Podcast #1

How to Lie with Statistics

Speakers: Jada Terrell, Isabella Blackwell, and Kadija Koita​

For this podcast, we talked about chapters 1-2 of the book. The main ideas we discussed were about collecting data sets and how we go about them. We noticed the different examples he used in the book to talk about how to choose samples and about bias, and we talked about our experience with collecting data in the past and how particularly our biases have influenced our data collection. 
How to Lie With Statistics pt 1



Scoliosis is the abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. It ranges from different degrees depending on the person or the severeness of the scoliosis.

There are multiple causes and cases of scoliosis. Degenerative scoliosis may result from traumatic (from an injury or illness) bone collapse, previous major back surgery, or osteoporosis(thinning of the bones) Idiopathic Scoliosis is the e common type of scoliosis has no specific identifiable cause. Congenital Scoliosis caused by a bone abnormality present at birth. Neuromuscular Scoliosis is a result of abnormal muscles or nerves. Frequently seen in people with spina bifida or cerebral palsy or in those with various conditions that are accompanied by, or result in, paralysis.

There are certain cases that can be corrected by surgery or a back brace. The back brace can’t fix scoliosis but it can straighten and keep it from getting worse. It basically acts like a stabilizer.

Society: Approximately 2%-3% of Americans at age 16 have scoliosis. Less than .1% have spinal curves measuring greater than 40 degrees. Scoliosis is diagnosed by Most scoliosis curves are initially detected on school screening exams, by a child’s pediatrician, or family doctor or by a parent. Some signs include: uneven shoulders, a prominent shoulder blade, uneven waist, or leaning to one side. Speciality hospitals like Shriner’s children’s hospital can do screenings and X-rays to evaluate the magnitude of the curve. Girls are more likely to be affected than boys.


I have a rare case of scoliosis called Spondylothoracic Dysplasia.  Instead of one curve, I have two curves. Compared to a normal spine that have perfect rectangular vertebrae, my vertebrae is jumbled up resembling a puzzle. Therefore surgery would have been a risk. The physical aspects are visibly short torso, and a lot of back pains. Sources: http://www.webmd.com/osteoarthritis/guide/arthritis-scoliosis  http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/scoliosis/home/ovc-20193685 http://www.medicinenet.com/scoliosis/article.htm http://www.spine-health.com/conditions/scoliosis/scoliosis-what-you-need-know
http://www.niams.nih.gov/health_info/scoliosis/ http://www.srs.org/ 

The Science Behind The Gut Feeling: Ameer Forte


Modern science has given the world a way to determine whether or not the "gut feeling" you hear people refer to is a myth, or a true feeling or instinct of human thought and emotion. An article published in April 2016, shows researchers, for the first time ever, having devised a way to measure intuition. According to many researchers, intuition is far more material than it seems. Hope College social psychologist David Myers, PhD, explains that the intuitive right brain is almost always “reading” your surroundings, even when your conscious left brain is otherwise engaged. The body can register this information while the conscious mind remains blissfully unaware of what’s going on.’ This effect causes your first instinct to a problem or your “intuition” more reliable to trust than not because the first time you think about something your brain is more focused on it, without you even knowing. The experiment showed that most individuals actually guessed the right color more often when they began to trust their gut instinct by showing confidence and responding quickly, suddenly reacting rather than spending extra time thinking about the color.


Intuition can help people make better decisions under the right circumstances. This was an important study that showed that information subconsciously perceived in the brain can help with decisions if that information holds some value or extra evidence beyond what people already have in their conscious mind. In the future, researchers might be able to develop a method to train people to take advantage of their intuition and then test them to see if their intuition truly improved with more frequent use and practice.


When is this useful for someone like me? Well I personally plan to take advantage of my natural ability of intuition when test taking, when critical decision making, and basically in all aspects of life that involve important decision making.
5 Min Of Science

Mali Fenning- Hybrid Cars


Hybrids are vehicles that combine the benefits of electricity and gasoline to become a more efficient and eco-friendly car. Hybrid and electric cars are different because hybrids don’t plug in. Regenerative Braking is when the hybrid reuses the energy that a car takes to brake or coast and uses the forward motion of the wheels to turn the motor in reverse, which then regenerates the energy. Electric Motor Drive Power assists the engine in accelerating, passing, or hill climbing. Some hybrids rely just on this at low speeds. Automatically shuts off the engine when the vehicle comes to a stop. This reduces wasted energy from idling. A hybrid that uses gas but then recaptures some energy during braking and store it as electricity unlike an electrical car. The negative impact of using electricity depends upon the type of power plants that supply the electrical grids where they are charged. California, derives 80% of its cities' electric power from hydroelectric plants. So neither the cars or power plants produce harmful emissions. However, if your state uses mostly coal-burning power plants for electricity than it is just as bad as using gasoline all the time. 


Most people in Philly get their electricity from PECO. PECO is increasing is use of wind energy but usually uses fossil fuels like coal, oil, or natural gas. Hybrid vehicles do not use lead-acid batteries, instead they use nickel-hydride batteries and lithium ion batteries as hybrid. So much better than lead! Compact hybrid cars produce 10% fewer smog-producing emissions than normal cars. Larger hybrid cars reduce smog emissions by 15%, 19% and 21%. Smog = nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and other volatile organic compounds. It really depends on where you live to see if a hybrid car will benefit your environment or not. Retail sales of hybrid cars have increased since 2013, and buying is good for the economy! Tesla Motors’ high-end EVs have taken over 8.4% of the existing luxury car market, and electric vehicle manufacturers are creating jobs. Hybrid cars are seen as more expensive, but you can get them used and they are around the same price as a regular car. “The Leaf costs much less to operate. Over five years, Leaf drivers can expect to spend $4,691 less than Camry owners and $1,707 less than Prius drivers. Much of this difference comes from not buying gas.” There are less hybrid cars than regular gasoline run cars, but almost all the main car companies like Ford, Toyota, Volvo, etc sell a version of a hybrid car. 


I've always have had old cars that aren’t fuel efficient, so I think about later in life having a hybrid car. I am becoming an adult so I am trying to think about all my options. If I commute to school later in my college career I’ll probably drive so I am thinking about the best cars. Also, people have told me mixed opinions on hybrid cars, so now I know the facts.

E1Q4BM Proyecto- Robo en el Restaurante


Leah: [voiceover] Presentar nuestro nuevo telenovela serie, Extraño Café: Un Documentario. Starring Julia Furman, Jason Lam, y Leah Bradstreet!

Julia: [walks up to Jason] ¡Hola! ¡Bienvenido el Dinero Café! Soy tú camarera, Julia. [pauses] ¿Qué le traigo? ¡También me gustaría mencionar que tenemos comida para perros para tú amigo adorable!

Jason: [looks at menu] No, gracias. Pero me gustaría agua, por favor.

Julia: Bueno, un momento. [walks away]

Julia: [returns with a cup of water] Aquí tiene.

Jason: Gracias.

Julia: ¿Algo más?

Leah: [walks in suspiciously, says nothing yet]

Jason: [notices her, but looks back down at menu] Sí. Quiero un pollo ensalada y salmón. Algo quiero helado de chocolate.

Julia [Suspiciously looking at Leah, but feels like she needs to look away and quickly does so. Wants to get out of there. Says quickly,] Bueno. Ya vengo. [begins to go quickly in fear]

Leah: [notices Julia just as she’s about to escape and takes out “gun” and fires into the air twice]

[Jason screams and the dog become alert and growls at Leah. Julia picks up her pace.]

Leah: [says creepily] Espera Señora.

Julia: [Stops and turns. Nervously and softly,] La la la la la la

Leah: ¡Dame todo, o voy a disparar! ¡Dame dinero, objetos de valor, quiero todo! ¡AHORA! [Fires another shot into the air, spurring everyone to scramble to strip themselves of their valuables]

Julia: [Falls down on the ground in surprise at the yell. Her glasses fall off. Jason´s dog sniffs at Julia, to make sure she's okay.]

Jason: [refuses to move, even speak. Dog is still in the same position, protecting his master]

Leah: [notices Jason and swerves the gun towards him]¡Tú! ¡Dame tu dinero!

[Dog growls and barks, and then jumps up on Leah]

Leah: ¡Aaaaahhhh! [Drops gun and runs out of the restaurant. The dog is still barking after her]

[The others cheer, the robbess is gone! Dog returns]

[Jason blushes from the attention and pets his dog on the head]

(End of Video)

Honey Bees

  • Science
To explain the science of my topic to the public I would collect many different essential daily products that many people use and explain how honey bees contribute resources to make the product and what will happen if honey bees disappear. I will then give a short introduction about the anatomy of honey bees and how we collect the resources we use from honey bees, this will allow the audience to think differently when they go to their local pharmacy or store to buy products that use resources from honey bees. I am positive my resources are reliable, I made sure to only use sources with ".org" and resources from credible organizations. I am able to confirm that my sources are credible through online educational videos and reviews. 

  • Society
This issue impacts society because if honey bees disappear a large number of products that we use will become extremely expensive or will possibly become impossible to produce. Honey bees are responsible for one-third of our global food production, there are already third world countries that have multiple problems feeding their citizens. Countries like the United States and other developed countries will experience a food crisis that will most likely last for many generations. Lastly the economic value of pollinators is worth $235 to $577 billion dollars globally, if honey bees disappear a large amount of this money will be disappear and funds for education, medical supplies, etc. will become unavailable and result in a global crisis.
  • Self
This issue effects me because I am constantly thinking about the products I use and where they come from, if we lose resources because honey bees are experiencing some kind of a crisis it can effect generations to come and possibly effect the environment in a negative way. I am very grateful that I have all of these resources provided by honey bees that most people find difficult to obtain, I will never stop spreading the word about honey bees and will continue to provide information for those who are unaware of where most of the products they use come from. 

Sources Cited: 

1). Kurzgesagt. "The Death Of Bees Explained – Parasites, Poison and Humans." YouTube. YouTube, 09 July 2015. Web. 31 May 2016. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GqA42M4RtxE>.
2). Morris, Alex. "What Is Killing America's Bees and What Does It Mean for Us?" Rolling Stone. N.p., 18 Aug. 2015. Web. 31 May 2016. <http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/what-is-killing-americas-bees-and-what-does-it-mean-for-us-20150818>.
3). "Honey Bees: Overview of Honeybee Types, Habitats & Characteristics."Orkin. Orkin, n.d. Web. 31 May 2016. <http://www.orkin.com/stinging-pests/bees/honey-bees/>.

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/18cOK2J0LoIzs3_Gb A1KVPQog6nweaRLfnyrLE7ilRPo/edit#slide=id.g124eb963b9_0_194

Common Cold Blog Post

​Explaining common cold's to people is actually very simply. The reason for that is that everyone has experienced a common cold before, and and everyone knows the symptoms very well. Symptoms like sore throat, nasal congestion, and coughing are easily explainable. When it comes to the science most people know that there isn't a cure for the common cold because every year we catch cold's several times. The idea here is that there isn't one treatable cause for the common cold, they are hundreds of causes which why it is such a pesky thing to deal with. All of my sources on the common cold are reliable because they are backed by research. Some of my sources are also government funded.


The common cold affects society in it that everyone gets one. Because of the common cold we call out sick at work, don't go to school, and even make ourselves a burden to those around us. People with weaker immune systems and children are the most prone to catching colds. Because of this we often spend a lot of time showing our children how to be sanitary. It's even possible to say that the common cold fostered this whole culture of always wash your hands after you do something with them. We build our lives in such a way that we try to avoid getting a cold as much as possible. The common cold has helped us develop as a cleanly society. Some people might say that the common cold causes us to waste time but it's because of the common cold that we have such as thing like sick days. Everyone has called out of work sick before without actually being sick. Imagine not having that chance because common colds didn't exist. In the future I think we will most likely get even cleaner as a society to eventually eradicate the common cold.

I think the common cold has made me into a paranoid person. Anytime I see someone coughing or sneezing I try to avoid them more because I don't want to catch a cold. It makes me alienate people. At the same time I do value the fact that the common cold has helped society develop. We have things like antibacterial soap and spray because of the common cold. The whole "it destroys 99.9% of all germs" things is a way to assure people that these products will protect against the cold. Yes to me the common cold culture has helped society develop new products and solutions as well as push us further to that 100% of all germs standard

How to Lie with Statistics Podcast #2- Lindsey & Tiarra

Hey! Lindsey and Tiarra are back with their second installment of How To Lie with Statistics. In this podcast, we explore chapters 5-7 and discuss the deceitful nature of companies, prestigious schools, and other entities and how they can manipulate pictograph, bar graphs, and line graphs. So far, this podcast recording stuff has been very enjoyable and eye opening for us. Please enjoy it and look forward for our third and final installment later this week!

E1 U8 Q4 Proyecto - Lauren Nicolella, Kimberly Gucciardi-Kreigh & Maciej Pokora

Maciej got a bad grade on his final project, causing him to fail the class he was in with Profesora Nutty. When he arrives at restaurant, he sees his teacher and decides to sit with her at the table. She tries to ignore him and tells him how bad this work is and such. Being all clumsy and rude to the waiter, teacher makes a request to cause trouble to him while he goes to the bathroom. After he comes back trouble happens and at the end he leaves a bad tip and drops a chandelier on him.

Hikma Salhe- Female Genital Mutilation

"Female genital mutilation comprises all procedures involving paritial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO)." FGM is often done on girls between infancy and 15 years of age. There are four types of FGM:
  1. Clitoridectomy- removal of partial or whole clitoris and/or it's prepuce.
  2. Excision- removal of clitoris and labia minora.
  3. Infibulation- the narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal.
  4. Any kind of non-medical, harmful procedures to the female genitalia 
Studies have shown that there is no known medical benefit to FGM, in fact the consequences are incredible. Most women suffer from problems urinating, vaginal/vulva cysts, vaginal infections, complications in future pregnancies and childbirth. 

FGM occurs all over the world, however it is not as apparent as it once was 20 years ago. FGM is most popular in North, Eastern/Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Middle East. FGM, in most countries, is considered to be a necessity to raise a girl. It’s ‘purpose’ is to keep the female modesty and virginity intact, making it popular amongst men. It aims to reduce female libido and overall female sexuality, by instilling fear into the woman.

Christian Moore - Human Growth Hormone

​Science - Growth hormones are a natural substance created by your body just like testosterone. Human growth hormones however are genetically made hormones that help you get bigger. They were invented to help people who had developmental problems and could not grow to their appropriate size. This synthetic mixture was only available to people who absolutely needed it but began to be sold other places and people began to get their hands on it. The HGH itself does not get a person big, but depending on their daily activities may result in size difference. It is not a steroid, but considered a "doping" substance.

Society - HGH is not commonly known, and is often taken by bodybuilders and athletes even though it is banned in some organizations. These growth hormones when taken properly are very beneficial to your body. Athlete have been known to tear ligaments and take HGH's to speed up recovery time. The hormones are looked at as giving unfair advantages to athletes so it is frowned upon. It works by boosting testosterone levels in effect making a person work harder, lift more, and get better work results. Though it does not make them better, it is a Performance Enhancer. 

Self - I have never taken a growth hormone substance, but I think it is cool how our bodies react to different substances and the length people will go to just to achieve big muscles.

Human Energy



My 5 min of science was to explore human efficiency through the analysis and research of human energy. Through discovering the average input and intake of human energy, through the output of certain tasks I was able to compare them to other things with energy usage. I found that biology is extremely efficient in it's daily input vs. output and it's extremely amazing what we do using so little energy. It would take more energy to boil tea on a stove than it would to think for a day and I think that's amazing.

How many calories do I burn by walking? (n.d.). Retrieved May 27, 2016, from http://www.pedbikeinfo.org/data/faq_details.cfm?id=1227

E. I. (2012, August 25). How many calories does thinking burn? Retrieved May 27, 2016, from http://io9.gizmodo.com/5920970/how-many-calories-does-thinking-burn

Owens, T. (2014). How Much Weight Can the Average Man Lift? Retrieved May 28, 2016, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/380767-how-much-weight-can-the-average-man-lift/

Prosthetics-Maggie Clampet-Lundquist

Science: A prosthetic is a device, either external or implanted, that substitutes for or supplements a missing or defective part of the body. A prosthetic is different depending on the level of physical condition/abilities and needs. Prosthetic technology has advanced so much that each prosthetic is custom made. They can look like whatever the patient wants whether that might be functional,  or looking like a natural limb. A prosthetic is connected to a socket which allows the prosthetic to connect to your dead limb. There is a layer that called the: Addition Layer. The additional layer is a piece of fabric that separated the skin from the prosthetic. The inside of the socket is made with a soft material that makes it comfortable. Limbs need to be amputated so the risk of infection decreases. The doctors would begin by cutting into the skin the cut has to be accurate so it will heal accurately and leave minimal scarring. A lot of the muscle is cut off during the amputation but a lot thought has to go into reshaping the muscle tissue that is still there, this is important because the padding provides around the bone after surgery. The padding is also important for maintaining a healthy stump and is important when it comes to fitting the prosthetic.

Society:In the United States there are 2 million people who have a prosthetic body part. Prosthetics cost anywhere from five to fifty thousand dollars, but no matter the cost prosthetic have to be replaced every three to five years because of wear and tear. The most common way for people to lose a limb is through Vascular disease fifty four percent of the United States has this disease. Prosthetics aren’t only for people, they are also for animals.  Like humans, animals can have limb defects causing them to have a prosthetic body part.

Self: I think prosthetics are an amazing invention! 

Tommy John Surgery - Kevin Courtney 5mins of Science

The tommy John surgery is the Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCL). What it does it helps athletics get there elbow back to 100%. It will replace a tendon from a different part from the human body or from an organ donor. From my personal experience nothing was taken from me. I had an organ donor tendon to replace my bad ligament. Doctors will cut open your arm by the elbow (not a huge cut, but big enough for them to get into). Then they will drill holes into the ulna and humerus bones to help for the next step. With the doctors drilling through your bones, it doesn't cause your arm to be broken they need the holes there so that the doctors can replace the ligament in a figure eight sort of way to help get the range of motion back faster. The cause of getting the injury that leads to the surgery is when an Athlete puts a lot of stress into there elbow. For example I over used my elbow a lot to throw baseballs and bowling balls. On top of that I would be lifting heavy weights which cause my ligament to tear. Athletes need to be careful when training and playing their sport!

For society a lot of major league players have many surgeries. Probably because they are always playing their sport. The tommy John surgery mostly happens in baseball because it easy for a pitcher to tear their ligament faster by throwing an average of 100 fast balls per outing on the mound. Since 1999 235 MLB players underwent the tommy John procedure. About 7% of pitchers like to throw the fastball more instead of their breaking ball. Pitchers have a tendency to stick with the fastball because it is there most fast and dominate pitch against a batter.  Also on top of that they probably feel more confident with that pitch slowly making it easier to injure their elbows.

For myself I underwent the tommy John procedure the past summer. I was out for 9 months and was suppose to be out for 11 months but I recovered super fast because I wanted to get back out on the diamond. I had a great comeback this season hitting 0.629 batting average, 0.638 slugging average, OBP 1.2 something, and OPS 1.297.

5 mins of sci

  • Marijuana is a greenish-gray mixture of the dried, shredded leaves and flowers of Cannabis sativa the hemp plant. This plant can be used in many different ways such as medicinal and illegal. The chemical that causes the high is THC. 500 other chemicals creates a sense of relaxation. Also can heightened sensory perception, Altered perception of time and Increased appetite. More drivers under the influence. People will start toAbuse of the drug. It will cause short term memory loss, Poor coordination of movement, Increased risk of heart attack ,Panic and anxiety, Inability to understand things clearly and Weak immune system.

  • https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1fW7za-E1Iv7fpvEl7IKcvWm0P59B9x_pHHCF8XVHHGg/edit#slide=id.g132647538b_0_5


Acupuncture is a form of therapy that is widely used in China. It is so mainstream that it is even used during childbirth to numb the patient as well as treat headaches and other things of the sort. What happens is that a needle is inserted into the affected area (usually 1/2 inch to 1inch) and at the tip of the needle are bits of Moxa leaves which is a Chinese wormwood tree. These leaves are said to have the medicinal affects that acupuncture is known for. The needles are twirled, vibrated and even sometimes an electrical pulse will be sent down to stimulate the area. Acupuncture itself is based on the Taoist philosophy which basically deals with the "Yin and Yang". It talks about how acupuncture essentially helps break down the walls that are blocking your "chi" (good energy). Western researchers believe that what actually is happening is that the stimulation releases endorphins which are natural pain-relieving chemicals. Acupuncture is important because this may the new medicine. It has no side effects and is natural. Many who have received it has talked highly about it saying that it works and things of the nature. Unfortunately, I have not experienced this so I feel that perhaps this is all a placebo effect but we can't tell for sure. There's no real way to tell if it is or isn't the placebo effect. So I can only go test it myself someday. 

  • Acupuncture. (n.d.). Retrieved May 01, 2016, from https://www.questia.com/library/science-and-technology/health-and-medicine/acupuncture

  • Acupuncture. (n.d.). Retrieved May 02, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/acupuncture/basics/definition/prc-20020778

  • Acupuncture. (2011). Retrieved May 02, 2016, from https://nccih.nih.gov/health/acupuncture

Super Freakonomics Podcast Part 3 - Ava Olsen and Michelle Friedman

The third podcast in the Superfreakonomics series highlights some questions from our teacher, Mr. Miles. He had a few specific questions about prostitution law enforcement and terrorism prediction and prevention. Then we moved on to the third chapter and discussed crime rates and altruism. We challenged the legitimacy of the correlation between TV viewing and increased crime rates. We also debated the idea of true altruism and how incentives and fear play into all of our decisions. Next week we will most likely finish off the book with chapters four and five and answer more listener questions if there are any. Enjoy our third podcast!

"How To Lie With Statistics" PODCAST #3

Here is our third and final podcast discussing chapters 7 - 10 and our personal opinions on Darrell Huff's How To Lie With Statistics.

Speakers: Eamon Kelly and Will Derry

The topics that we talked about in this conversation include:
- Correlation
- "Who Says So?"
- respect for authority
- Demonstrating something else to prove a point
- How to avoid statistical lies


U1 BM4: Restaurante de Divorcio - Kwan, Shilo, Ariana

For our final Spanish project of the year, we were tasked with producing a video, incorporating all vocabulary learned this year that takes place in a restaurant setting with a problem some time in the plot. Our group decided to have divorced parents (Played by Kwan Hopkins and Shilo Kendall) who hate each other be the source of conflict for this story. The story starts with an amazing opening where the two parents are invited to see where their daughter (Played by Ariana Flores) just got a job without knowing the other is coming. Conflict unfolds and hilarity ensues. Enjoy!

Micah's 5 Minutes of Science


The science can be explained to the general public through simply touching on how playing video games can, as a whole, be more harmful than helpful. For video games are already a distraction from exercising and now the fact that using obese avatars can cause people to not want to exercise even more is no good. Males and females were used in this study in which they were given fat/skinny avatar and a fat/skinny opponent and one’s with thinner avatars increased physical activity vs an obese opponent while those with obese avatars were discouraged from participating in real life physical activity. My sources are very reliable and have proven facts and statements in them. There are multiple sources touching on this topic which is how I know my main source is reliable.


This impacts society through giving everyone and video game users new life and possibly a new perspective on how video games affect the real world. Mainly, video games users will only find this interesting because it obviously applies to them. Doing so in a manner that is both positive, due to it being informing and raising awareness, and also negative because physical exercise is very important for everyone. Furthermore, different people might think this to be untrue or just disregard it because it seems uninteresting or doesn’t apply to them. In the future, this might lead to obese avatars being taken out of video games completely, helping promote exercise.


I find this issue very intriguing because I would never guess that just using obese avatars would have such a significant effect on someone’s real life. This issue does not necessarily apply to me directly, because I love to exercise and workout out anyway. My overall thought process of having to live a healthy lifestyle, which means eating right and exercising everyday is engraved into my mind. Therefore, this finding does not have much of an effect on me. I believe obese avatars should be taken completely out of video games to help

Podcast #1 by Huzaifah and Katia

In this podcast Katia and I discussed Chapter #1-3 of How To Lie With Statistics. We began by describing the significance of Statistics in general and why it should be taught in every high school. We discussed the topics from pretty much every chapter and talked about how they are important. Furthermore, we summarized everything and discussed why everyone should read this book because of the concepts and ideas it has. 

Podcast #1