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PSSA Biomes Document

Scientists generally measure multiple things in order to determine what the climate of a biome is like. The things that they measure in biomes include, temperature, precipitation, pressure, humidity, and several other things. Because of this, there are also several pieces of equipment that are used to measure these things. From simple thermometers, maps, and rulers, to gauges, cloud mirrors, and anemometers, all of these things are used when it comes to measuring the characteristics that make up the world’s biomes.


Table of Biomes

Biome

Average Temperature

Annual Rainfall

Types of Plants

Types of Animals

Tundra

-50˚F to 50˚F

<10 in.

Lichens, moss, shrubs

Polar bears, reindeer, arctic hares

Rainforest

70˚F to 85˚F

80 in. to 400 in.

Trees, orchids, epiphytes, vines

Birds, chipmunks, cougars, bobcats, monkeys, insects, reptiles, amphibians

Savanna

68˚F to 86˚F

10 in. to 30 in.

Trees, several types of grass, shrubs

Giraffes, elephants, zebras, horses, birds, insects

Taiga

-65˚F to 70˚F

10 in. to 30 in.

Trees

Squirrels, moles, moose, deer, elk, grizzly bears, wolves

Temperate Forest

50˚F to 70˚F

30 in. to 60 in.

Mainly trees

Chipmunks, black bears, birds

Grassland

20˚F to 70˚F

12 in. to 21 in.

Several types of grass and flowers

Ungulates, bison, antelopes, birds, gophers, prairie dogs, coyotes

Alpine

40˚F to 60˚F

12 in.



Chaparral

30˚F to 100˚F

10 in. to 17 in.

Taproot, poison oak, scrub oak, shrubs, cacti

Coyotes, jackrabbits, deer, lizards, toads, insects

Desert [coastal]

41˚F to 75˚F

3 in. to 5 in.

Mainly cacti

Snakes, insects, lizards, foxes, rats




Biomes have proven to be a vital part in both making the planet a lively place, and making it possible for our societies to thrive. Each one has their own personality from environment to environment. Some, such as the tundra and desert can be harsh and unforgiving in terms of hospitality, while others such as the rain forest and grasslands can provide a nice habitat for those willing to face their dangers. Each biome offers different types of animals and plants, as well as other natural resources for us to use in order to survive our own day-to-day lives. Without them, and the things they provide, the world would be a very boring place.

If questions relating to biomes were to ever appear on the PSSA, they would mostly ask what kind of plants and animals reside in what kind of environment. For example, a question may ask, “An animal with padded paws and thick fur can most likely be found in what environment?” The first thing you could do would be to eliminate the obviously wrong answers, such as the savanna and the grassland. The whole point is to decide which biome an animal with these characteristics would be most effective in. In this case, it would be the Tundra. 
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Environmental Consequences of Renewable Energy Sources

Dwindling supply and negative environmental impact is pushing the public to embrace renewable energy sources in exchange of conventional fossil fuels. When burned, coal and oil release tons of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere, with the potential to cause catastrophic impacts on the environment. The impending threat of global warming is pressing environmental scientists and engineers to improve the systems we use to gather renewable energy from unlimited natural resources. Each method of generating usable electricity has its own set of environmental problems, but people are always researching ways to improve them. Compared to the environmental consequences of burning fossil fuel to generate electricity, the pros of using renewable energy sources outweigh the cons.


Wind Power:

diagram_wind

Wind is a natural phenomenon that has no foreseeable end. It is a source of unlimited energy, and the turbines used to generate usable power from wind are relatively safe for the environment and produce no greenhouse emissions. The main cons of wind power are the amount of space they use, and their potential impact on local bird populations. Improvements are constantly being applied and are based on the many studies and assessments done to examine the ways the turbines impact the environment around them.


While large amounts of land are required to have a productive wind farm, the space between turbines is not exclusively for the turbines only. The towers can be constructed on leased farmland, where they can sit amongst the crops and animals. Cattle and other farm animals are often seen grazing nearby, resting in their shade, or using them as a scratching post. Farmers can plant crops right up to the base and several studies have shown that crops like corn and soybeans benefit from the decreased frosts and fungus caused by the turbines’ presence. An unexpected benefit is that wind turbines are already combating global warming in their own way. Studies have shown that the turbulence generated by the turning of their blades can keep the surrounding temperatures from getting too hot in the day and too cold in the night. Studies imply that crops planted near the turbines are protected from damaging frost and fungi because of the impact they have on the surrounding temperature. The most extreme issue raised by the use of wind turbines is the impact they have on local bird populations. By doing a population count before construction, during construction, and after construction, scientists are able to gauge whether or not the wind farm produces a negative effect on local populations. There are cases in which rare and endangered bird species have died after flying into the spinning blades. Studies on the common causes of bird death place wind farms towards the bottom of the list, with the worst offenders being the Transmission lines of conventional fossil fuel power plants, hunters, and domestic cats. (graph in Wikipedia of bird casualties)



Hydropower:


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Hydropower plants harness the natural energy of flowing water, and produce zero emissions. Any of the negative impact a dam causes on its environment is often magnified by the size of the dam.  New, large-scale dams are rare because the most suitable sites are usually under environmental protection. As a result, the demand for hydropower is failing. The development of new dams is further impacted by frequent protests from environmental activists who seek to preserve the natural flow of the river and the preservation of local fish populations. Fish counts confirm that the spinning blades of the generators can kill unwary fish, and not all fish will think to use the built in fish ladders many power plants install to please activists. Some power plants use flashing lights to direct the fish away from the turbines, but so far, the safest solution seems to be to shut them down during fish migrations. This solution is ineffective for the power plant, and the company looses money during this time. Fish aren’t the only animals that are affected by a hydropower dam. When a new dam is built, the flow may need to be redirected in order to maximize power generation, which can impact wildlife on land and their environment. The dam reserves water upstream, creating a man-made lake that floods the surrounding forest while downriver of the dam; the water level is liable to drop. Case studies of the current impact of established dams provide scientists with the information they need to improve the dams and reduce environmental consequences. 


Solar Energy:


solar-energy-diagram

Solar power cells are growing in popularity, especially in urban areas on roofs above the trees. The main con of solar energy is the hazardous materials used in production of the solar cells, and waste materials left behind, as well as the necessary space required for installation and the large price tag. Large-scale solar energy farms are very expensive, and they take up a lot of space, since they need to have the sun on them at all times. The space in between cells cannot be used for anything, since there isn’t much space left. Because they take up so much space, smaller cells meant for personal use have started appearing in cities and towns. Instead of filling fields, they are being places on the roofs of homes, airport hangers, and other places with space may have otherwise been left vacant. In addition to generating a lot of energy for personal use, a building that generates more energy then they can use are able to earn money by putting that power onto the grid. A problem with small-scale urban solar cells is that they are made of the same hazardous materials as the large-scale cells, and may produce toxic fumes during a fire. These fumes are dangerous for firefighters who may need to enter the building. Current research on experimental solar power aims to reduce hazardous materials and waste in production, as well as to improve the efficiency of the small-scale solar cells. One of the several improvements in progress is a solar concentrator, which is used to generate electricity, and when mounted on solar trackers, can adjust its position to optimize solar energy gathered. Another option being researched is space-based solar power designed to sit on satellites, and have the potential to gather ten times the amount of energy then they would on earth. By installing efficient solar panels in cities, it is possible to generate much of the power needed there daily, and severely reducing the need for coal and oil power plants. 


Sample Question:


What are the potential consequences of using Hydropower?

  1. a. Fish will get caught in the blades of the turbines
  2. b. The river upstream might flood the surrounding woods
  3. c. Concerned local activists may protest
  4. d. All of the above


By reading the passage on hydropower, you can judge what will happen when you build a hydropower dam. That way, you can eliminate any answer that doesn’t make sense, and pick the answer that you think is correct.


Why are scientists trying to improve the design of solar energy cells?

  1. a. Because the sun is patchy, and it’s difficult to gather enough energy
  2. b. Because solar energy cells may release toxic fumes during a house fire
  3. c. Because the materials used during production are expensive and hazardous
  4. d. Because the large energy farms are less efficient then small urban solar cells


Many of these answer might seem like the correct answer, in this case, you would need to look back at the passage and start eliminating answers. If you can’t judge which answer would be the right one, go with the answer that either feels the best, or that seems least wrong.


Sources:

http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/impacts/environmental-impacts-of.html 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_power#Experimental_solar_power

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_farm#Environmental_and_aesthetic_impact

http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/news/2167515/report-wind-turbines-little-impact-bird-populations

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_wind_power#Impact_on_wildlife

http://www.hydroquebec.com/sustainable-development/documentation/etudes_impacts.html


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El Secreto Del Cuy ~~ Tarea

"El Secreto Del Cuy"

Parte 1

Había una familia en la factoría de chocolaté en la Republica Dominicana. Había un papá,una mamá, un híjo,y una híja. La familia vivía en una casa de chocolate. La familia tenía un cuy. Era un cuy interesante. El cuy era bastante essencíal. El cuy tenía un secreto raro.  Estaba muy preocupado. Pero, Ella lloraba demasíado. Le sollozó pero mucho a su papá. Pero,"El mar, Justin Bieber esta muy triste." Justin Bieber va a cambar el mundo.Ahora hay un problema. Y es muy grave.

El cuy le mandó al papá, "Encuentra la montaña mas alta con tu familia." La familia corrió la montaña más alta con el cuy. La montaña más alta se llamaba El Elado De Fresa.

Parte 2

Había un zorro. El cuy le dijo al zorro, "Hay un problema. ¡El mar, Justin Bieber, está raviosio!¡ El mar va a destrosar esté mundo. Sube la montaña más alta con nosotros." El zorro comprendió muy perfectamente. Pero, esté animal se escapó con el grupo.

Había un caballo. El cuy le exclamó, "Hay un problem. ¡El mar, Justin Bieber está ENOJADISIMO! ¡El mar va a destruir el mundo. Sube la montaña más alta con nosotros.'' El caballo comprendío perfectamente. Adémas, no caminaba para nada con el grupo. El caballo era un volador. AL fín.

Había un pajaró. El cuy le dijo al pajaró, Hay un problema. ¡El mar, Justin Bieber está enfandado! ¡El mar va a destruir el mundo. Sube la montaña más alta con nosotros.''El pajaró comprendío perfectamente. El pajaró no caminó con el grupo. Pero voló.

Había una baca. El cuy le explicó a la baca, "Hay un problema. El mar, Justin Bieber está furioso! ¡El mar va a destruir el mundo. Sube la montaña más alta con nosotros.'' La baca comprendío perfectamente. La baca no camíno con el grupo. Pero sí voló.

Había un raton. El cuy le dijo, "Hay un problema. El mar, Justin Bieber esta muy pero muy furioso! ¡El mar va a destruir im imediatamente ESTE MUNDO. . Sube la montaña más alta con nosotros.'' El raton no se fue con el grupo. El raton era DEMASIADO perezoso y lento.

Parte 3

El grupo subío la montaña mas alta. La familia, el cuy, el zorro, el caballo, y el pajáro subieron " La Aventura". La montaña mas alta. El caballo y la baca volaron a ''La Aventura".

El mar subío. El mar subío con furia. Había un problema. Era un problema grave. El raton no estaba con el grupo. El raton corrió. Pero, claro qué no caminó. Y tan poco no voló. Corrío, y corro muy rapido. El subío la montañas altas. Y al final, sí estaba muy feliz.

Por fín el mar, Justin Bieber, estaba contento y no subío más. El mar bajó. Y la familia bajó. El cuy bajó. Los otros animales bajarón también. Y estaban todos felices. No hay mas problemas.

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Characteristics of the Universe

What is the Universe?
The universe is all matter and energy, including the Earth, the galaxies, and the contents of intergalactic space regarded as a whole.

How large is the Universe?
The universe is expansive. To give you sense of the size of the universe, let's compare it to us: human beings.

Here we have everyday people like you and me on the surface of the Earth.

people-at-times-square-downtown-manhattan-nyc-new-york-city-usa-dscn8526

Let's expand a bit and go up to an altitude of 100km. We have now reached space, according to The Federation Aeronautique Internationale, and can see the Earth as a whole.

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Now let's compare the Earth to our whole solar system: containing our many planets and the sun.

solar_system1

Let's get a bigger picture of where our solar system is located. Our solar system, which is centered around our sun, is but a spec of light in our galaxy: The Milky Way Galaxy.

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Our galaxy is a spiral galaxy, we'll get into that more later on. It consists of hundreds of billions of stars, which are similar to our sun. And each star most likely consists of its own version of a solar system. 

You can see now that we're pretty small in our galaxy, but let's expand one last time so you can really see how small we are. 

lmc

If you venture out an unknown number (but most likely, very large) amount of light-years, we can see that there isn't just one galaxy, but also hundreds of billions of them. Each containing hundreds of billions of stars, that contain their own versions of a solar system, which are bound to consist of masses or planets of many sizes.

The Life of a Star
Now that you have a sense of the scale of the universe, let's get into the main thing that fills up almost every corner of the universe. Let's talk about stars. What is a star? A star is a self-luminous celestial body consisting of a mass of gas held together by its own gravity in which the energy generated by nuclear reactions in the interior is balance by the outflow of energy to the surface, and the inward-directed gravitational forces are balanced by the outward-directed gas and radiation pressures.

Nebula
The life of a star begins in a nebula. Nebulae are the birthplaces of stars. A nebulas is a diffuse of interstellar of dust or gas or both, visible as luminous patches or areas of darkness depending on the way the mass absorbs or reflects incident radiation. Nebulas often consist of Hydrogen an Helium. There are five types of nebulae: 

Emission Nebula: clouds of high temperature gas.

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Reflection Nebula: clouds of dust which are simply reflecting the light of a nearby star or stars.

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Dark Nebula: clouds of dust which are simply blocking the light from whatever is behind.

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Planetary Nebula: shells of gas thrown out by some stars near the end of their lives.

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Supernova Remnant: appears when a massive star ends its life.

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Protostar
Inside a nebula, certain varying regions cause this dust and gas to cluster. As these clusters collect more atoms, which results in an increase of mass, it collects even more atoms in the process. As the materials pull in tighter and contract, it achieves and maintains equilibrium. In this case, equilibrium is the balance between gravity pulling atoms towards the center and gas pressure pushing heat and light away from the center. This cluster is now a Protostar. A circumstellar disk of additional matter surrounds the Protostar. Parts of this disk still spiral inwards towards the center of the Protostar to layer on more mass, while other parts remain in order to form a planetary system. This phase lasts for about 100,000 years. 

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T Tauri Star
The T Tauri phase begins when matter cease to spiral into the Protostar and the star releases an enormous amount of energy. The T Tauri phase lasts for about 100 million years.

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Main Sequence
This is the phase that a star spends most of its life in. Once a star has achieved nuclear fusion, converting protons of hydrogens into atoms of helium, it exudes a tremendous amount of energy into space. Over the span of billions of years, the star slowly contracts in order to compensate for the amount of energy it is releasing. As it slowly contracts, the temperature, density and apressure at its core continue to increase. This contraction due to gravity pulling in and gas pressure pushing out will last throughout the entire life span of the star to maintain equilibrium.

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Red Giant
Since throughout its life a star is constantly converting hydrogen into helium, the hydrogen fuel runs out while the helium builds up. When a star depletes its fuel of hydrogen, its internal reactions cease. Without this gas pressure, the star begins to contract inward due to gravitational forces. In order to still maintain equilibrium between gravity and gas pressure, the star must re-ignite fusion by increasing temperatures in its core. To maintain stability, the star is forced to burn up its supply of helium. Helium burns inside the core, but a hydrogen reaction occurs faster in the shell of around the core. As the temperature of the shell increases, the outer layer of the star expands. At this stage, the star is larger, but less stable due to fusion releasing more energy during helium burning than the main sequence phase.

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White Dwarf
The Red Giant will eventually burn up its helium fuel supply. In order to maintain equilibrium, the star will contract again to commence the last type of fusion: carbon burning. To contract, the star must expel its outer layers into space. The Red Giant has now become a White Dwarf. A White Dwarf will start out hot, but over time (hundreds of billions of years), it will gradually cool down.

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Supernova
A Supernova can be divided into two basic physical types:
Type Ia.: These result from some binary star systems in which a carbon-oxygen white dwarf is accreting matter from a companion.
Type II.: These occur at the end of a star's lifetime, when its nuclear fuel and is depleted and it is no longer supported by the release of nuclear energy. If the star's iron core is massive enough, it will collapse and become a supernova.

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Neutron Star
Neutron stars are created in the cores of massive stars during a supernova explosion. When the core of the sar collapses, portons are crushed together with a corresponding electron, which transforms every electron-proton pair into a neutron. In this case however, the neutrons remain to form a neutron star.

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Black Holes
Black holes are believed to be formed when a massive star collapses in on itself. When a supernova occurs, a neutron star is able to form due to neutron degeneracy. But if the degenerating neutrons are not able to prevent the collapse of the star because of gravitational forces, it contracts and compresses into an infinite void of blackness- also known ans a stellar mass black hole. The gravitational pull from a black hole is so strong that nothing can escape them, including light. Their density is immeasurable. Black holes are able to distort space around them and even absorb neighboring matter, including stars.

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The Telescope
How do we know so much about stars you ask? Well, you can thank Hans Lippershey for that. Thanks to him, we have now been able to modify and improve his integral invention: the telescope, in order to conduct our study of astronomy and the universe. Lippershey's patent for the invention of the telescope is credited as the earliest, on September 25, 1608. Most people credit Galileo Galilei for its invention, though this is inaccurate. Galileo was the first to use a telescope for the purposes of astronomy in 1609, not invent it. 

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The Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram

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This diagram was created by Danish astronomer, Ejnar Hertzsprung and American astronomer, Henry Norris Russell in 1919. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram helped create a classification system for discovered stars. This diagrams has become an important tool in stellar astronomy. 

Each dot represents a star. The diagram is a plot of stars' luminosity (absolute magnitude) and its temperature. The color of the stars range from the high-temperature, blue-white stars on the left side of the diagram, to the low-temperature, red stars on the right side. The Y-axis represents the star's luminosity or absolute magnitude. Luminosity is basically the amount of energy a star radiates in one second or how bright it is. In either case, the scale is a ratio scale in which stars are compared to each other based on the reference of our star, the sun. On the other hand, the X-axis represents the surface temperature of a star. Going to the left side of the x-axis means that the stars are hotter, while going to right of the axis means that the stars are cooler. The X-axis is usually represented in either Kelvins or Colour (B-V).

Sample Question
1. What process has to occur in order for a star to achieve/maintain equilibrium?

                                a. contraction
                                b. nuclear fusion
                                c. supernova
                                d. accretion

Firstly, eliminate answers that are wrong. For example, a. is contraction. The meaning of equilibrium is balance. Contraction is only one side of it. And if you did your reading, there has to be another process that takes place to counter contraction and achieve equilibrium. So a. can't be the answer. Let's eliminate another answer. It's a safe bet that you can take out c. supernova. This due to the fact that supernova is the phase in which a star dies. How can a star achieve/maintain anything if it dies? So let's cross that off. Now you have two answers, leaving you with a 50/50 chance. If you knew the definition of accretion, you can take it right off and be left with the right answer. But if you didn't, then look at the other answer b. nuclear fusion. Like I mentioned before: if equilibrium means balanced and the word fusion means combine, then you can add one and one together and get the answer. For equilibrium to happen, there needs to be two things happening. The word fusion means combine, which implies there are two things occurring. By using the elimination method, you were able to figure out the correct answer.

Sources

Images
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El Secreto del Dragón por Miguel Roth

Parte 1:

Había una familia en la playa del Antarctica. Había una papá, una mamá, un hijo, y una hija. La familia vivía en una cueva de swag. La familia tenía un dragón. Era un dragón especial. El dragón tenía un secreto. La dragón estaba preocupadísima. El dragón lloraba. El dragon le sollozó al papá, "Las águilas, del espacio, está vienen. Los águilas va a comer animales y el swag." Había un problema. Era un problema grave.

El dragón le mandó al papá, "Oculta el swag en un cueva más grande con tu familia." La familia caminó hacia el cueva más grande con el dragon. El cueva más grande se llamaba El Lugar De Nacimiento Swag.



Parte 2:

Había una llama. El dragón le dijo al llama, "Hay un problema. ¡Las águilas, del espacio, está vienen! Los águilas va a comer animales y el swag. Se oculta en la cueva más grande con nosotros." La llama comprendió perfectamente. La llama se escapó con el grupo.

Había un unicornio. El dragon le exclamó al unicornio, "Hay un problema. ¡Las águilas, del espacio, está vienen! Los águilas va a comer animales y el swag. Se oculta en la cueva más grande con nosotros." El unicornio comprendió bien. El unicornio no caminaba con el grupo. El unicornio voló.

Había un pinguino. El dragón le hijo al pinguino, "Hay un problema. ¡Las águilas, del espacio, está vienen! Los águilas va a comer animales y el swag. Se oculta en la cueva más grande con nosotros." El pinguino entendió. El pinguino se fue con el grupo.

Había un murciélago. El dragón le explicó a el murciélago, "Hay un problema. ¡Las águilas, del espacio, está vienen! Los águilas va a comer animales y el swag. Se oculta en la cueva más grande con nosotros." El murciélago comprendió. El murciélago no caminó con el grupo. El murciélago voló.

Había una pereza. El dragón le dijo, "Hay un problema. ¡Las águilas, del espacio, está vienen! Los águilas va a comer animales y el swag. Se oculta en la cueva más grande con nosotros." La pereza no les hizo caso. La pereza no se fue con el grupo. La pereza era demasiado perezoso.



Parte 3:

El grupo encontró la cueva más grande. La familia, el dragon, la llama, y el pinguino entraron El Lugar De Nacimiento Swag, la cueva más grande. El unicornio y el murciélago volaron a El Lugar De Nacimiento Swag.

Los águilas llegó. Los águilas llegó con furia. Había un problema. Era un problema grave. La pereza no estaba con el grupo. La pereza corrió. La pereza no caminó. La pereza no voló. La pereza corrió rápido. La pereza entró la cueva más grande. La pereza estaba feliz.

Por fin las águilas, del espacio, estaban contento y no atacó más. Los águilas salió. La familia salió. El dragón salió. Los otros animales salieron. Y todos estaban felices. Y ya no había problemas.

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El Proyecto Final Personalizado(:

​I will most likely being using livemocha or sharedtalk to engage in conversation with people of Native speaking. Hopefully a different country rather than America.

I would love to learn about their daily life, what their community expectations are for teenagers or even adults, major problems with the society... Everything I will compare with MY type of answers and see how the different worlds can compare
 
When it comes to practicing speaking and the things I might need work on, I wil be focusing on being able to stray from the typical conjugation words that we use, and see if I can tell the difference. It's hard for me to tell what a word is once it is conjugated. &To get better I need to step away from baby words. 


Possible Questions:
¿Cuáles son las tres cosas que los padres esperan de sus hijos cuando crezcan?

¿Cuáles son los tres problemas crecientes en la que viven

¿Cómo es el comportamiento de los niños de su
 generación
 diferentes a los hijos de la nueva generación?








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Conversation Goals

Conversation Goals: 
- Being able to speak spanish with the correct grammars 
- Working on conjugations 
- Using a wider variety of vocabulary in a conversation (trying not to use dead words) 

Open ended questions: 

What's your favorite genre of movies? 
What type of books do you read?
What's your favorite sport and why? 


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El Secreto de la Cabra por Dylan Long

PARTE 1

Había una familia en un hueco de swag de China. Había un papá, una mamá, un hijo, y una hija. La familia vivía en un hueco de swag. La familia tenía una cabra. Era una cabra especial. La cabra era bastante importante. La cabra tenía un secreto. La cabra estaba preocupadísima. La cabra lloraba. La cabra le sollozó al papá. “El mar, Mamacocha, está furioso. Mamacocha va a destruir todos los McDonalds en el mundo.”  Había un problema. Era una problema grave.

La cabra le mandó al papá, “Escala el arbol de swag más alta con tu familia.” La familia caminó hacia el arbol de swag más alta con la cabra. El arbol de swag más alta se llamaba Pedro Machuca. 

PARTE 2

Había un sandwich. La cabra le dijo al sandwich, “Hay una problema. ¡El mar, Mamacocha, está furioso! El mar va a destruir todos los McDonalds en el mundo. Sube al arbol de swag más alta con nosotros.” El sandwich no respondió, pero la cabra lo aggaró. El sandwich intentó a volar lejos de la cabra, pero la cabra lo cojió.

Había un chaval. La cabra le exclamó al chaval, “Hay un problema, ¡El mar está enojadísimo! El mar va a destruir todos los McDonalds en el mundo. Escala el arbol de swag más alto con nosotros.” El chaval comprendió bien. El chaval no caminaba con el grupo. El chaval voló.

Había una piedra. La cabra le dijo a piedra, ‘Hay un problema. ¡El mar, Mamacocha, está enfadado! El mar va a destruir todos los McDonalds en el mundo. Escala el arbol de swag más alto con nosotros.” La piedra nó respondió, pero la cabra lo agarró sin embargo.

Había un pikachu. La cabra le explicó al pikachu, “Hay un problema. ¡El mar, Mamacocha, está furioso! El mar va a destruir todos los McDonalds en el mundo. Escala el arbol de swag más alto con nosotros.” El pikachu comprendió. El pikachu no caminó con el grupo. El pikachu voló. 

Había una cuy. La cabra le dijo, “Hay un problema. ¡El mar, Mamacocha, está furioso! El Mar va a destruir todos los McDonalds en el mundo. Sube el arbol de swag más alto con nosotros.” La cuy no les hizo csao. La cuy no se fue con el grupo. La cuy era demasiado perezoso.

PARTE 3

El grupo subió el arbol de swag más alto. La familia, la cabra, el sandwich, y la piedra subieron Pedro Machuca, el arbol de swag más alto. El chaval y el pikachu volaron a Pedro Machuca. 

El mar subió. El mar subió con furia. Había un problema. Era una problema grave. La cuy no estaba con el grupo. La cuy corrió. La cuy no caminó. La cuy no voló. La cuy corrió rápido. El zorro subió el arbol de swag más alto. La cuy estaba feliz. 

Por fin el mar, Mamacocha, estaba contento y no subió más. El mar bajó. La familia bajó. La cabra bajó. Los otros animales y objetos bajaron. Y todos estaban felices. Y ya no había problemas.

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El secreto del Cerdo Por Julian Makarechi

Había una familia en la cuidad de Swaggtown. Había un papá, una mamá, un hijo, y una hija. La familia vivía en una cueva de swagg. La familia tenía un cerdo. Era un cerdo especial. El cerdo era bastante swaggeristic. El cerdo tenía un secreto. El cerdo estaba estupido. El cerdo lloraba. El cerdo le sollozó al carnicero, “El mar, Mamacocha, está feo. Mamacocha va a comer Pedro Machuca.” Habia un problema.  Era un problema grave.

 

         El cerdo le mandó al carnicero , “Escala la cuidad ,as plano con tu familia.” La familia caminó hacia la cuidad mas plano con el cerdo.  La cuidad mas plano e llamaba Chillin Ville.

 

            Había una sacapunta. El cerdo le dijo al sacapuntas, “ Hay un problema. ¡ El mar, Mamacocha, está feo. El mar va a comer Pedro Machuca. Sube la cuidad mas plano con nosotros.” La sacapunta comprendió perfectamente. La sacapuntas se escapó con el grupo.

 

            Había una mascara. El cerdo le exclamó a la mascara.” Hay un problema. ¡El mar, está enojadísimo. El mar va a comer Pedro Machuca. Escala la cuidad mas plano con nosotros.” La mascara comprendió bien. La mascara no caminaba con el grupo. La mascara voló.

 

            Había un reloj. El cerdo le dijo al reloj.” Hay un problema. ¡ El mar, Mamacocha, está feliz. El mar va a comer Pedro Machuca. Sube la cuidad mas plano con nosotros.” El reloj entendió. El reloj se fue con el grupo.

 

            Había un pollo. El cerdo le explicó al pollo, “ Hay un problema. ¡ El mar, Mamacocha, está furioso. El mar va a comer Pedro Machuca. Escala la cuidad mas plano con nosotros.” El pollo comprendió. El pollo no caminó con el grupo. El pollo voló.

 

            Había un mural . El cerdo le dijo .” Hay un problema. ¡ El mar, Mamacocha, está peligrosso. El mar va a comer Pedro Machuca. Sube la cuidad mas plano con nosotros.” El mural no les hizo caso. El mural no se fue con el grupo. El mural era demasiado perezoso.

 

             El grupo subió la cuidad mas plano. La familia, el cerdo, la sacapuntas y el reloj subieron Chillin Ville , la cuidad mas plano. La mascara y el pollo volaron a Chillin Ville.

 

            El mar subió. El mar subió con furia. Había un explosión. Era un explosión grave. El mural no estaba con el grupo. El mural corrió. El mural no caminó. El mural no voló. El mural corrió rápido. El mural subió  la cuidad mas plano. El mural estaba feliz.

 

            Por el fin mar, Mamacocha, estaba triste y no subió más. El mar guapo. La familia guapa. El cerdo guapo. Los otros cosas bajaron. Y todos estaban felices. Y ya no había problemas.

 

 

 

            

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Behavior of Gasses

Introduction:

- The behavior of gasses is a very broad and vast topic that covers a multitude of sub topics. Under this subject, the state of Pennsylvania has picked three main ideas that they require students to know. These three things are Boyle's law, Charle's law, and the ideal gas law. This blog post has an explanation of the three, a bit about their history, and how they will be used in the PSSA testing. 

Boyle's Law:

- Boyle's law explains the relationship between the volume of a gas and its pressure. It states that as the pressure of a gas increases the volume decreases and in the same manner that as the volume of a gas increases the pressure decreases (assuming that the temperature of the gas is constant). This relationship can be expressed as PV=k, where "p" represents the pressure of the system, "v" represents the volume of the gas, and "k" represents a constant. Robert Boyle, a chemist and physicist, discovered this in the mid 1600's and published his findings in 1662. Boyle executed a series of experiments consisting of confining a fixed amount of gas into a curved glass. He then added different amounts of mercury to the gas sample in order to change its pressure. These findings were then related to this equation: P1V1 = P2V2, which expresses "the before and after volumes and pressures of a fixed amount of gas" (wikipedia). **Note** This equation is the one that will be used on the PSSA test. 

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On the PSSA this type of material could be expressed in a question asking for one to solve for one of the variables in the equation. For example, a question could state the starting volume and pressure as well as the final amount of pressure and ask for you to solve for the final volume. Ex:

 1. If the pressure of an ideal gas is changed from 145 atm to 290 atm, what is the gasses change in volume, assuming the original volume was 75.0mL?
a. 150 mL
b. 37.5 mL
c.72.5
d. Not enough information is given

A link to the answers is provided later.

Here is a link to an animation of this: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/boyle.html

Charle's Law 
- Charle's law explains the relationship between the temperature of a gas and its volume. It states that as the temperature of a gas increases the volume of that gas will as well (assuming that the pressure of the gas remains constant). Another thing to note is that they do this proportionately meaning that they increase and decrease at the same scale factor. This relationship was found in a similar manner that Boyle's law was found in. Jacques Charles was the scientist that made this discovery and he did so by confining a gas in a curved class tube and changing its temperature while keeping its pressure constant. The relationship that he discovered can be expressed as V1/T1 = V2/Twhere "V" represents the volume of the gas and "T" represents the temperature of the gas. **Note** This equation is the one that will be used on the PSSA test. 

glussac

charles's-law
On the PSSA this type of material could be expressed in a question asking for one to solve for one of the variables in the equation. For example, a question could state the starting volume and temperature as well as the final temperature and ask for you to solve for the final volume. Ex:

2. Bob wants to find the volume of a gas in a cylinder. He knows that at a temperature of 30˚C the gas had a volume of 6.0 L. The temperature of the gas is now 35˚C. What is the volume of the gas now? **Note you must convert the temperature from Celsius to Kelvin by adding 273 to the Celsius measure**
a. 7.0 L
b. 175 L 
c. 6.09 L 
d. 15 L
A link to the answers is provided later.

Here is a link to an animation of this: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/glussac.html

Ideal Gas Equation
- The ideal gas equation is a combination of Boyle's law, Charles's law and Avogadro's law. This law can be an approximation of the state and behavior of a gas. The ideal gas law was not discovered and no experiments were directly done to find out this law, but the relationships expressed within this law are a compilation of three laws. This relationship can be expressed through the following equation: PV = nRT equation where "P" represents the pressure of the gas, "V" represents the volume of the gas, "n" represents the number of moles of gas, "R" represents the ideal gas constant, and "T" represents the temperature of the gas. The ideal gas constant is approximately 8.3145 J and can be used to plug into this equation. Another thing to not is that if any two of the variables in the equation are kept constant, the relationship between the other two can be observed.  

eqstat

ideal_gas

On the PSSA this type of material could be expressed in a question asking for one to solve for one of the variables in the equation. Ex. 

3. A gas exerts a pressure of .0892 atm in a 5.0 L container at 15˚C. What is the molecular mass of the gas?
a. 0.191 mol
b.  5 mol
c. 0.56 mol
d. 19 mol

Link to answers:
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1R5SF7QKNLUxS0rOfAdHVabXKqcGsOg7hAcP9tn1n9Pw/edit


Sources:

http://www.shodor.org/unchem/advanced/gas/

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/idegas.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ideal_gas_law

http://www.metric-conversions.org/temperature/celsius-to-kelvin.htm

http://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/gaslaws/charleslaw.html

http://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/gaslaws/boyleslaw.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boyle's_law

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/eqstat.html

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/glussac.html

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/boyle.html
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Weather

Weather

Weather is determined by how much heat the earth is exposed to and how much it attracts overall. The structure of the world causes it to be exposed to a different amount of heat energy, for those places that don’t attract as much heat is made up in air, which is therefore the cause of what we call “Weather”.Throughout the world many experiment have been conducted to figure out what weather was and were it came from, to do so they start with the attraction of the heat.The first image below shows an example of what was used to attract the heat from the sun. A way of conducting weather in the modern day is through maps as you can see in the second image below. Finally the maps key is below it. 

 

 The density of the air also has a big impact on weather because warm air is rises because it’s not as dense as cold air which sinks, through it all water is caused to evaporate. According in scientists the tropical areas receive the wet season when they receive the most solar energy. When the water evaporated their days are exposed to a lot of heat. The main things that determine weather are temperature, Air pressure, Wind speed/Wind Direction, and Precipitation. 



Example problems: 

How is a cold front determined?
a. warm air comes into an area.
b. Cold air comes into an area.
c. Cold air moves to an area with warm air and they meet. 
d. By looking at the water pressure of an area.  


(You can decide on the correct answer by first thinking back to what you read on what a cold front is, then you can think about what you can immediately eliminate and get rid of those. Finally if you are stuck look at the ending result of each answer and pick what makes the most sense. If worst comes to worst make an educated guess. ) 

  
What is a trough?
a. An area with high pressure
b. An area with low pressure
c. An area with a lot of water
d. An area that is exposed to open land

(You can decide on the answer by first eliminating all the answers you know for a fact that are wrong.Then you can look at your other options and think about you know about troughs'. Finally pick the answer you most likely agree with and believe that is correct (if you looked at the previos study guide you would have learned it) If worst comes to worst make an educated guess knowing what you know about weather.)


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Theory of Evolution - Aja and Jésus

Something things that have been tested or experimented happened with Darwin and his exploration. He began this world known theory when he started to explore how different genes work and the processes in which they create new life forms.

One popular experiment/observation was Darwin’s Finches. New species of finches in the Galapagos Islands sprung around area, with different beaks and characteristics. He was intrigued by this discovery and only aided to develop the modern theory of evolution. What made the finches so interesting was that they basically evolved to depending on what food they need in a certain area. From bugs, to leaves, to seeds, these were the foods different finches ate. And believe it or not, they each needed different beaks for them.

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FinchTypes

The Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old and humans appeared within the last-2 million years. Microorganisms appeared first - 3.4 million years ago. The plants of the land appeared about 400 million years ago and it was about 225 million years ago when mammals and dinosaurs walked the earth. Which evolves into the topic of Natural selection which acts upon the mutation that are inherited from one generation to the next. Out of all the type of  genes there are only the genes in the sperm cell will get passed on to the future generations. Thus causing any potential alter to the configuration of any population. Enabling us to keep track of how things change over time, which is what we call Evolution.


Sample Questions


1. In what ways would an animal that eats earthworms with its beak evolve to eat berries off a tree?
a. It’s beak would get smaller for more precise grabbing.
b. They will change color to resemble a tree.
c. Their claws will be able to cling on trees.
d. Nothing will change.

2. An animal that lived in water and adapted to live on land, would most likely be a:
a. amphibian
b. invertebrate  
c. Cold - blooded
d. Reptiles

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Rugeiatu

This quarter was a very understanding quarter, meaning, we just created our old art pieces into new art pieces. We drew lots of different arts, however the best of all were the chosen one. Some of the many drawing we accomplish were, we had to draw a Self Portrait using 8 x 8 paper and Self Portrait using 24 X 36 paper and color wheel.   For the color wheel we basically drew a bug circle and painted it with the rainbows colors. However, we started with the three primary colors and mixed two of each to get one color. Example red and green makes green, and now we would mix green and another primary color to get another color for the wheel.
Hair
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