John Brown. 1860. Photograph. n.p.
-I am using this information because this is another picture of him being hanged from a different view. Another reason I need this is because of the body structure and his face. In this source I would merely focus on the people around him rather then focusing on him.
•Aftermath." Web. 5 Jan 2012.
-I am using this information to end my presentation. This is the aftermath of the execution which I will focus on every one's reactions. I will be the devil’s advocate and get one good review and one bad review. All to conclude the presentation.
•, and Horace Pippin. John Brown Going to His Hanging. 1942. Photograph. PAFA, Philadelphia.
-I am using this photograph to be the near ending part of the presentation. In this photograph John Brown is being carried to his hanging. I will depict it a little differently though but while going to his execution I can zoom in on people’s reaction. In the picture its just every standing around while about 4-5 guys carry him.
•John Brown Hanging. 1859. Painting. n.p.
-This is another depiction of John Brown Hanging a painting. This can be used because everyone has a different view on how he was hung and how it happened. But these pictures seem to be so real because they include very much detail. This picture can be used because the picture kind of zooms just on him. Something that is different. The background is very important to. I can figure out where he actually is.
-I wanted to use this source because it goes in depth of how
the raid happened. It also includes visual explanations. I want to use the
first paragraph to explore in depth on the history on why he wanted to raid
Harper’s Ferry and how many people were involved.
•, and First Last. John Brown Raid Photos. N.d. Photograph. West Virginia Archives and History, Virginia.
-I wanted to use this source because this is an picture of John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry in Virgina. I think this is essential because I can compare pictures of the Harper before he invaded it and the ruins(aftermath) of the effects.
•"John Brown's Raid, 1859" EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com
-I wanted to use this source because this is also an eye witness account of what happened. This includes quotes from John Brown from that day. I think it will be essential because in my presentation while presenting I can make these points very big and important.
•John Brown." Harpers Ferry. Web. 6 Jan 2012. <http://www.nps.gov/hafe/historyculture/john-brown.htm>.
-I wanted to use this source because it gives a little more information of the situation. I use this because it goes in to what he was charged with him due to the crimes he committed. I think this is essential because I need to use something and the presentation would be way better if I knew on how to incorporate his crimes and how it would flow together.
•"Raiders." Harpers Ferry. Web. 6 Jan 2012. <https://docs.google.com/a/scienceleadership.org/viewer?url=http://www.nps.gov/hafe/historyculture/upload/Raiders03-2.pdf>.
-I wanted to use this source because this is the perfect thing to incorporate on who also was involved in the raid with John Brown. Without them he wouldn’t even be able to get that far with the crime. I think it’s essential because I can find some documents and see if they were convicted of any crimes with John Brown.
All of the members of the group practice the religion Christianity. None of us really knew how our religion became so popular. As soon as this project was given to the group, within the first five minutes of thinking about what we wanted to do our research on, we came up with the idea of the uprising of Christianity. We thought that the best time period to study for this particular topic would be the Crusades. We started our research right away. We explored many different websites and went to the library and took out books to read about Constantine and the Crusades. We decided who’s going to to do what specific event and we got to work! We gathered up all of our information and put it together. We found that our information flowed together so well that we thought it would look best displayed on a website. So we made a website and then later modified it to be a bit better.
Our project relates to NHD theme because we took a very interested time period and explored it. We became reporters from over a thousand years ago and spread the good news of the uprising of Christianity. We got to witness first hand Constantine declaring that he is converting into a new religion. We got to explore this time period knowing what we know already, knowing that the dates we visited are dates where events happened that changed our world forever.