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*** Genetics! ***

​This blog post will basically touch the simple facts, the history of genetics, etc.

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1886: Gregor Mendel discovered that traits of offspring depend on the parents traits, which may be dominant or recessive. ( but this was somehow lost)

1902: Theodore Boveri & Walter Sutton used color to observe chromosomes 

1905: Nettle Stevens found out that all homologous chromosomes are the same except the ones that determines sex (X,Y)

1909: Thomas H Morgan made many important researches in fly genetics and linked analysis that apply to all diploid organisms

1941: Beadle and Tatum discovered that each gene encodes one protein

1944: Oswald Avery identified DNA as genetic material

1953: Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins showed that the DNA is a double helix, Thomas Watson and Frances Crick figured out that the base of the double helix enabled replication 

1970: Tamin and Baltimore found a enzyme used to clone genes 

1981: First transgenic mammals are made

1996: Iam Wilmut cloned the lamb Dolly from adult mammary gland tissue  


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Genetics is the features and characteristics that make up an organism. 

 

 Your genetics decipher what you will look like, and your features.

 

There are many things you can learn about your genetics like your DNA and what factors are inside of it to make it important, also your genotype/phenotype, and what a recessive gene and dominant gene is.

 

Lets start simple:

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DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid. Your DNA is a molecule that carries all of your genetic information

 

Genotype describes what certain alleles are on a certain chromosome

 

Alleles are a form of a gene that play part on a specific chromosome, which controls a certain trait.

 

There are dominant and recessive alleles

 

Dominant alleles are upper case and usually the trait that comes out the most

 

Recessive is usually shown with an lower case letter, and in this allele it is usually the trait that does not show unless the organism is homozygous.

 

Homozygous just means that both of the alleles are either dominant or recessive

 

Heterozygous means that one of the alleles are dominant and one is recessive  

 

Phenotype is the physical characteristics of the gene



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There are many ways that you can determine what exactly an offspring’s traits will be by using genotype. One way is to look at the alleles of the two organisms. Also if you really wanted to be accurate you will put them in a punnet square.


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Punnet squares is just a fancy word to describe the separation of alleles to figure out what an offspring may look like, also to fish out the chances of having a certain child.

 

For example a mother and father are about to have a child they want a child with blue eyes. The mother has two alleles bb, which are homozygous. The father also has two alleles Gb, which are heterozygous. Knowing that the father has green eyes, because greens allele is dominant and blue is recessive you can figure out what is the chance of the child having blue eyes.  

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By looking at this you can see that the child has a 50% chance of having green eyes or having blue eyes. But what if the father was also homozygous?

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There would be no chance at the child being born with blue eyes. 


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In the PSSA I do not know exactly what kind of questions will be asked, but make sure you do the study island and also look up a few things to make sure you understand such as:

Where your DNA gets its information from and what it is made up of and how its held together

How many chromosomes a human has (46)

Different types of gene disorders and also different types oh names for each type of gene

What kind of diseases are gene orientated

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http://www.learner.org/interactives/dna/genetics.html
http://www.dnai.org/
http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/dna/
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/dna/builddna/

http://dnaandrna.com/RNA.html



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Mike and Paige Evolution

Everything on pdf

TopicKey PointsImportant Diagrams
Theory of Evolution

Animals Evolved  to adapt during different weather conditions. Many theories of evolution are just hypothesis. The monkey to man diagram
What I learnedQuestions
How humans and other species have evolved to adapt in their environment.
What would happen if the land disappear? Would humans adapt and grow fins.


Theory of evolution 2 Mike Paige
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Energy Transformations by Michelle Torelli & Mohamed Marzouk

RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTS:

Through research we encountered a variety of experiments to gain knowledge of our topic, Energy Transformations. We gathered that there is Potential, Kinetic, and Elastic energy. In one simple experiment of dropping a ball both factors of Potential and Kinetic was shown. When the ball is in the air Potential (gravity) is stored, once released the ball's energy transforms from potential to kinetic as kinetic energy becomes greater as the stored (potential) energy is transferred. Another experiment done was of a catapult launching an object through the air. Depending on the structure of the catapult there is Elastic energy within a spring-like material to then launch the object, the transfer of energy is from Elastic to Kinetic but may be dissipation where some of the energy is wasted due to friction.

HOW TO SHOW THROUGH QUALITATIVE DATA:


There are several ways to express Energy Transformations through visuals such as LOL diagrams and pie charts. LOL diagrams are diagrams showing Initial Energy, The Flow of Energy, and Final Energy. Pie Charts represent qualitative and/or quantitative of how the energy is being transferred.

Example 1: (LOL diagram)
Scenario: Free Fall of a Ball = Potential (gravitational) to Kinetic (before the ball comes in contact with another force)
lolgraph


Example 2: (Pie Chart)
Scenario: Catapult Launching an Object = Elastic energy becomes kinetic over time
piechartz


GENERAL UNDERSTANDING:


Overall, Energy Transformation "is the process of changing energy from one form to another." Energy Transformation is in everyday life from dropping a ball to sliding down a playground slide. Energy can be potential (stored), kinetic (moving)
elastic (spring constant), dissipation (lost), and radiation(waves). Throughout the process of energies changing there can be more than one in existence. For example you may have a dart shoot into a ceiling and then remain in place due to initially the dart had kinetic energy then one hits the ceiling dissipated energy but also has some potential (gravitational) energy.

4. An example of the types of questions (multiple choice) related to your topic that might appear on the PSSA with an explanation of how you can decide on the correct answer.


A child kicked a soccer ball. How is energy being transferred?

A) Potential (Gravitational)
B) Kinetic
C) Dissipation
D) Radiation

Explanation: Since the ball is in motion the only logical answer is Kinetic.

What units is energy measured in?

A) Newtons
B) Kilograms
C) Joules
D) Pounds

Explanation: With process of elimination; Newtons measures force, kilograms measures mass, and pounds measures weight with the only option left is "Joules".

Which energy transformation is used to cook food in a microwave?

A) Radiation
B) Dissipation
C) Friction
D) Gravity

Explanation: Radiation travels in waves which cooks food in a microwave its a type of heat. Choices B,C, and D are irrelevant.

Sound is _______ energy?

A) Heated
B) Dissipated
C) Cold
D) Kinetic

Explanation: When sound is distributed it transforms into nothing more than just rhythms or syllables to our ears. When energy is not transferred than it is lost; dissipated.
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El Secreto del Gato ~ por Nia Hammond

​Había una familia el los calles de Camden. Había un papá, una mamá, un hijo, y una hija. La familia vivía en una caja roja. La familia tenía un gato. Era un gato especial. El gato era bastante importante. El gato tenía un secreto. El gato estaba enojado. El gato lloraba. El gato le sollozó al papá, "El mar, Papacocha, está furioso. Papacocha va a destruir el helado." Había un problema. Era un problema grave.

El gato le mandó al papá, "Escala las escaleras infinitas." La familia caminó hacia las escaleras infinitas más alta con el gato. Las escaleras infinitas más altas se llamaba Saqsaywaman. 

Había un zorrillo. El gato le dijo al zorrillo, "Hay un problema. ¡El mar, Papachocha, está furioso! El mar va a destruir el helado. Sube las escaleras infinitas más alta con nosotros." El zorrillo conprendió perfectamente. El zorrillo escapó con el grupo. 

Había una tortuga. El gato le exclamó a la tortuga, "Hay un problema. ¡El mar está enojadísimo! El mar va a destruir el helado. Escala las escaleras infinitas más alta con nosotros." La tortuga comprendió bien. La tortuga no caminaba con el grupo. La tortuga patinó sobre ruedas. 

Había un oso blanco. El gato le dijo al oso blanco, "Hay un problema. ¡El mar, Papacocha, está enfadado! El mar va a destruir el helado. Sube las escaleras infinitas más alta con nosotros." El oso blanco entendió. El oso blanco se fue con el grupo.

Había en elefante. El gato le explicó al elefante, "Hay un problema. ¡El mar, Papacocha, está furioso! El mar va a destuir el helado. Escala las escaleras infinitas más alta con nosotros." El elefante comprendió. El elefante no caminó con el grupo. El elefante voló por avión. 

Había un gusano. El gato le dijo, "Hay un problema. ¡El mar, Papacocha, está furioso! El mar va a destruir el helado. Sube las escaleras infinitas con nosotros. El gusano no les hizo caso. El gusano no se fue con el grupo. El gusano era demasiado perezoso. 

El grupo subió las escaleras infinitas más alta. La familia, el gato, el zorrillo, y el oso blanco subieron Saqsaywaman, las escaleras infinitas más alta. La tortuga patinó sobre suredas a Saqsaywaman. El elefante voló por avión a Saqsaywaman. 

El mar subió. El mar subió con furia. Había un problema. Era un problema grave. El gusano no estaba con el grupo. El gusano nadó. El gusano no caminó. El gusano no voló. El gusano nadó rápido. El gusano subió las escaleras infinitas más alta. El gusano estaba feliz. 

Por fin el par, Papacocha, estaba contento y no subió más. El mar bajó. La familia bajó. El gato bajó. Los otros animales bajaron. Y todos estaban felices. Y ya no había problemas.
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Structure & function

What is Structure and Function.

 Function and structure are related, because of a certain structure a living thing make contain makes the object function the way it does. The are a lot of structural future in humans, plants, animal and all living things. The relationship of a structure and function is the structuring levels from molecules to organism ensure successful functioning in all living organism and living system. Note one structure can have multiple function.From my under standing structure and function can be broken down in to several part like chemical level which deal with  atoms proton etc as the structure and what they do is the function.

 

 

Classification of Living Things

Living things are placed into groups based on both structural and functional similarities. For example, bacteria are prokaryotic cells, which means they lack a true nucleus. These are structural characteristics. A functional characteristic which defines bacteria is that they reproduce by binary fission. Plant cells are structurally different to other cells because they contain a large central vacuole and plastids such as chloroplasts. These structural features also support a plant’s function, since the presence of chloroplasts allows the plant to carry out photosynthesisExample of a structure and function:

Amino acids structure directly affects its function. It’s a lock and key method that cannot work unless the structure fit together. When they fit they can carry out the function of speeding up a chemical process.

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  • Chemical level – the structure of molecules determines the properties of substances, which, in turn, determine their functions. For example, the chemical structure of metals allows them to conduct electricity, which makes metals useful as conductors

     

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Cellular level – the structure of cells is linked to their function. For example, lung cells are very thin, which allows gases to diffuse easily through the cells. 


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Cellular Processes

There are several types of cellular processes that occur in the cells of living things. 

Photosynthesis is the process where plant cells use sunlight energy to produce glucose and oxygen. The opposite process to this is cellular 
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Meiosis and mitosis are two forms of cell reproduction. In mitosis, a cell produces an exact copy of itself. This is a form of asexual reproduction. It also occurs for other processes, such as hair growth, skin repair, and cell regeneration. In meiosis, a cell is produced that is not an exact copy. Instead, the cell has only half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.Meiosis is the basis for sexual reproduction, where a cell with a complete set of chromosomes is produced when two gamete cells combine. 


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DNA replication   is a biological process that occurs in all living organisms and copies their DNA; it is the basis for biological inheritance

 

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Practice Question

For this question we know that cellular respiration    
The process of cell in which cells turn food into usable energy in the form of ATP. We know we consume oxygen and then release carbon dioxide. Looking on the option a only part it true .We consume energy, but we don’t absorb energy we use our stored energy. B is no right at all we don’t produce oxygen. C is the correct answer we consume oxygen and release energy. D is like B so it wrong also.

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We know that the nucleus is the the center of the cell.We can use common sense.you can say that since it the center it control the whole cell. Number two say it controls the cell. number three say control also but it not the answer.Three is say some .but the nucleus controls all of the cell.
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​Ok some of you might be wondering what  is a sap vacuole.one Suggestion is you dont know what is  use context clue. Vacuole sounds like vacum and a vacum suck in stuff and stores it .Looking on the choices two  two say control and other say support and stores. if you remember the question before that the nucleus controls the cell.so 3 is out of it. the only one that comes close to the context clue is number 4 .
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El secreto: Taylor Stover

Taylor Stover

Spanish 


Había una vez estaba un tigre mágico. Vivió en las montañas de Columbia. Hizo ruidos salvajes que atrajo a todos los que escuchaban. Estaba un niño quien mirar el tigre en el noche. El niño y el tigre ser amigos, pero no otros personas saben sobre la amistad.


El niño y el tigre escalamos un montañas todos el noche. El tigre hablan mucho con el niño 

el tigre le dijo sobre el mundo. El niño lloraran con el tigre. Sus es mejor amigos, pero es problema porque los personas en el barrio no saben sobre el tigre. El tigre preguntó el muchacho para mantener el secreto. Hasta que una noche, los chicos padres notó que no era en el casa. 


parte 2. 

La mama de los chico son muy furioso. Ella llamada todos personas en el barrio. De la nada el cúrro volar de la casa y hablan mama, le dijo que su hijo es los amigos con el tigre. La mama no creen que él. El cúrro escalar la mama encontrar a su hijo. "El tigre es una problema su quieren destruir el mundo. 


El tigre empezo a cambiar. Su se convirtió muy antipatico. El niño fur asustado. Es grande problema. " Quiero destruir el mundo" dijo el tigre. "No to no puedes" dijo el niño. Su necesitan parar el tigre. Su necesitan bajar los montañas y atras a Columbia. 


parte 3. 

La familial de los chico escalar los montañas. Ellos escucharon para el sonido del tigre.  La mama es muy furioso. Todos quieren lo hijo. El secreto es muy malo. Había un problema. La mama miran su hijo, "YAY" ella estaba enojada pero esta muy feliz porque encontran su hijo. 


El tigre ahogarse en el mar y todos personas en Columbia vivía feliz nunca después. 

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El Secreto de el Perro

Había una familia en el rio de Canada. Había un papá, una mamá, un hijo, y una hija. La familia vivía en una caja. La familia vivia en una casa pobre. Era un perro de la calle. El perro era bastante ghetto. El perro tenía un secreto. El perro estaba locisimo. El perro no se bañaba. El perro sollozó al papá, “Mamacocha esta furioso. Mamacocha va a destruir el mundo.” Había un problema. Era un problema grave.


El perro le mandó el papá, “Escala la basura más alta con tu familia. La familia voló hacia el rascacielos mas alta con el perro. La basura más alta se llamaba La gran basura.


Había un guanaco. El perro le dijo al guanaco, “Hay una problema. ¡Mamacocha tiene esta furioso! El mar va a destruir el mundo. sube la basura con nosotros.” El guanaco comprendió perfectamente. El guanaco se escapo con el grupo.



Había un flamenco. El perro le exclamó al guanaco, “Hay una problema. ¡El mar esta furioso! El mar va a destruir el mundo. Escala la basura con nosotros.” El comprendió bien. El flamenco no voló con el grupo. El vailo salsa hasta la basura.



Había una puma. El parro le dijo a la puma, “Hay una problema. ¡Mamacocha esta furioso! El mar va a destruir el mundo. Escala la basura con nosotros.” El puma entendió. La puma se fue con el grupo.



Había un cóndor. El perro le explico al cóndor, “Hay una problema. ¡Mamacocha esta furioso! El mar va a destruir el mundo. Escala la basura con nosotros.” El cóndor comprendió. El cóndor no voló con el grupo. El cóndor tambien vailo salsa hasta la basura. 




Había un zorro. El perro le explico al cóndor, “Hay una problema. ¡Mamacocha esta furioso! El mar va a destruir el mundo. Escala la basura con nosotros.” El zorro no les dio de comer. El zorro no se fue con el grupo. El zorro era demasiado cansado.


El grupo subió el rascacielos mas alta. La familia, el perro, el guanaco, y la puma volaron a la basura mas alta. El flamenco camino y el cóndor vailaron salsa hasta la basura.


El mar subió. El mar subió . Había una problema. Había un problema grave. El zorro no estaba con el grupo. El zorro voló. El zorro no camino. El zorro no nado. El zorro voló rápido. El zorro voló a la basura mas grande. El zorro no estaba cansado mas nada.


Por fin el mar, Mamacocha, estaba en la basura y no subió mas. El mar bajo. La familia bajo. Los otros animales bajaron. Y todos tenían hambre. Ya había muchas problemas.
hobo-tree-climbing-w526h395
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El Secreto del Pingüino por Edgar Pacio

Había una familia en las Islas Sandwich. Había un papá, una mamá, un hijo, y una hija. La familia vivía en una caja. La familia tenia un pingüino. Era un pingüino gordo. El pingüino era bastante gordo. El pingüino tenía hambre. El pingüino estaba preocupadísima. EL pingüino lloraba. El pingüino sollozó al papá, “Mamacocha tiene hambre. Mamacocha va a destruir el mundo.” Había un problema. Era un problema grave.


El pingüino le mandó el papá, “Escala el rascacielos más alta con tu familia. La familia voló hacia el rascacielos mas alta con el pingüino. El rascacielos más alta se llamaba el Torre Eiffel. 


Había un guanaco. El pingüino le dijo al guanaco, “Hay una problema. ¡Mamacocha tiene hambre! El mar va a destruir el mundo. sube el rascacielos con nosotros.” El guanaco comprendió perfectamente. El guanaco se escapo con el grupo.



Había un flamenco. El pingüino le exclamó al guanaco, “Hay una problema. ¡El mar tiene hambre! El mar va a destruir el mundo. Escala el rascacielos con nosotros.” El comprendió bien. El flamenco no voló con el grupo. El flamenco camino.



Había una puma. El pingüino le dijo a la puma, “Hay una problema. ¡Mamacocha tiene hambre! El mar va a destruir el mundo. Escala el rascacielos con nosotros.” El puma entendió. La puma se fue con el grupo.



Había un cóndor. El pingüino le explico al cóndor, “Hay una problema. ¡Mamacocha tiene hambre! El mar va a destruir el mundo. Escala el rascacielos con nosotros.” El cóndor comprendió. El cóndor no voló con el grupo. El cóndor nado. 




Había un zorro. El pingüino le explico al cóndor, “Hay una problema. ¡Mamacocha tiene hambre! El mar va a destruir el mundo. Escala el rascacielos con nosotros.” El zorro no les dio de comer. El zorro no se fue con el grupo. El zorro era demasiado flaco.


El grupo subió el rascacielos mas alta. La familia, el pingüino, el guanaco, y la puma volaron al Torre Eiffel. El flamenco camino y el cóndor nado al Torre Eiffel.


El mar subió. El mar subió con hambre. Había una problema. Había un problema grave. El zorro no estaba con el grupo. El zorro voló. El zorro no camino. El zorro no nado. El zorro voló rápido. El zorro voló al rascacielos mas grade. El zorro tenia hambre.


Por fin el mar, Mamacocha, estaba lleno de comer vacas y cabras y no subió mas. El mar bajo. La familia bajo. Los otros animales bajaron. Y todos tenían hambre. Ya había muchas problemas.

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El Secreto del Lagarto por Seamus Kirby

Parte 1:


Había una familia en la subterráneo del océano Pacífico. Había un papá, una mamá, un hijo, y una hija. La familia vivía en una cueva de oro. La familia tenía una lagarto. Era una lagarto especial. El lagarto era bastante importante. El lagarto tenía un secreto. E lagarto estaba preocupadísima. El lagarto voló. El lagarto le sollozó al papá, "El sol, Mamacocha, está furioso, Mamacocha va a beber el oceano." Había un problema. Era un problema grave. 


El lagarto le mandó al papá, "venenar la montaña más alta con tu familia." La familia cavó hacia la montaña más alta con el lagarto. El montaña más alta se llamaba Huillcacoto.


Parte 2:


Había un gnu. El lagarto le dijo al gnu, "Hay un problema. ¡El sol, Mamacocha, está furioso! El sol va a beber el oceano. Venena la montaña más alta con nosotros." El gnu comprendió perfectamente. El gnu se escapó con el grupo.


Había un alce. El lagarto le dijo al alce, "Hay un problema. ¡El sol, Mamacocha, está furioso! El sol va a beber el oceano. Venena la montaña más alta con nosotros." El alce comprendió perfectamente. El alce no caminaba con el grupo, el alce nadó.


Había un tortuga. El lagarto le dijo al tortuga, "Hay un problema. ¡El sol, Mamacocha, está furioso! El sol va a beber el oceano. Venena la montaña más alta con nosotros." El tortuga comprendió perfectamente. El tortuga se escapó con el grupo.


Había un elefante. El lagarto le dijo al elefante, "Hay un problema. ¡El sol, Mamacocha, está furioso! El sol va a beber el oceano. Venena la montaña más alta con nosotros." El elefante comprendió perfectamente. El elefante no caminaba con el grupo, el elefante voló.


Había un tiburón. El lagarto le dijo al tiburón, "Hay un problema. ¡El sol, Mamacocha, está furioso! El sol va a beber el oceano. Venena la montaña más alta con nosotros." El tiburón no les hizo caso. El tiburón no se fue con el grupo. El tiburón era demasiado perezoso.


Parte 3:


El grupo subió la montaña más alta. La familia, el lagarto, el gnu, y el tortuga venenaron Huillcacoto, la montaña más alta. El alce y el elefante volaron y nadaran a Huillcacoto.


El sol bebo el mar. El sol bebo el mar con furia. Habia un problema. Era un problema grave, El tiburón no estaba con el grupo. El tiburón teleportó. El tiburón no caminó. El tiburón no voló. El tiburón no nadó. El tiburón teleportó rápido. El tiburón venenó la montaña más alta. El tiburón estaba feliz.


Por fin el sol, Mamacocha, estaba contento y no bebo más. El sol vomitó el mar. La familia bajó. La llama bajó. Los otros animales bajaron. Y todos estaban felices. Y ya no había problemas.

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9th Grade English: Macbeth Projects!

For their 3rd quarter Benchmark in English, Red and Orange Freshmen had a two-part mission: to do a quote analysis expository writing piece charting Macbeth or Lady Macbeth's journey through Shakespeare's Macbeth and then to also do a creative representation of that journey while incorporating the same quotes they used in their more formal writing. Here is a sampling of creative projects; more can be found on the class blogs here and here. Enjoy!!


http://scienceleadership.org/blog/Max_Amar-Olkus-s_creative_project

http://scienceleadership.org/blog/Cruz-Macbeth_BM

http://scienceleadership.org/blog/Macbeth_Creative_Piece-Lisa_Kang

http://scienceleadership.org/blog/Harper_-_Macbeth_BM
Macbeth Ft James.
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PSSA Biomes Document

Scientists generally measure multiple things in order to determine what the climate of a biome is like. The things that they measure in biomes include, temperature, precipitation, pressure, humidity, and several other things. Because of this, there are also several pieces of equipment that are used to measure these things. From simple thermometers, maps, and rulers, to gauges, cloud mirrors, and anemometers, all of these things are used when it comes to measuring the characteristics that make up the world’s biomes.


Table of Biomes

Biome

Average Temperature

Annual Rainfall

Types of Plants

Types of Animals

Tundra

-50˚F to 50˚F

<10 in.

Lichens, moss, shrubs

Polar bears, reindeer, arctic hares

Rainforest

70˚F to 85˚F

80 in. to 400 in.

Trees, orchids, epiphytes, vines

Birds, chipmunks, cougars, bobcats, monkeys, insects, reptiles, amphibians

Savanna

68˚F to 86˚F

10 in. to 30 in.

Trees, several types of grass, shrubs

Giraffes, elephants, zebras, horses, birds, insects

Taiga

-65˚F to 70˚F

10 in. to 30 in.

Trees

Squirrels, moles, moose, deer, elk, grizzly bears, wolves

Temperate Forest

50˚F to 70˚F

30 in. to 60 in.

Mainly trees

Chipmunks, black bears, birds

Grassland

20˚F to 70˚F

12 in. to 21 in.

Several types of grass and flowers

Ungulates, bison, antelopes, birds, gophers, prairie dogs, coyotes

Alpine

40˚F to 60˚F

12 in.



Chaparral

30˚F to 100˚F

10 in. to 17 in.

Taproot, poison oak, scrub oak, shrubs, cacti

Coyotes, jackrabbits, deer, lizards, toads, insects

Desert [coastal]

41˚F to 75˚F

3 in. to 5 in.

Mainly cacti

Snakes, insects, lizards, foxes, rats




Biomes have proven to be a vital part in both making the planet a lively place, and making it possible for our societies to thrive. Each one has their own personality from environment to environment. Some, such as the tundra and desert can be harsh and unforgiving in terms of hospitality, while others such as the rain forest and grasslands can provide a nice habitat for those willing to face their dangers. Each biome offers different types of animals and plants, as well as other natural resources for us to use in order to survive our own day-to-day lives. Without them, and the things they provide, the world would be a very boring place.

If questions relating to biomes were to ever appear on the PSSA, they would mostly ask what kind of plants and animals reside in what kind of environment. For example, a question may ask, “An animal with padded paws and thick fur can most likely be found in what environment?” The first thing you could do would be to eliminate the obviously wrong answers, such as the savanna and the grassland. The whole point is to decide which biome an animal with these characteristics would be most effective in. In this case, it would be the Tundra. 
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Environmental Consequences of Renewable Energy Sources

Dwindling supply and negative environmental impact is pushing the public to embrace renewable energy sources in exchange of conventional fossil fuels. When burned, coal and oil release tons of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere, with the potential to cause catastrophic impacts on the environment. The impending threat of global warming is pressing environmental scientists and engineers to improve the systems we use to gather renewable energy from unlimited natural resources. Each method of generating usable electricity has its own set of environmental problems, but people are always researching ways to improve them. Compared to the environmental consequences of burning fossil fuel to generate electricity, the pros of using renewable energy sources outweigh the cons.


Wind Power:

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Wind is a natural phenomenon that has no foreseeable end. It is a source of unlimited energy, and the turbines used to generate usable power from wind are relatively safe for the environment and produce no greenhouse emissions. The main cons of wind power are the amount of space they use, and their potential impact on local bird populations. Improvements are constantly being applied and are based on the many studies and assessments done to examine the ways the turbines impact the environment around them.


While large amounts of land are required to have a productive wind farm, the space between turbines is not exclusively for the turbines only. The towers can be constructed on leased farmland, where they can sit amongst the crops and animals. Cattle and other farm animals are often seen grazing nearby, resting in their shade, or using them as a scratching post. Farmers can plant crops right up to the base and several studies have shown that crops like corn and soybeans benefit from the decreased frosts and fungus caused by the turbines’ presence. An unexpected benefit is that wind turbines are already combating global warming in their own way. Studies have shown that the turbulence generated by the turning of their blades can keep the surrounding temperatures from getting too hot in the day and too cold in the night. Studies imply that crops planted near the turbines are protected from damaging frost and fungi because of the impact they have on the surrounding temperature. The most extreme issue raised by the use of wind turbines is the impact they have on local bird populations. By doing a population count before construction, during construction, and after construction, scientists are able to gauge whether or not the wind farm produces a negative effect on local populations. There are cases in which rare and endangered bird species have died after flying into the spinning blades. Studies on the common causes of bird death place wind farms towards the bottom of the list, with the worst offenders being the Transmission lines of conventional fossil fuel power plants, hunters, and domestic cats. (graph in Wikipedia of bird casualties)



Hydropower:


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Hydropower plants harness the natural energy of flowing water, and produce zero emissions. Any of the negative impact a dam causes on its environment is often magnified by the size of the dam.  New, large-scale dams are rare because the most suitable sites are usually under environmental protection. As a result, the demand for hydropower is failing. The development of new dams is further impacted by frequent protests from environmental activists who seek to preserve the natural flow of the river and the preservation of local fish populations. Fish counts confirm that the spinning blades of the generators can kill unwary fish, and not all fish will think to use the built in fish ladders many power plants install to please activists. Some power plants use flashing lights to direct the fish away from the turbines, but so far, the safest solution seems to be to shut them down during fish migrations. This solution is ineffective for the power plant, and the company looses money during this time. Fish aren’t the only animals that are affected by a hydropower dam. When a new dam is built, the flow may need to be redirected in order to maximize power generation, which can impact wildlife on land and their environment. The dam reserves water upstream, creating a man-made lake that floods the surrounding forest while downriver of the dam; the water level is liable to drop. Case studies of the current impact of established dams provide scientists with the information they need to improve the dams and reduce environmental consequences. 


Solar Energy:


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Solar power cells are growing in popularity, especially in urban areas on roofs above the trees. The main con of solar energy is the hazardous materials used in production of the solar cells, and waste materials left behind, as well as the necessary space required for installation and the large price tag. Large-scale solar energy farms are very expensive, and they take up a lot of space, since they need to have the sun on them at all times. The space in between cells cannot be used for anything, since there isn’t much space left. Because they take up so much space, smaller cells meant for personal use have started appearing in cities and towns. Instead of filling fields, they are being places on the roofs of homes, airport hangers, and other places with space may have otherwise been left vacant. In addition to generating a lot of energy for personal use, a building that generates more energy then they can use are able to earn money by putting that power onto the grid. A problem with small-scale urban solar cells is that they are made of the same hazardous materials as the large-scale cells, and may produce toxic fumes during a fire. These fumes are dangerous for firefighters who may need to enter the building. Current research on experimental solar power aims to reduce hazardous materials and waste in production, as well as to improve the efficiency of the small-scale solar cells. One of the several improvements in progress is a solar concentrator, which is used to generate electricity, and when mounted on solar trackers, can adjust its position to optimize solar energy gathered. Another option being researched is space-based solar power designed to sit on satellites, and have the potential to gather ten times the amount of energy then they would on earth. By installing efficient solar panels in cities, it is possible to generate much of the power needed there daily, and severely reducing the need for coal and oil power plants. 


Sample Question:


What are the potential consequences of using Hydropower?

  1. a. Fish will get caught in the blades of the turbines
  2. b. The river upstream might flood the surrounding woods
  3. c. Concerned local activists may protest
  4. d. All of the above


By reading the passage on hydropower, you can judge what will happen when you build a hydropower dam. That way, you can eliminate any answer that doesn’t make sense, and pick the answer that you think is correct.


Why are scientists trying to improve the design of solar energy cells?

  1. a. Because the sun is patchy, and it’s difficult to gather enough energy
  2. b. Because solar energy cells may release toxic fumes during a house fire
  3. c. Because the materials used during production are expensive and hazardous
  4. d. Because the large energy farms are less efficient then small urban solar cells


Many of these answer might seem like the correct answer, in this case, you would need to look back at the passage and start eliminating answers. If you can’t judge which answer would be the right one, go with the answer that either feels the best, or that seems least wrong.


Sources:

http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/impacts/environmental-impacts-of.html 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_power#Experimental_solar_power

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_farm#Environmental_and_aesthetic_impact

http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/news/2167515/report-wind-turbines-little-impact-bird-populations

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_wind_power#Impact_on_wildlife

http://www.hydroquebec.com/sustainable-development/documentation/etudes_impacts.html


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El Secreto Del Cuy ~~ Tarea

"El Secreto Del Cuy"

Parte 1

Había una familia en la factoría de chocolaté en la Republica Dominicana. Había un papá,una mamá, un híjo,y una híja. La familia vivía en una casa de chocolate. La familia tenía un cuy. Era un cuy interesante. El cuy era bastante essencíal. El cuy tenía un secreto raro.  Estaba muy preocupado. Pero, Ella lloraba demasíado. Le sollozó pero mucho a su papá. Pero,"El mar, Justin Bieber esta muy triste." Justin Bieber va a cambar el mundo.Ahora hay un problema. Y es muy grave.

El cuy le mandó al papá, "Encuentra la montaña mas alta con tu familia." La familia corrió la montaña más alta con el cuy. La montaña más alta se llamaba El Elado De Fresa.

Parte 2

Había un zorro. El cuy le dijo al zorro, "Hay un problema. ¡El mar, Justin Bieber, está raviosio!¡ El mar va a destrosar esté mundo. Sube la montaña más alta con nosotros." El zorro comprendió muy perfectamente. Pero, esté animal se escapó con el grupo.

Había un caballo. El cuy le exclamó, "Hay un problem. ¡El mar, Justin Bieber está ENOJADISIMO! ¡El mar va a destruir el mundo. Sube la montaña más alta con nosotros.'' El caballo comprendío perfectamente. Adémas, no caminaba para nada con el grupo. El caballo era un volador. AL fín.

Había un pajaró. El cuy le dijo al pajaró, Hay un problema. ¡El mar, Justin Bieber está enfandado! ¡El mar va a destruir el mundo. Sube la montaña más alta con nosotros.''El pajaró comprendío perfectamente. El pajaró no caminó con el grupo. Pero voló.

Había una baca. El cuy le explicó a la baca, "Hay un problema. El mar, Justin Bieber está furioso! ¡El mar va a destruir el mundo. Sube la montaña más alta con nosotros.'' La baca comprendío perfectamente. La baca no camíno con el grupo. Pero sí voló.

Había un raton. El cuy le dijo, "Hay un problema. El mar, Justin Bieber esta muy pero muy furioso! ¡El mar va a destruir im imediatamente ESTE MUNDO. . Sube la montaña más alta con nosotros.'' El raton no se fue con el grupo. El raton era DEMASIADO perezoso y lento.

Parte 3

El grupo subío la montaña mas alta. La familia, el cuy, el zorro, el caballo, y el pajáro subieron " La Aventura". La montaña mas alta. El caballo y la baca volaron a ''La Aventura".

El mar subío. El mar subío con furia. Había un problema. Era un problema grave. El raton no estaba con el grupo. El raton corrió. Pero, claro qué no caminó. Y tan poco no voló. Corrío, y corro muy rapido. El subío la montañas altas. Y al final, sí estaba muy feliz.

Por fín el mar, Justin Bieber, estaba contento y no subío más. El mar bajó. Y la familia bajó. El cuy bajó. Los otros animales bajarón también. Y estaban todos felices. No hay mas problemas.

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Characteristics of the Universe

What is the Universe?
The universe is all matter and energy, including the Earth, the galaxies, and the contents of intergalactic space regarded as a whole.

How large is the Universe?
The universe is expansive. To give you sense of the size of the universe, let's compare it to us: human beings.

Here we have everyday people like you and me on the surface of the Earth.

people-at-times-square-downtown-manhattan-nyc-new-york-city-usa-dscn8526

Let's expand a bit and go up to an altitude of 100km. We have now reached space, according to The Federation Aeronautique Internationale, and can see the Earth as a whole.

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Now let's compare the Earth to our whole solar system: containing our many planets and the sun.

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Let's get a bigger picture of where our solar system is located. Our solar system, which is centered around our sun, is but a spec of light in our galaxy: The Milky Way Galaxy.

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Our galaxy is a spiral galaxy, we'll get into that more later on. It consists of hundreds of billions of stars, which are similar to our sun. And each star most likely consists of its own version of a solar system. 

You can see now that we're pretty small in our galaxy, but let's expand one last time so you can really see how small we are. 

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If you venture out an unknown number (but most likely, very large) amount of light-years, we can see that there isn't just one galaxy, but also hundreds of billions of them. Each containing hundreds of billions of stars, that contain their own versions of a solar system, which are bound to consist of masses or planets of many sizes.

The Life of a Star
Now that you have a sense of the scale of the universe, let's get into the main thing that fills up almost every corner of the universe. Let's talk about stars. What is a star? A star is a self-luminous celestial body consisting of a mass of gas held together by its own gravity in which the energy generated by nuclear reactions in the interior is balance by the outflow of energy to the surface, and the inward-directed gravitational forces are balanced by the outward-directed gas and radiation pressures.

Nebula
The life of a star begins in a nebula. Nebulae are the birthplaces of stars. A nebulas is a diffuse of interstellar of dust or gas or both, visible as luminous patches or areas of darkness depending on the way the mass absorbs or reflects incident radiation. Nebulas often consist of Hydrogen an Helium. There are five types of nebulae: 

Emission Nebula: clouds of high temperature gas.

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Reflection Nebula: clouds of dust which are simply reflecting the light of a nearby star or stars.

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Dark Nebula: clouds of dust which are simply blocking the light from whatever is behind.

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Planetary Nebula: shells of gas thrown out by some stars near the end of their lives.

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Supernova Remnant: appears when a massive star ends its life.

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Protostar
Inside a nebula, certain varying regions cause this dust and gas to cluster. As these clusters collect more atoms, which results in an increase of mass, it collects even more atoms in the process. As the materials pull in tighter and contract, it achieves and maintains equilibrium. In this case, equilibrium is the balance between gravity pulling atoms towards the center and gas pressure pushing heat and light away from the center. This cluster is now a Protostar. A circumstellar disk of additional matter surrounds the Protostar. Parts of this disk still spiral inwards towards the center of the Protostar to layer on more mass, while other parts remain in order to form a planetary system. This phase lasts for about 100,000 years. 

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T Tauri Star
The T Tauri phase begins when matter cease to spiral into the Protostar and the star releases an enormous amount of energy. The T Tauri phase lasts for about 100 million years.

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Main Sequence
This is the phase that a star spends most of its life in. Once a star has achieved nuclear fusion, converting protons of hydrogens into atoms of helium, it exudes a tremendous amount of energy into space. Over the span of billions of years, the star slowly contracts in order to compensate for the amount of energy it is releasing. As it slowly contracts, the temperature, density and apressure at its core continue to increase. This contraction due to gravity pulling in and gas pressure pushing out will last throughout the entire life span of the star to maintain equilibrium.

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Red Giant
Since throughout its life a star is constantly converting hydrogen into helium, the hydrogen fuel runs out while the helium builds up. When a star depletes its fuel of hydrogen, its internal reactions cease. Without this gas pressure, the star begins to contract inward due to gravitational forces. In order to still maintain equilibrium between gravity and gas pressure, the star must re-ignite fusion by increasing temperatures in its core. To maintain stability, the star is forced to burn up its supply of helium. Helium burns inside the core, but a hydrogen reaction occurs faster in the shell of around the core. As the temperature of the shell increases, the outer layer of the star expands. At this stage, the star is larger, but less stable due to fusion releasing more energy during helium burning than the main sequence phase.

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White Dwarf
The Red Giant will eventually burn up its helium fuel supply. In order to maintain equilibrium, the star will contract again to commence the last type of fusion: carbon burning. To contract, the star must expel its outer layers into space. The Red Giant has now become a White Dwarf. A White Dwarf will start out hot, but over time (hundreds of billions of years), it will gradually cool down.

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Supernova
A Supernova can be divided into two basic physical types:
Type Ia.: These result from some binary star systems in which a carbon-oxygen white dwarf is accreting matter from a companion.
Type II.: These occur at the end of a star's lifetime, when its nuclear fuel and is depleted and it is no longer supported by the release of nuclear energy. If the star's iron core is massive enough, it will collapse and become a supernova.

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Neutron Star
Neutron stars are created in the cores of massive stars during a supernova explosion. When the core of the sar collapses, portons are crushed together with a corresponding electron, which transforms every electron-proton pair into a neutron. In this case however, the neutrons remain to form a neutron star.

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Black Holes
Black holes are believed to be formed when a massive star collapses in on itself. When a supernova occurs, a neutron star is able to form due to neutron degeneracy. But if the degenerating neutrons are not able to prevent the collapse of the star because of gravitational forces, it contracts and compresses into an infinite void of blackness- also known ans a stellar mass black hole. The gravitational pull from a black hole is so strong that nothing can escape them, including light. Their density is immeasurable. Black holes are able to distort space around them and even absorb neighboring matter, including stars.

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The Telescope
How do we know so much about stars you ask? Well, you can thank Hans Lippershey for that. Thanks to him, we have now been able to modify and improve his integral invention: the telescope, in order to conduct our study of astronomy and the universe. Lippershey's patent for the invention of the telescope is credited as the earliest, on September 25, 1608. Most people credit Galileo Galilei for its invention, though this is inaccurate. Galileo was the first to use a telescope for the purposes of astronomy in 1609, not invent it. 

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The Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram

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This diagram was created by Danish astronomer, Ejnar Hertzsprung and American astronomer, Henry Norris Russell in 1919. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram helped create a classification system for discovered stars. This diagrams has become an important tool in stellar astronomy. 

Each dot represents a star. The diagram is a plot of stars' luminosity (absolute magnitude) and its temperature. The color of the stars range from the high-temperature, blue-white stars on the left side of the diagram, to the low-temperature, red stars on the right side. The Y-axis represents the star's luminosity or absolute magnitude. Luminosity is basically the amount of energy a star radiates in one second or how bright it is. In either case, the scale is a ratio scale in which stars are compared to each other based on the reference of our star, the sun. On the other hand, the X-axis represents the surface temperature of a star. Going to the left side of the x-axis means that the stars are hotter, while going to right of the axis means that the stars are cooler. The X-axis is usually represented in either Kelvins or Colour (B-V).

Sample Question
1. What process has to occur in order for a star to achieve/maintain equilibrium?

                                a. contraction
                                b. nuclear fusion
                                c. supernova
                                d. accretion

Firstly, eliminate answers that are wrong. For example, a. is contraction. The meaning of equilibrium is balance. Contraction is only one side of it. And if you did your reading, there has to be another process that takes place to counter contraction and achieve equilibrium. So a. can't be the answer. Let's eliminate another answer. It's a safe bet that you can take out c. supernova. This due to the fact that supernova is the phase in which a star dies. How can a star achieve/maintain anything if it dies? So let's cross that off. Now you have two answers, leaving you with a 50/50 chance. If you knew the definition of accretion, you can take it right off and be left with the right answer. But if you didn't, then look at the other answer b. nuclear fusion. Like I mentioned before: if equilibrium means balanced and the word fusion means combine, then you can add one and one together and get the answer. For equilibrium to happen, there needs to be two things happening. The word fusion means combine, which implies there are two things occurring. By using the elimination method, you were able to figure out the correct answer.

Sources

Images
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El Secreto del Dragón por Miguel Roth

Parte 1:

Había una familia en la playa del Antarctica. Había una papá, una mamá, un hijo, y una hija. La familia vivía en una cueva de swag. La familia tenía un dragón. Era un dragón especial. El dragón tenía un secreto. La dragón estaba preocupadísima. El dragón lloraba. El dragon le sollozó al papá, "Las águilas, del espacio, está vienen. Los águilas va a comer animales y el swag." Había un problema. Era un problema grave.

El dragón le mandó al papá, "Oculta el swag en un cueva más grande con tu familia." La familia caminó hacia el cueva más grande con el dragon. El cueva más grande se llamaba El Lugar De Nacimiento Swag.



Parte 2:

Había una llama. El dragón le dijo al llama, "Hay un problema. ¡Las águilas, del espacio, está vienen! Los águilas va a comer animales y el swag. Se oculta en la cueva más grande con nosotros." La llama comprendió perfectamente. La llama se escapó con el grupo.

Había un unicornio. El dragon le exclamó al unicornio, "Hay un problema. ¡Las águilas, del espacio, está vienen! Los águilas va a comer animales y el swag. Se oculta en la cueva más grande con nosotros." El unicornio comprendió bien. El unicornio no caminaba con el grupo. El unicornio voló.

Había un pinguino. El dragón le hijo al pinguino, "Hay un problema. ¡Las águilas, del espacio, está vienen! Los águilas va a comer animales y el swag. Se oculta en la cueva más grande con nosotros." El pinguino entendió. El pinguino se fue con el grupo.

Había un murciélago. El dragón le explicó a el murciélago, "Hay un problema. ¡Las águilas, del espacio, está vienen! Los águilas va a comer animales y el swag. Se oculta en la cueva más grande con nosotros." El murciélago comprendió. El murciélago no caminó con el grupo. El murciélago voló.

Había una pereza. El dragón le dijo, "Hay un problema. ¡Las águilas, del espacio, está vienen! Los águilas va a comer animales y el swag. Se oculta en la cueva más grande con nosotros." La pereza no les hizo caso. La pereza no se fue con el grupo. La pereza era demasiado perezoso.



Parte 3:

El grupo encontró la cueva más grande. La familia, el dragon, la llama, y el pinguino entraron El Lugar De Nacimiento Swag, la cueva más grande. El unicornio y el murciélago volaron a El Lugar De Nacimiento Swag.

Los águilas llegó. Los águilas llegó con furia. Había un problema. Era un problema grave. La pereza no estaba con el grupo. La pereza corrió. La pereza no caminó. La pereza no voló. La pereza corrió rápido. La pereza entró la cueva más grande. La pereza estaba feliz.

Por fin las águilas, del espacio, estaban contento y no atacó más. Los águilas salió. La familia salió. El dragón salió. Los otros animales salieron. Y todos estaban felices. Y ya no había problemas.

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El Proyecto Final Personalizado(:

​I will most likely being using livemocha or sharedtalk to engage in conversation with people of Native speaking. Hopefully a different country rather than America.

I would love to learn about their daily life, what their community expectations are for teenagers or even adults, major problems with the society... Everything I will compare with MY type of answers and see how the different worlds can compare
 
When it comes to practicing speaking and the things I might need work on, I wil be focusing on being able to stray from the typical conjugation words that we use, and see if I can tell the difference. It's hard for me to tell what a word is once it is conjugated. &To get better I need to step away from baby words. 


Possible Questions:
¿Cuáles son las tres cosas que los padres esperan de sus hijos cuando crezcan?

¿Cuáles son los tres problemas crecientes en la que viven

¿Cómo es el comportamiento de los niños de su
 generación
 diferentes a los hijos de la nueva generación?








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Conversation Goals

Conversation Goals: 
- Being able to speak spanish with the correct grammars 
- Working on conjugations 
- Using a wider variety of vocabulary in a conversation (trying not to use dead words) 

Open ended questions: 

What's your favorite genre of movies? 
What type of books do you read?
What's your favorite sport and why? 


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