Me magazine slide- Vivian Pham

I made this me magazine the way it is, by trying to make is simple yet artistic like combining the words like independent fits into Expression because the “n” is also in Independent. And the word Slide can fit into Learner because of the L in Slide that is also the first letter of learner. And I added very few pictures because I mainly wanted the focus to be on the words but I chose those pictures because it pops it when you look at it, it isn’t a series of small little pictures but bigger and more simply pictures. And I chose the picture that says dance and it shows 3 dancers because dance was in my me magazine and I described that as my passion and in the me magazine I talked about my experiences regarding dance and why I love it so much.  I also purposely chose that picture of 3 dancers because when I danced it was always with my 2 bestfriends and I felt that it represented us in a way. Then I chose the family like tree because in 2 of my entries in the me magazine I talked about family and how they impact my identity and how they’re a big part of me that defines who I am today, not entirely but it is definitely a part of me. And I chose the picture that says projects because in my me magazine I talked about how projects are something that I really enjoy to do, and I learned better and more effectively when it comes to putting all that I’ve learned into a project. And I would easily choose a project over something that requires turning in papers. And I chose the word energy and put it in within the word learner because it had that E in it and i chose that word because when energy is really important when it comes to dancing and the way it looks when on stage.


ME  magazine in one sLide (2)

Advanced Essay #2: Languages are Worlds

With this paper I was trying to write better scenes of memory, and really trying to dig deep into my own personal experiences, but also write in a way that evokes emotion and conveys thoughts powerfully. I was also trying to work on my thesis and make it as good as it can be, which I believe I did fairly well on. I'm also proud of the use of my quote, because I feel it's well placed and also supports my thesis well. In future papers I would get more reviews and more help from other people, and also edit more. I would want to rewrite another time to make sure everything is polished. I would also want to make a proper video instead of a digital story.


Languages are Worlds

Language is more than just a way to communicate. Language is a way to see the world, a kind of reality. Speaking, writing, or reading a language is a way of experiencing and perceiving that reality, and each language is a different reality.


My first experience with language (other than English) was Spanish, at my Spanish-immersion school. It’s all a haze of memory, but kindergarden was one big blur, all coming together like a mix of two colors of playdough, or a trix yogurt. I distinctly remember the room, with a connected bathroom and brightly colored walls, plastered with drawings and numbers and letters like any other elementary classroom. The teacher, Maestro Arturo, or Mister Arthur, is from Chile, a country I haven’t heard of in my narrow five years of existence. He speaks a few words of English, mumbling and fumbling through introductions and first lessons. He makes such an attempt to speak well with the English parents, and he is so patient with the children, as are we with him, that even though I don’t remember much from this year, I can easily say that he was a great teacher, and one of the best I’ve ever had. Over the year we stumble through Spanish words, and then Spanish phrases, and then Spanish sentences, finally ending the blur of a year with a grasp of Spanish and still having learned what every other kindergartener learns in a year. I remember not speaking much English with Mister Arthur, and him not speaking much English with us, and to this day I believe that it’s the best way to learn a language: immersion.


To plunge into a language, to be urged to learn the language simply out of necessity, is the only way to learn a language. Not in the classroom writing a word fifty times, or on a computer, yelling into the speakers. The only way to learn a language is to live in it, to marinate in it over time, and to want to learn. Through this immersive learning I have learned two languages other than English, and I plan to continue to grow.


My immersive experience with Spanish was a way to experience and understand this new language, and in turn this new reality. Having learned Spanish, I can say that I know of another side to life, and another world completely different from English. I also learned German from my mother and her family through this immersion.


As I lay in my bed, my hands clasped behind my head, I look out into the night sky through the tiny little porthole window in the ceiling. It is not quite darkness, and it never will be. The light will never fully fade, but just dim until it is barely recognizable. You could still walk and see the world around you. It is late in the night, or early in the morning, and the time blends together. One moment I look into the clock, seeing an eleven, and the next minute I look over to see a two. I lie awake like this for what seems like hours, but I can never quite tell, and the clock is always lying. Everything in this country is new and off in a way that can only be experienced in another country. My body is telling me it’s afternoon and that I should look out of the window and see a sun dipping towards the horizon, but my eyes tell me the truth.


This window in the slanted roof is my only view of the outside world, but in my head, I can experience other worlds. I can hear words and stories, and I can see pictures and places, but there’s still a distinct language to what I hear. I struggle my first few days in this new country, trying to get back the German I once learned, trying to brush off the dust that has fallen over that crystal ball. As I blow it away, the language comes back, I begin to speak with ease, and I can feel a different world around me. I lay in my bed each night, and I slowly feel an evolution come over me. I begin to sleep locally, and my body adjusts its clocks to match the ones on the walls. The thoughts and worlds in my mind slowly switch language, becoming new worlds as I experience them in German.


Each time I go back to visit Germany and my family there, I have to make the evolution from English to German, and it’s a noted change in the way I experience the world, and also the world I am in. Just changing the language I speak and think in changes my world and changes my reality. An ancient Chinese proverb states that:


“To learn a language is to have one more window from which to look at the world.”


Each language is a window to look at the world, but also a reality in and of itself that you can experience. Language is a way to experience, and a way to be. Languages are their own realities and to learn a new language is to learn a new reality.



Works Cited:


Ager, Simon. "Proverbs, Quotations and Sayings about Language." Proverbs and Quotations about Language in Many Languages. Web. <http://www.omniglot.com/language/proverbs/language.htm>.

Literary Robots?!?

Introduction:

The main focus of my essay is the lack of creativity encouraged in writing.  I touch upon the way writing is taught to students in the academic atmosphere and what the outcome of these teachings leads to.  My introductory paragraph created a strong opening for my topic which was very satisfactory to me.  However, as a writer I must improve my ability to build evidence and develop my larger idea.  

I am a literary impostor.  Of course I know how to write a traditional academic essay, I am not discounting this skill.  Yet I struggle with the ability to insert individuality into my writing.  This is why I feel that I am not truly a literary for one aspect of being a writer is to project personal thoughts.  I feel that this struggle is mutual among my classmates, whether they recognize it or not.  At my previous school the students obtaining honor roll could produce a mediocre essay including a vocabulary pull from the seventh grade and thematic cliches, but with the use of the traditional academic format, thrill the teachers and gain an A.  When students are praised for this type of product time and time again, their writing will never evolve since personal exploration is never encouraged.  In this way students of the 21st century are being raised as literary robots, defeating a fundamental objective of writing.

Reflecting on my literary education, I have concluded it to be very simplistic and sparse.  In elementary school the format of a paragraph was first introduced to me through the “hamburger paragraph”, a diagram that illustrates a paragraph’s construction.  As elementary school progressed, we worked on strengthening our skills in creating paragraphs using other systems such as TAGS.  Up to that point I was successfully advancing with the curriculum.  However, the change of school in fifth grade took a toll on my growth in literacy.  Throughout middle school writing was treated by the teachers as a minor aspect, as if it were self explanatory.  I remember constructing paragraphs for assignments to be a very step-oriented process.  Upon beginning high school I carried with me that process, it being the only thing I knew.  Every paper I produced seemed to be comparable to the previous, just shedding light on a different topic.  No teacher came to the rescue for it appeared that since I knew the traditional academic formatting all was well.  Yet I felt worn from the repetition of spewing the same ideas with no distinction from one to the next.

The bud of the problem is that when the format of a paragraph is taught, there is no elaboration on content and construction.  With no guidance students may assume that the format of a paragraph is the basic knowledge needed to complete an essay, unintentionally disregarding the composition.  These circumstances could result in a plethora of identical essays.  When students are not taught to imply individuality, the same set of ideas tend to be recycled throughout their paper without any progression. This can create an exhausting and mundane atmosphere for the writer, causing them to lose interest in their topic.  In his book, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Paulo Freire stated that “it is the people themselves who are filed away through the lack of creativity, transformation, and knowledge in this (at best) misguided system. For apart from inquiry, apart from the praxis, individuals cannot be truly human. Knowledge emerges only through invention and re-invention, through the restless, impatient continuing, hopeful inquiry human beings pursue in the world, with the world, and with each other.”   Freire’s statement is similar to mine in which he touches upon the detachment people have developed through education, which includes literacy in relation to their creativity.  With the absence of creativity there is hardly any chance at inserting individuality, giving the produced writing more of mechanical quality with no personal essence.

I sit in front of my computer willing my fingers to type, yet they won’t budge.  For an hour and a half I have been staring at a blank page, chasing tantalizing thoughts that dissolve before I can manage to type out a coherent sentence.  Another year of tenth grade would not have prepared me for the writing assignment given on the first day of school, for I have never been given such loose guidelines.  Teachers were always so exact about what they wanted.   Now for the first time I am given the control to have creative ownership over my work, something I have longed for greatly and there is an emptiness.  My ideas are missing in action.  So I turn to my alternative, using the guidelines given and applying the basic paragraph format.  The instance I describe is not a past dilemma, this conflict occurs daily.  The fact that I share this problem with fellow students is alarming for the reason that many are unaware.  Even more alarming is the fact that some educators deem it acceptable to not expand past the basic paragraph formatting. Writing is an art that captures opinion, personality, and soul propelled by the creativity and individuality of the mind as well as source of analytical text.  If writing is further encouraged in this way, new ideas will cease to be produced, and the art of writing will become a myth.


Citation(s)

Freire, Paulo. "Philosophy of Education -- Chapter 2: Pedagogy of the Oppressed." N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2015. <http://faculty.webster.edu/corbetre/philosophy/education/freire/freire-2.html>.


Advanced Essay #2: "An Empty Book"

          For this paper I focused on human development and learning styles. Education will forever be a part of the world and it is important to enhance it for the better of the learner. As time goes on more information will be available. It is the job of the educators to help the learners develop a path for themselves because not everything can be taught in school. I am most proud of finding an argument I care and feel greatly passionate about. By including memories I was able to tell my side of the story as a student. As my writing abilities continue to grow I plan to continue to explore and discover. Without exploration there is no story to tell.

          ​When I was young I enjoyed the basic necessities; school, bath time, and books. At school there were multiple personalities that surrounded me, and they were all judged for a grade. The “100 Book Challenge” was one of the activities that we engaged in. It was designed to see how many books we could read, not how well we read them or how much of the book we understood. As said in I Just Want To Be Average, by Mike Rose, “Students will float to the mark you set.” Children around me always read the thicker books, while I read the thinner ones, but they didn’t comprehend what was happening in their book while I did. The teacher's seen them try but didn't see me succeed. So, why were the other kids praised for books they didn’t understand? Reading a book can’t be the only form of literacy because I can do more than read books. I can comprehend the world around me by listening and visualizing.

          As a small child, after my bath and dressing for bed I would walk carefully down the tan rugged steps in the dark, tiptoeing across the arctic cold kitchen floor, and through the mirror filled dining room. I see my mother making her way towards the big green couch. She plops down, swinging her feet over the other cushions. She grabs the remote to turn the TV on until I walk in the living room. I look at her saying nothing for a couple seconds then dart to the boxed TV to grab my red Doctor Sues bag right beside it. It has little colorful fish on the outside like the book “One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish.” The bag is filled with all my favorite books, but I pull out my favorite, “Are You My Mother?” It is a light green book with a white dog on the cover. “Mom! Let's read.” I say to her as she yawns and nods her head. I open the book and begin, “Are you my mudder?” My mom has read the book to me so many times I now know it by heart even though the words on the page are a blur to me. I turn each page excitedly reciting from memory to my mom as she smiles. “Are you my mudder?” I continue. I visualize the story in my head. When I am done she gives me a big hug and a kiss, “You’re very intelligent.” A smile grew on my face, and I would start from the beginning again.

          In school teachers set a “mark”, a goal of knowledge, for students to reach. The mark that is set is not always reasonable though. Most goals being set are the ability to complete certain tasks, while not understanding how these tasks were completed. The path to completion and comprehension is the most important “mark” to “float to.” Teachers should focus more on the process rather than the final product because the students, and humans in general, will never stop gaining knowledge. Teachers are so use to following a specific curriculum then once reaching a goal they aimed for, they stop and move on to the next without reflection. By the teachers setting a mark for endless exploration, and questioning, the child’s education can prosper. All children ask questions to understand better due to them being curious about the world around them that changes everyday. This is all important because goals, or “marks,” are made to be reached. Then, another goal should to set again to repeat the process in a higher educated matter.

          My mother did not directly set a timely goal for my education. She loved to watch me explore and ask questions. This is why I worked along my own path and tried to discover things for myself. I was given the time to explore. The outside world contains more visual examples than a book could ever have. Understanding is the key to literacy, not just being able to see the words. By listening to my mother read this book to me I visualized what she was telling me in my head. It made me curious. It made me want to bring the story to life. If you truly listen to what somebody is saying to you and explore it, you will find more things to explore. 

          There was a time when books and writing did not exist and now humans have prospered, from exploration, to inventing and creating things like buildings and houses with heat, hospitals to help the injured, and restaurants to feed. Today these things are normal to us, but they were not normal once before. We continue to explore by doing things to make life easier, more enjoyable. If you think reading is the only form of literacy then think about a book, any book, and ask yourself what made them write it the way they did. They didn’t get that information from another book, they would have had to find the words themselves.



Cited Sources

"100 BOOK CHALLENGE®." 100 BOOK CHALLENGE®. Web. 27 Nov. 2015. <http://www.americanreading.com/products/100bc/>.

"Overview of Learning Styles." Overview of Learning Styles. Web. 27 Nov. 2015. <http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/>.

Eastman, P. D. Are You My Mother? New York: Random House, 1986. Print.

Rose, Mike. ""I Just Wanna Be Average"" 50 Essays: A Portable Anthology. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2004. 316-29. Print.

https://docs.google.com/a/scienceleadership.org/document/d/1N50nboGeXGd8aYZCmT52X-r7kEZcBvSdxD9H--bzYHo/edit?usp=sharing
Image Analysis

          This is a statue of a book. This book is made out of scrunched up pieces of paper and paint is splattered on the books cover while the inside stays white. The balled up paper represents all the things and knowledge that can be discovered, unwrapped. The splattered paint represents the symbolically bright and dark discoveries that can be found. The inside, pages, of the book are white, empty, clear of all words and pictures to show new life, new knowledge, and new stories. The statue can be interpreted in many different ways by all levels of knowledge. Only the mind of other individuals can tell what words should be written inside and in what way. 

Media Fluency-Darlenny Rodriguez

Untitled presentation
I decided to make my slide look like this because I wanted a really inspirational quote that also had to do with singing because that is what I enjoy doing on my free time. The thing that mainly influenced my decision making was how my classmates kept telling me stop singing and then it hit me, I should do my slideshow about singing. I was going to do the fact that I am from the Dominican Republic but I had already used that previously and I wanted viewers to get to know me a bit better. On my first slide I put a picture of nature and on it was a quote by Maya Angelou that read “A bird doesn't sing because it has an answer, it sings because it has a song.” This quote is not only beautiful in it’s simplicity, but it sends a powerful message that we should not work so hard to find the beauty in today, but enjoy that today is here and tomorrow is bound to come. This quote is really inspirational and is tied back to singing, something I enjoy doing.

Michael's Advanced Essay #2

Intro: Mainly I wanted to focus on how language at it's core is just communication. There is no reason, in my opinion that someone should be considered illiterate if they can get through daily life, or the life the want to live, with how much of any language they know. If it's enough, and it works, it should be considered literate because you have fulfilled the main purpose of learning a language.


https://vimeo.com/147284663


“But for a language to remain, it must be used.” Literacy often is seen as and accepted as, without much thought on the topic, as the ability to read and write. What people define as literacy affects things like immigration policy, school curriculum, and public opinion of people. But language itself is just communication. It may be convenient to learn english and it may make life and other things easier for you, and open you to new opportunities and possibilities in your life. It is valued to speak english, but not speaking and knowing how to read and write english isn’t necessarily being illiterate.

Because the purpose of learning language to communicate. Any form of communication, as long as it can be understood, is valid as literacy. Maybe some positions require a higher level of understanding of the english language. Take for example, a position at a company that writes manuals or something along those lines, would require a higher level of understanding, but it obviously doesn’t make you illiterate for not having that level of understanding (this isn’t to say people shouldn’t have that chance, just that it is not necessary for everyone).

It was just recently, less than a week ago when I was going home on the train, Trenton line to be exact. It stopped at 30th street station, and the train began to crowd. The seat next to me had been ignored until the last people to board the train, a family of four, came in. It was a father, a mother, a younger son, and a baby. The mother was holding the baby, and sat next to me, the father sat opposite from here, and the small boy sat next to my mom, who asked the boy if he would like to sit by the window, (he said yes).

Once we got past North Philadelphia, the conductor person came down the aisle and asked people for tickets or money. The mother was asked, and searched for something to say, but the father responded to him in slightly broken english, and handed him the money for tickets to Trenton. The baby started to make an odd sound as the conductor walked away, and the mother quickly tried to quiet him down. The father and mother looked stressed. He started kicking my leg and arm as he tried to rustle out of his mother’s grip and the mother looked to me to say sorry. At this point the father had to take a call, which he answered in fluent spanish.

She obviously couldn’t speak much english, as it took her about 5 seconds to find the word sorry, not that I was waiting for her to say sorry, I’m not petty, and when she found it took a little bit for her to pronounce it. So I just smiled and gave a thumbs up. She smiled back and kept trying to quiet the baby down. Later when the boy was asleep, his legs kept slipping down off the mother’s lap and the mother looked directly at his eyes as if to check if he woke up. She put his legs on my lap, and looked to me for a response, which was a smile, and a ‘thumbs-up’. For the rest of the ride the baby was quiet.

My point in explaining this long scene is that in this instance, or scenario, I would consider her literate. She didn’t have the best english, but she was able to effectively communicate and understand ideas well enough that it wasn’t a big deal, or any deal really. They could have been coming from a hospital where they were getting the baby treated. I’, fairly the certain the father had enough english to fill out paperwork. If not, spanish is still the second biggest language in the United States.  In this scenario, I wouldn’t consider the mother illiterate, or the father illiterate, because they have enough knowledge of communication that they can live a life. They could fill out paperwork, or what they said could be translated, and even if they don’t speak english, they could always have someone translate or just speak to someone who knows spanish, as it is the second most dominant language in the United States.

As long as you can communicate effectively with the people you need to and understand the things you need to in life, you are literate, because you have fulfilled the purpose of learning language, which is being able to communicate.


Peters advance essay 2

ntroduction:

This essay will explain the concept of literacy. I mostly talk about how high schools shouldn't teach you basic, math, english, physics, history. Us young adults should be taught how to become a financially stable adult. Learning how to pay a mortgage and take out loans for college. There should be prep schools that help you prepare for financial aid. One day I asked my teacher when will we learn how to do these things, she said “that's your parents job”. It too unitil Jr. year to learn how to pay and take out a  loan in my math class.


Education is key, ever since I was a small kid my parents and others told me to go to school because it will grant me the wish of becoming rich. My dream is to become rich, that is all i think about. I go to a public school located in the city of philadelphia called SLA. It is a very good and complex school. All classes that I have are supposed to challenge you to become better. Schools should be challenging and stressing you out, school should be teaching us to be challenged and to be stressed out to a point that no one would want to the assignment. Highschool should show you how to pay bills, pay off a mortgage, take out loans, and also maintain a life of a adult.

Maintaining a checkbook isn't the only thing that adult has to do, they have to know how to apply for a job, applying for medicare, and learning how to be fully functional adult. Adults have to be prepared so we don't get hit with a curve ball by the government or even the economy. My brother, he dropped out of highschool and got his diploma from a different program, he had all of his credits but really didn't like the school. His plan is to take a GAP year so he could get his life straight before actually going to college. A teenager shouldn't have to take a year off so he could get his adulthood straight, his high school that he attended for 3 ⅓ should of taught him to be prepared so that he wouldn't need to be stressing about.

I remember “one day in math class I ask my teacher when are we going to learn how to do these things pay bills exct.” She responded with, “that's your parents job”. My parents job is to support me and my family. Teachers in my school are paid to answer my questions and to teach me how to do and learn new things, they should just respond with an ignorant answer. And to this day I still don't know how to pay my taxes or a mortgage or even doing deductibles.

I explained to my teacher that in my life “i am not going to do algebra” or “finding slope.” I want to  .It took until Jr. year when i first learned how to pay off loans, and the understanding of  loans. I feel as tho that we should be taught these things so we are prepared to handle everything a young adult to has later on come to in life. this might just be why people are homeless.

If school was a prep-school for life, everyone would be financially stable. A basic school day would involve lots “one on one” communication with the student and the teacher. Types of classes would be financially classes, other classes could be preparing students for the worst and the best of college. School that actually prepared you for life would classify more as a perp/ trade school. It  would be a very cool idea if the school district of philadelphia would create a prepare/ becoming an “adult” high school.

In Mike Rose's “I just want to be average.” A quote i pulled out was interesting because the main character is talking about a thing called “a true job”.  A true job should be a lesson in school, so that kids could have a broad understanding to what they want to be. “In Some serious programs succeed in doing that, and through exceptional teachers — like Mr. Gross in Horace's Compromise 1 — students leant to develop hypotheses and troubleshoot, reason through an problem, and communicate effectively — the true job skills.” Learning and understanding what you want to do in the future, is good but as you grow up and become more mature you might want to change your mind and become something else. In a prep school for life there should be fill out sheets these fill out sheets contain options of what you want to become. You would be able to choose more than one job, that way a young adult would have more than one option if the first option fails.


Jamilah's Advanced Essay #2: Why Black?

Introduction: In my second advanced essay I chose to focus my paper off of racial literacy. A question given to us to brainstorm ideas was “What does it mean to be an “authentic” member of a cultural group?”. It instantly reminded me of an interview that I saw on the talk show The Real with guest Rachel Dolezal. She’s a woman who was biologically born white, but has chosen for the last 10 years or so to identify as black. I was surprised about the route that my paper ended up taking since I was hesitant to write about race since it is such a controversial topic, but I’m overall pretty happy with it. Also, I mentioned a scene of memory that’s a touchy subject for me, but I feel like it was a suitable scene for my paper. I definitely like this essay more than my last one and I hope that I can continue to grow in my essays to come.


Why Black?


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=padH_TRJIUI


   In life there are many things that you can change, and many that you are given at birth. You aren’t allowed to choose your parents. You aren’t allowed to choose your living conditions growing up. And you most definitely don't have the option of choosing your own race. There isn’t a form at conception for you to fill out and choose the lifestyle you’d like waiting for you after your 9 months in the womb. It doesn't work that way. Yet others seem to feel differently.


  Rachel Dolezal. Some of us may have remembered her from her distinctive interviews or the memes that were made about her, or even the hashtags that were made about her and surfaced just about every social media outlet. She personally believes that she should be allowed to self-identify as black when many others believe that she shouldn’t be able to do so. She has done a few interviews and her statements are quite controversial. Rachel sees herself as a black woman; but what makes a black woman a black woman? Does it just mean that you are from a black background and happen to be a woman? Or can it be more than that? Whatever Rachel’s definition of being a black woman is, she fits the criteria for.



   In a recent interview with the daytime talk show The Real, Rachel was asked “What does being black mean to you? Why do you want to be black?” She responded by saying  “Sometimes how we feel is more powerful than how we’re born. Blackness can be philosophical, cultural, or biological… I do think you have to walk the walk if that’s who you are.“ Although her response expressed her feelings further, the question was never answered.  Why did she choose to not answer the question? When someone avoids a question, it’s safe to say that they’re typically hiding something. But why hide something as big as race? Something that made you want to identify as another race because saw yourself as that race since you were very young.



  Many people in the audience, as well as myself, were not too fond of her answer. Blackness can not be philosophical. When researching definitions of the word philosophical, the example given was related to a people having philosophical discussions about free wifi. You can not relate a person's race to something as simple as discussions about free wifi! Philosophical thoughts and ideologies typically imply that one relates to a topic or situation. Being black is not a topic or situation that needs to be related with. Blackness is a being black! Being born into a race that has advantages, but twice as many disadvantages. Growing up and watching the television to hear about the injustices of your race. Listening to the stories from friends, family members, and even strangers about the type of profiling they receive based off of the complexion of their skin. Not being a child coloring with a brown crayon instead of the peach colored one as Rachel previously spoke about.  



  My question to Rachel Dolezal would be “Why do you want to be black?” With all of the things that black have to deal with as minorities, why is there such a desire to be apart of it? At this point of my life I couldn’t be happier to be a young black female, but it has not always been that way. At a very young age I was first introduced to the side effects of being black. My first insight of it was about 11 years ago when I was around 5 or 6 years old. It was my fourth day of first grade and I just started attending a new school. My classroom was all the way at the end of the hall in room 210. It was towards the end of the day and we always got a chance to go and read on the on the big blue carpet by the window. As our teacher dismissed our tables from the the most quiet to the least, we’d all rush over to make sure that we’d get to sit on the big couch that was sitting against the large windows. My table was the most on this particular day and I rushed over to grab my favorite book off of the shelf, No David. After completing our reading time, my teacher always came over to sing us our class Peanut Butter & Jelly song. “PEANUTTTTT! Peanut Butter and Jelly, and Jelly. PEANUTTTTT! Peanut Butter and Jelly, and Jelly. First you get the butter and spread it, and spread it. Then you get the jelly and spread it, and spread it. PEANUTTTTT! Peanut Butter and Jelly, and Jelly. ” After we finished singing, we drifted back to our tables. Before we sat down I heard one of my classmates talking about her upcoming birthday party. With me being the new girl in the school, I wanted to make friends. As she continued to talk about her party, she began to ask who wanted to come. With me being an anxious 5 year old ready to make friends, I was devastated by the words that wound shortly come out of her mouth. Her exact words were, “You can’t come to my party! My mom doesn’t like black people.” At 5 my biggest worry in class was keeping my table quiet so I could sit comfortably on the big couch outlooking the school yard; not the best way to respond to my first racial remark. My questions still stand to Rachel. Why do you want to be black? What about our lifestyle makes you strive to be apart of it? Do you aspire injustice?


  The recording from the talk show quickly spread throughout the media including YouTube. Among the 145,993 views and 1,220 comments, one reviewer made a statement that many could either argue or agree with. The commenter stated “they never addressed the fact that her ability to want to identify as another other races race is a privilege that is only allotted for white people. it will never be possible for a fully black person to want to identify as white and get treated as so. check your privilege!” This then brings up the idea of white supremacy. As a young black female, I never get the opportunity to say I’d like to self identify as a white female because whiteness can be defined as philosophical, cultural, or biological. Unfortunately, we live in a world where equality is supposedly wanted so badly, but supremacy against minorities never goes away. We aren’t granted the idea of being accepted as another race; the exception would not be given from our original race nor our desired race.


   Being black isn’t a topic of relatability. Being black isn’t an extracurricular activity that you can join. And being black isn’t a choice! It is something you’re born with and you have no choice but to live through it.  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1xsEcs0Slc 


Advanced Essay#2:

In this essay I tried to support the thesis with things that are from my life. My favorite part is trying to put in wirds how having a dyslexic brain feels, from my experience. Hope you enjoy!


I opened the book. Then I slowly turn through the few blank pages and title pages, until I see the words ‘Chapter One’. I look at how tightly packed each row is with all the words, spaces, commas, and periods. I think to myself, I can do it this time, I can start to read this book. I won’t give up. I begin reading the first sentence, trying to concentrate on the words, the phrases, the meaning, the thought. I read it over and over again. I close the book. I open it again this time trying to read the page. I finish and remember… nothing I read. I read again. Now most of the rows start to mash together, words start to dance on the page. I remind myself: This is why I’ve never read a book before. I search up the audio book and start to listen. These moments that just keep repeating.  


The first book I read without using audio recordings is ‘Ender’s Shadow’ by Orson Scott Card, which is my favorite book. The reason this book is my favorite is it makes me feel like I had a chance to make my life better, just like the main character did. It made me realize just how small Earth is, and just how much time we waste wondering what could have happened if somebodies life was yours and wanting what others have. Like Michael Grothaus  wrote in ‘How Changing Your Reading Habits Can Transform Your Health’, where he said “But it wasn’t my new favorite book just because it was so compelling. It was my new favorite because it changed something in me.” What this book changed was that it made me see that there is a way to read, no matter how long it is, and if I read these books I will learn about life before I live it.


Having dyslexia can be hard at times, and a dyslexic brain works differently from any other. The time goes fast, rushes, but when I read it becomes all odd and starts going even faster and then a lot slower. My brain functions weird and reading is the key to that. When unlocked my brain starts to spin, to repeat and worst of all to go completely blank. Over the years I got some new locks and made it harder for that to happen, but it still breaks through sometimes, it finds a hole. That tiny hole appears when I get tired and the chains are looser. It takes me a long time to do anything involving reading or writing. It takes me a lot to read a simple book or write a short essay. Sometimes there is simply not enough hours in a day for my brain, yet I am my brain. I try to read faster, I try to subtract the hours my brain needs. But my brain and me are the same, but not even close to the same. People are too limited in thinking about literature and the way people could be literate. Just because I listen to audio books instead of reading does not make me illiterate.


Sometimes people don’t really understand how you can have absolute control of your brain and at the same time feeling like it keeps running wild. People usually can’t relate because they only have to start their brain, they just have to press the ON button. My brain doesn't need an ON button because I can’t turn it off and it keeps working when I try to pull the plug.  Control: the ability to influence something. Control: my brain move quickly as I try to sort out all my thoughts, but I can only get a few out of the giant pile. Control: no matter how fast it moves I can still influence what it will do next, I can control my wild brain. If it didn’t happen to me every day, I wouldn’t believe it either.

Fodie's Advanced essay #2: Relationship

​Introduction: In this paper, I focused on student teacher relationship. How a strong student teacher relationship is key to education. If a student has no support or a horrible student teacher relationship, how will the student every want to be involved with education? I brought up some of my personal life examples supporting what I was stating in my advanced essay. I focused on a lot of things in my paper especially my grammar. I always wanted to improve in my writing and in this piece I think I did well with that. I am very proud of every single part of my advanced essay especially my grammar. I plan to grow on my grammar, sentence structure, focus and just as a writer. 

Advanced Essay 2: 

A relationship is the way in which 2 objects or people are connected. Hate is having an intense feeling for someone. Hate is a powerful word. Dislike is the ability to feel distaste for someone else. I would say I dislike someone rather than say I hated someone. Feeling valuable is key to having a good relationship. People can have a good relationship by having somebody in their life and feeling valuable. If somebody is mistreating you, how would you gain confidence? You would feel some type of way, if it is a skin color, stereotype or anything else.

“If you need any help Fodie you can stay after school if you want, ” said my second grade teacher. I replied, “Yes, I’ll stay after school for a little.” She was the best teacher that I ever had in my life so far and she will forever be one of my favorite teachers.. It was 3 o'clock, the time to stay after school for a while and get help with my homework. My parents are immigrants and they don’t fully understand English. Sometimes my dad won’t even be home when I come after school because he has to work and provide for us. The best thing for me was to try and get the best education that I could in my life.

We started my homework and got it done in less than a hour. We talked for a little bit about random things about my life and how I was feeling. It felt good expressing and talking about my life and feelings. I felt like I always had someone to talk to if I were going through something. We could talk about anything. She used to give me snacks sometimes, too. I felt as if she treated me as her own son.  She was a second mom to me. Our relationship and bond was so strong and no one could ever break it. When it was the last day of school for second grade, I gave her the longest and biggest hug ever. I knew what I would be missing moving to the third grade. I would still see her but it wouldn’t be the same.

“Go to the office right now,” said my third grade teacher named Ms.Reeser. I said, “I didn’t even do anything wrong at all, I was sitting quietly in my seat.” My teacher said, “go and get out out my classroom right now!” The whole classroom got quiet, I left the room before I cause a bigger problem.  As I was walking to the office, I already knew I was going to get in trouble. A teacher can’t ever be wrong, it's always the students fault. I got to the office and talked to my principal and counselor about what happen. My teacher came into the office and explained a completely different story. Of course I got in trouble for something I didn’t do, she lied.

As I was walking back to the classroom, I thought that she hates me. She was always so mean to me, no matter what good deed I did. I started to notice that she hated me and a couple other people. I started to notice that the people she hates were the people who were all of different skin colors. I started to think at a young age, was it because I was black that she hated me? Was it because I was a different skin color than a majority of people at my school? What was the reason? I wanted to find out the truth as soon as possible.

A quote from “I Just Want to be Average” by Mike Rose. “But mostly the teachers had no idea of how to engage the imaginations of us kids who were scuttling along at the bottom of the pond. And the teachers would have needed some inventiveness, for none of us was groomed for the classroom. It wasn't just that I didn't know things didn't know how to simplify algebraic fractions, couldn't identify different lands of clauses, bungled Spanish translations but that I had developed various faulty and inadequate ways of doing algebra and maldng sense of Spanish. Some teachers really don’t care about the relationship and how that it is key to education. If a teacher is giving you support and you have a good relationship with that teacher, you are more likely to have a more beneficial education. If the teacher is just learning to get a paycheck, what learning is involved with that at all?

After school, I went straight home. I told my dad about what happened at school and how it was unfair.  I asked my dad, “Why do some white people have to be mean to us, black people?” He responded back, “I don’t really know, I think they have something against us black people, they don’t want us to be over them because they think they are the best people in the world.” I stood there and thought about what he said and then it hit me.

Relationship is key to anything in life. Having a success relationship in education is the best that could happen in education. A student that has a teacher who have major confident about them will push the student farther in life. People are always bring up different topics about education but aren’t realizing the huge major topic of student teacher relationship. Many teacher try to involved this because the different boundaries between a student and teacher.

Rose, Mike. "I Just Want to Be Average." Lives on the Boundary: The Struggles and Achievements

of America's Underprepared. New York: Free Press, 1989. 162-67. Print.


Advanced Essay #2

What I focused on going into writing this paper was finding a way to use real life situation that I know for sure happens and relate it to literacy. The part I am proud of is being able to use my scenes and life experiences to support my claim. A plan to continue growth as a writer is just to constantly get feedback and peer review edits from teachers and students. 

Zaeem Wallace-Parker

11/23/15

Water Stream

English 3

Advanced Essay #2

In my society, young black men my age are becoming more and more violent and criminal that it causes all young men in my society to be stereotyped. I was one of the young men leading into the violent and criminal path. Smoking, fighting and being disrespectful were some of the things I began to do. However, I moved to Georgia and lived there for 3 ½ years and I’ve changed my ways. Although I’ve changed, the other young men in my society haven’t. Therefore, it causes the young men headed in a good path to be stereotyped as a defiant and criminal teens.

One night this summer, I came in the house and the smell of baked fish rushed into my nostrils. I dropped my gym bag and made my way straight to the kitchen. My mom was in the kitchen preparing dinner how she normally does. “ What you cooking mom?” I asked, and without answering my question she quickly stepped in front of my face and said “Were you smoking?”. I rapidly responded no because I didn’t understand what would have made her ask me that question. “So why your eyes red?” she asked. At this point it became offensive because I always hear people say, your eyes are low, your eyes are chinky, or your eyes are red. “Mom I wasn’t smoking” I answered aggressively. She ended up backing off and returned to cooking so, I figured she decided to leave the situation alone. Little did I  know I was wrong. 20-30 minutes later, my uncle came to my house. When he came in he said “ Damn what’s that bump on your face… Let me see”. Now I’m not a child, I know he wanted to look into my eyes and see if I was high, I knew if I backed down it would have seem like I was lying about smoking. So I brought my face close to his eyes and let him stare deep into my eyes. He was staring so hard, it felt like he was trying to see into my soul. He stared into my eyes for a good 10 seconds and then said “ that bump is big”. I played along with his schemes and said “ yeah it just got there like 2 days ago.” Then, he turned away from me and went into my mom’s room and shut the door. I could hear them whispering but, I couldn’t comprehend what they were saying. Stuff like this just shows the issue within my society. That’s what most males of my culture and age is doing in my society therefore, I was justified and seen as one of them because my eyes were red.

My mom should know me well enough to know that I would never go back to the life I used to live, the life that the boys my age in my society are living. I’m an athlete now and I actually want to get somewhere with the sport I play. Living the life my society portrays will only hold me back from my dream and not only me but the other young men in my society that have dreams too. Absolutely all my friends, not 1 person singled out, smokes and do dumb (illegal) stuff. But not only my friends but my family too also do the same stuff. My cousins that are around my age are either in juvie, on their way to juvie, or occupied with their child. No matter where I go and who I’m with I always feel like I am the oldest and the most responsible. Even when I am around grown men that watched me grow up as a child. These grown men are not my uncles or cousins, they are just grown men that live in my neighborhood. When I’m around them, I still feel like I’m the oldest and the most responsible because the contribute to the stereotype holding down my society. With them I think like, how are you all grown men but I have more money in pocket than you do and I don’t even have a job? All they do is waste their money on weed and would waste it on clothes and shoes if they had enough to splurge on that stuff.

People outside my society use this stereotype of my society so much. Everytime South Philly comes into the equation of conversation with my friends here at school, I here the same stuff from people who never really experienced the South Philly experience. “South Philly’s the mix”, “You’ll get robbed if you go there”, “Zaeem you don’t need to be outside”, those are the most common things said when or if we talk about my society here at school. My society displayed itself this way and has been long before I was even born.


However, stuff that happens in my society happens all over the world. As humans, we are going to naturally judge a book by it’s cover until we control our thoughts and think neutrally. Until then, our thoughts will always be biased, not perspective.

Advanced Essay #2 - Intrinsic Motivation

Introduction: My main focus for this essay was trying to confirm the idea that we all possess intrinsic motivation. The only thing that varies between us all is what it takes for this quality to be revealed. It can be a long list of things, but I think your environment has the biggest effect. I wanted to show how when we are put in different environments than what we're used to we see different things that help awaken this motivation in us. I hope I was able to convince the readers of my idea and to show different examples of why I stand firm in this belief. I feel like I was very descriptive with the scenes in this essay as well as my first essay. For my next essay I want to focus on narrowing down what I'm trying to communicate so my reader doesn't get confused with all the ideas they're presented with. a

Advanced Essay #2

In life I have learned numerous lessons and I am comfortable with the fact that I’ll learn more as I grow. But through all life’s lessons there has only been one truth that has left a lasting impression on my mind. This truth lives inside each and every one of us. That truth is we all possess intrinsic motivation. This intrinsic motivation allows us to be driven by ourselves rather than the people around us. Motivating ourselves leads to an everlasting benefit, while being motivated by others only gives short term success. This idea is communicated through the old saying ”Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day, teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.” What some fail to realize is that the man must first want to learn before he can actually be taught. People who aren’t motivated to educate themselves can not be taught. Which leads me to question, does everyone possess this intrinsic motivation?

We all have this intrinsic motivation, but it takes certain environments to awaken it. The only thing that varies between us all is what environments we have to be in for this quality to be revealed. The environments we grow in effect how fast and when we become motivated.

This belief became real to me one day last year while I was out with a friend. I had an interview at Chipotle that day, so I insisted on going to my interview first then accompanying my friend to get her state ID. After my interview we were on our way to the place that I seem to pass by everyday without knowing. When we entered, the room was full of impatient faces. There were people standing on the walls, people sleeping, others in line. There were two seats open but they weren’t next to each other.

I said “Claire you take that one, I’ll take the other.”

She said “How about we ask the man who is sitting in between the two empty seats to move over so we can be next to each other.” I nodded in agreement.

The man looked very unapproachable. He held a folder full of papers in one hand and his smile in the other. A frown that extended from one ear to the other was plastered on his face.

“Excuse me, can you move over one please?” She asked.

A number was called on the loudspeaker “76 come to line B”

The man got up quickly while gathering his papers.

After we sat down I couldn’t help but observe the anxious faces around me. My eyes were stuck on this one elderly lady who moved in slow motion. She looked sick and unhappy. As she walked to line A, I watched her stop to regain her balance. My eyes followed her until they met with what looked like a middle aged man who was waiting for her in the line. Their faces shared similar traits, but his looked more rough. He has a scruffy beard and wondering eyes. The similarities in their faces lead me to believe that man was her son. He looked clueless as he talked to the women behind the desk in uniform. He said the words his elderly mother could not, but they didn’t seem to be the right ones. He looked to his mother for help every so often but didn’t receive any. The two small figures left the line empty handed and looked more disgusted than they were when they entered the place. I started to think about the role my mother plays in my life. She’s my support system and my teacher. Since she is the only person I know I can depend on, I sometimes take her for granted. I don’t listen to everything she tries to teach me about life that I need for the future. But while observing all the hopeless and confused faces I gained a sense of gratefulness for her teaching me certain things so with or without her I would be capable to take care of things on my own. That night I went home and I researched all the documents you need to have in order to get your state ID and I researched the process. I was expanding my knowledge for myself so I wouldn’t have to depend on my mother to inform me. In order to succeed you have to want it for yourself and you have to push yourself to get it. It took me being in this environment that was different than the one I was used to full of confused people to understand the resource I have which was myself.

I also remember a story my mother shared with me which was a little more extreme than my own but it gave me the same realization. She told me a story of boy who lived on her block named Pete. Her mother never allowed her to go near the house or associate with Pete because he was not good association. Pete’s mother and father were heavily involved in illegal drug activity. They subjected him to this lifestyle, which lead to him abusing drugs and selling them. His parents didn’t reprimand him, because they thought this was an ideal way of living. He grew up ignorant to how life really was outside the world he was used to. He went to high school without basic elementary skills. When he entered high school, he felt out of place and “stupid”. The contrast between him and other students looked him pried his eyes open, so that it was all he could see. It was then that he realized he wanted to educate himself. He began going to the library which sparked his interest in reading. He still had a long way to go, but he was determined and fueled by his intrinsic motivation. When his parents noticed the change in his behavior they questioned him. This questioning ignited a heated argument where he expressed his hatred for them. He felt unloved, because they were holding him back in a way he never knew they could. Naturally, his parents felt guilty. Pete was later shot and killed due to previous involvement in drug activity. Anyone who knew Pete’s family knew his death left his mother devastated. In Pete’s case his intrinsic motivation wasn’t revealed until he was put in an environment that made him challenge his intelligence.

When we yearn for enlightenment we guide our fingers to the book and pry it open ourselves. This enlightenment we yearn for comes from the intrinsic motivation that sleeps within us until our environment awakes it. In conclusion whether it takes being put in an environment totally different than the one we are used to or being put in an environment with similar traits our motivation reveals itself.



Works cited:


Anzadula, Gloria. "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." (n.d.): n. pag. Web. November 25,2015

"What Is Intrinsic Motivation?" About.com Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2015.

Myers, Christopher. "The Apartheid of Children’s Literature." The New York Times. The New York Times, 15 Mar. 2014. Web. 25 Nov. 2015.

"Intrinsic Motivation." Intrinsic Motivation. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2015.

Watch Video here


Advanced Essay #2 - Intrinsic Motivation

Introduction: My main focus for this essay was trying to confirm the idea that we all possess intrinsic motivation. The only thing that varies between us all is what it takes for this quality to be revealed. It can be a long list of things, but I think your environment has the biggest effect. I wanted to show how when we are put in different environments than what we're used to we see different things that help awaken this motivation in us. I hope I was able to convince the readers of my idea and to show different examples of why I stand firm in this belief. I feel like I was very descriptive with the scenes in this essay as well as my first essay. For my next essay I want to focus on narrowing down what I'm trying to communicate so my reader doesn't get confused with all the ideas they're presented with.

In life I have learned numerous lessons and I am comfortable with the fact that I’ll learn more as I grow. But through all life’s lessons there has only been one truth that has left a lasting impression on my mind. This truth lives inside each and every one of us. That truth is we all possess intrinsic motivation. This intrinsic motivation allows us to be driven by ourselves rather than the people around us. Motivating ourselves leads to an everlasting benefit, while being motivated by others only gives short term success. This idea is communicated through the old saying ”Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day, teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.” What some fail to realize is that the man must first want to learn before he can actually be taught. People who aren’t motivated to educate themselves can not be taught. Which leads me to question, does everyone possess this intrinsic motivation?

We all have this intrinsic motivation, but it takes certain environments to awaken it. The only thing that varies between us all is what environments we have to be in for this quality to be revealed. The environments we grow in effect how fast and when we become motivated.

This belief became real to me one day last year while I was out with a friend. I had an interview at Chipotle that day, so I insisted on going to my interview first then accompanying my friend to get her state ID. After my interview we were on our way to the place that I seem to pass by everyday without knowing. When we entered, the room was full of impatient faces. There were people standing on the walls, people sleeping, others in line. There were two seats open but they weren’t next to each other.

I said “Claire you take that one, I’ll take the other.”

She said “How about we ask the man who is sitting in between the two empty seats to move over so we can be next to each other.” I nodded in agreement.

The man looked very unapproachable. He held a folder full of papers in one hand and his smile in the other. A frown that extended from one ear to the other was plastered on his face.

“Excuse me, can you move over one please?” She asked.

A number was called on the loudspeaker “76 come to line B”

The man got up quickly while gathering his papers.

After we sat down I couldn’t help but observe the anxious faces around me. My eyes were stuck on this one elderly lady who moved in slow motion. She looked sick and unhappy. As she walked to line A, I watched her stop to regain her balance. My eyes followed her until they met with what looked like a middle aged man who was waiting for her in the line. Their faces shared similar traits, but his looked more rough. He has a scruffy beard and wondering eyes. The similarities in their faces lead me to believe that man was her son. He looked clueless as he talked to the women behind the desk in uniform. He said the words his elderly mother could not, but they didn’t seem to be the right ones. He looked to his mother for help every so often but didn’t receive any. The two small figures left the line empty handed and looked more disgusted than they were when they entered the place. I started to think about the role my mother plays in my life. She’s my support system and my teacher. Since she is the only person I know I can depend on, I sometimes take her for granted. I don’t listen to everything she tries to teach me about life that I need for the future. But while observing all the hopeless and confused faces I gained a sense of gratefulness for her teaching me certain things so with or without her I would be capable to take care of things on my own. That night I went home and I researched all the documents you need to have in order to get your state ID and I researched the process. I was expanding my knowledge for myself so I wouldn’t have to depend on my mother to inform me. In order to succeed you have to want it for yourself and you have to push yourself to get it. It took me being in this environment that was different than the one I was used to full of confused people to understand the resource I have which was myself.

I also remember a story my mother shared with me which was a little more extreme than my own but it gave me the same realization. She told me a story of boy who lived on her block named Pete. Her mother never allowed her to go near the house or associate with Pete because he was not good association. Pete’s mother and father were heavily involved in illegal drug activity. They subjected him to this lifestyle, which lead to him abusing drugs and selling them. His parents didn’t reprimand him, because they thought this was an ideal way of living. He grew up ignorant to how life really was outside the world he was used to. He went to high school without basic elementary skills. When he entered high school, he felt out of place and “stupid”. The contrast between him and other students looked him pried his eyes open, so that it was all he could see. It was then that he realized he wanted to educate himself. He began going to the library which sparked his interest in reading. He still had a long way to go, but he was determined and fueled by his intrinsic motivation. When his parents noticed the change in his behavior they questioned him. This questioning ignited a heated argument where he expressed his hatred for them. He felt unloved, because they were holding him back in a way he never knew they could. Naturally, his parents felt guilty. Pete was later shot and killed due to previous involvement in drug activity. Anyone who knew Pete’s family knew his death left his mother devastated. In Pete’s case his intrinsic motivation wasn’t revealed until he was put in an environment that made him challenge his intelligence.

When we yearn for enlightenment we guide our fingers to the book and pry it open ourselves. This enlightenment we yearn for comes from the intrinsic motivation that sleeps within us until our environment awakes it. In conclusion whether it takes being put in an environment totally different than the one we are used to or being put in an environment with similar traits our motivation reveals itself.




Works cited:


Anzadula, Gloria. "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." (n.d.): n. pag. Web. November 25,2015

"What Is Intrinsic Motivation?" About.com Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2015.

Myers, Christopher. "The Apartheid of Children’s Literature." The New York Times. The New York Times, 15 Mar. 2014. Web. 25 Nov. 2015.

"Intrinsic Motivation." Intrinsic Motivation. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2015.


Joanna's Advanced Essay #2: Shaping Me Into Who I Am

Intro:

In this paper I focused on the teachers from my elementary school. I focused on this because my teachers always wanted me to do things that I did not want to do and even changed how I acted. I would say that some of the teachers tried their best because they were looking out for me.


Essay:

Walking up the steps, one by one, I was trying to waste more time. I did not want to go to class. The teacher, Ms. Schulze, was one of the meanest teachers I knew and ever met. I knew that if I was not going to hurry upstairs, she would lock me outside the room. But I did not like going to her class. Every time, I took a step closer to her room my heart would pound faster and faster. I could hear my own heart pounding as I got closer to her door. I took one step up to the hallway and there she was standing there outside her room greeting the rest of the students to her classroom. That smile was so fake, it was like buying fake flowers from Michaels and putting it in your house and telling people that those are real flowers. She was standing there and I was walking closer and closer towards her and I could just hear her yelling “Joanna, why are you 1 minute late to my class?!” As I walked towards her, her smile turned from sunshine and lollipops to storms and darkness. I knew that I had to deal with her for the rest of the school year. This was my 3rd grade at Lowell Elementary School.

In the present day, the programs from the school district are becoming worse. Since, they announced that the School District of Philadelphia is going “broke” and that they have no money to keep the programs going such as, sports, arts, music and other programs. When I was in elementary school, the teachers and my peers knew that my first language was not English. It wasn’t hard for me because my family spoke to me in English all the time. In elementary school, I was forced to take this test in order to see if I needed extra help. I did not know what was going on but I would be placed into a class one period a day and it was called “Esol”.

Esol was a class that wasn’t a grade according to Ms. Schulze but the teachers claimed that they would help me with understanding things better. Just because English was my second language being in that class made me feel stupid and dumb like I don’t belong in school with my peers. It did not make sense to me as a little girl. However, I knew that I had to get my work done in order to get noticed by the teachers. It was important for me to let the teachers see that I was doing well in class because I wanted to be put out of that class. Later on, in that year I was switched to another Esol class because Ms. Schulze had retired. The new esol teacher’s name was Ms. Dunkin.

When you Google “Esol” one of the searches come up as “Esol courses”. There is an esol course that is free. Looking at this website, it looks like it would have helped me more when I was in elementary school. Taking online courses are much more easier in my opinion. There are no teacher to yell at you or to tell how you should act.

One day, I had a report conference with my homeroom teacher and during the conference, I realized that my reading grade was higher than I thought it would be. I asked my homeroom teacher, “Why is my reading and writing much more higher?” and my homeroom teacher replied saying “You have a higher grade because of the way you act and do your work at esol class.” My homeroom teacher told my dad to go talk to my esol teacher to see my progress.

After the conference, I saw Ms. Dunkin in the hallways and she stopped my dad and I. My dad had a short conversation with her. My dad had asked “How is Joanna doing in your class? I bet she’s causing trouble.” My Esol teacher replied “Actually no. I have no problems with Joanna. She knows when to do her work and she always wants to be alone. So, overall she gets her work done. Which is really good.”

The next at class, Ms. Dunkin said that I had to sit at a table because I need to be more “social” and actually talk to my peers. She knew that I worked better alone and I got my work done faster. I did not understand why she was like that. Ms. Dunkin made a dramatic scene out of it saying that I was suppose to be social and that I can’t always get what I wanted in life.”

Ms. Dunkin always said I should be this way and this type of person because I’m not social. She wanted me to become this girl that would socialize with her peers and was an outgoing girl. I understood that Ms. Dunkin was looking out for me but at my age I did not understand why she said those things. Teachers at my elementary school focused a lot on the students that never spoke up and the ones that were always alone. Ms. Dunkin wanted to shape me into a “better student” that would always social, talk to my peers. She was afraid that I would not be open and she did not want to see my alone. For all these reasons, it was good that a teacher wanted to shape me into a “better” person but at that time, I was only a third grader that did not understand what she was saying.

All of the teachers had this mindset of how I should be. Reflecting back, I would thank them. It is important that the teachers were trying to look out for me. However, I wanted to be the way I was. I thought I was perfectly fine. Ms. Dunkin always had this bubble about me. She would think that I was an anti-social girl, who was shy and did not want to be with others. The teachers from my elementary school has to understand how the student felt during that time. At the time when I said I was better working alone, Ms. Dunkin did not understand and had forced me into sitting with others. Elementary teachers should accept how the student is. The students will always be the way they want to be. Let them figure it out on their own. It is more important that the student goes through those experiences because they learn a lot of things.


Literacy Through Reading and Writing

Introduction: My main focus for this essay was trying to write more directly. I  have been told many time that I write passively and have been working to get away from that. I’ve also worked on re-reading and re-working my work to make it better than ever. I honestly believe that I achieved that in this advanced essay. The part that I am most proud of or most looking forward to people reading are my scenes of memory. I want everyone who reads it to be able to picture the scene clearly without getting bored. As far as growing as a writer I think I have done a lot of growing between these two advanced essays and I’m eager to see what I come up with next. My next area of focus and improvement will be more focused around descriptive vocabulary and grammar.


I never thought I was much of a writer. I wrote a few poems here and there when I was younger but I never thought they were anything special. My father would boast about how easily the words would flow out of me, how naturally they came. Reading on the other hand was a cakewalk. Considering that I did not start to enjoy reading until the fifth grade, it was effortless. “Oh what do you have here?” I questioned.

“A book.” She responded.

“What’s it called?”

“The name of this book is secret.”

“Can you just show me the cover.” I responded annoyedly.

“I already told you the name of this book is secret.”

“Isabel stop messing around!” I demanded.

She flipped the book over to show me the cover. The title of the book was indeed The Name of this Book is Secret.

“Oh” I answered a little embarrassed. Even though my pride was hurt for being so frustrated, I was curious. I didn’t really like to read but all of the sudden I was drawn to this book. Why is the name of the book secret? Will anyone ever find out the name of the book? Who is Pseudonymous Bosch? Is that his real name? I needed all of my questions answered, so I made my way to the local Barnes & Noble to do some investigating. When I got my hands on the book I couldn’t have been more excited. At the moment I didn’t understand what I was doing. I was opening a door that I wouldn’t be able to close. I flew through the first book hoping to find all the answers, but I didn’t, but there were four more books in the series. Yet again my curiosity got the best of me and not too soon after I was anxiously waiting in line to buy the final book. When I finally got my hands on it, I knew I was never letting go. Once I started to read for myself, I caught on quickly. The words would connect and make sense in my head in a way that they didn’t before. I was actually comprehending the content and enjoying myself while doing it. That Christmas, Santa gave me eighteen wonderful books. I don’t remember being happier.

From Grothaus article, it seems clear that reading is a practice that has many benefits both physically and psychologically. A discussion about the relationship between reading and one’s writing skills might be an interesting place for the writer to go. In my experience, what I write does not reflect what I read. The two are definitely related, but this does not mean that reading leads to proficiency in writing. I grew up thinking that I was good at writing because I was reading well above my grade level. I never got bad grades in writing and I dabbled in poetry which everyone seemed to love. Plus, all the other kids who liked to read always got spectacular grades on their writing. There was a pattern that I saw early on: good reading equals good writing. It wasn’t until I got into high school that I realized that something about that system just wasn’t working for me.


“Alright class, don’t forget tomorrow is when you turn in your polished book review,” Ms. Dunn reminded us.

“I’m really about to kill this,” I whispered to my peer.


I only had to finish up the final paragraph, which took about ten minutes. I re-read what I wrote and closed my computer. All in all I was pretty proud. The next day I went to school and waited for lunch to come, I was satisfied of my work but I wanted Ms. Dunn to check it for any last minute mistakes. I showed up at her office right at the start of the period.

“Hey Ms. Dunn. Could you look over my review before I turn it in. This is the final version but I just want to be sure,” I asked

“Sure no problem,” She responded.


I shared her into my document and sat across from her, too anxious to see what she was typing, but sure were those fingers moving. Maybe they were good comments, I thought. I was so wrong.


“There you go, she said with a toothy grin on her face.” She closed her laptop and went to deal with another student.


I opened my document expecting to have to only make a few grammar edits here and there. I could not have been more wrong! All I saw were paragraphs worth of edits in the comment boxes. At first I kept my cool, fixing one error after another, until suddenly lunch was over and class had begun. That’s when I started to breakdown. I was running out of time until eventually I had to turn in what I had. After that class period I wasn’t feeling great about my writing but I was trying to stay positive. The next week I got my grade back on canvas - 79. That was the beginning of a pattern would continue through the school year. I took refuge in my books.

I never felt so incompetent and unsuccessful at writing. I don’t understand how someone who has read so well for so many years is unable to write well. Am I not paying attention to the writing techniques of different writers? Am I not comprehending the writing as well as I think I am? It’s stressful to know that writing a simple essay has to be a big production because you are constantly checking yourself on simple writing errors or areas of doubt. Writing still is a challenging area for me and no matter how much I read it doesn’t change how I write, and I’m not the only one who notices this. In the steps to become a better writer, I have been keeping a journal and working with a tutor to practice my writing skills and confidence as a writer. Because I like to read books I started marking my books and



Citations:

"How to Use Reading to Become a Better Writer | Write to Done." Write to Done. 31 Jan. 2008. Web. 25 Nov. 2015. <http://writetodone.com/how-to-use-reading-to-become-a-better-writer/>.

"How Changing Your Reading Habits Can Transform Your Health." Fast Company. 27 July 2015. Web. 25 Nov. 2015. <http://www.fastcompany.com/3048913/how-to-be-a-success-at-everything/how-changing-your-reading-habits-can-transform-your-health?utm_campaign>.


How Kids can and should be able to Handle the Classics of this World

My essay is about the low expectation that teachers have for kids in literacy. I will explain how that can be harmful and what can be done to fix it. 

When I was in elementary school, I was not  an avid reader, especially when you compare me today with my younger self. However, I still read enough for me to be considered slightly above the reading average of my grade. The way that teachers would determine your reading level would be by you reading a couple of passages and then they will ask you questions. From there, they will base your reading level using the alphabet with A being the lowest level, like on a kindergartner’s level, to Z being the highest, which was an 8th grader’s reading level. I was usually given an S,sometimes a T depending on the teacher that was evaluating me, which was slightly above average, and I was fine with that, especially considering the fact that I was expected to be at a level R anyway. So, my teachers really never pushed me to do more. “ Sianneh your are doing so well, so I wouldn’t worry too much. You're so smart”.  My ignorance to this, blinded me from seeing this as a problem until a decision that I made later on opened my eyes to it.
Going back to my experience with reading in elementary, my indifference towards books quickly came to a close in 3rd grade, when I found out my sister’s reading level. “ You’re on a Y” I said in amazement. She shrugged her shoulders carelessly “Sianneh it’s not that big of deal. You’re at a high level too” That was not what I wanted to here. “I don’t care!” I said angrily “ I want to be as high as you and I’m going to be too”. It proved to be a little more difficult than I thought it would be, and looking back at it now, I understood why. There was a lack of encouragement for challenging yourself, and there was more encouragement for stagnance. “ Sianneh you’re already on the right track now. it doesn't matter what level your sister’s on”  This is not a problem until it starts to prohibit the opportunities to challenge yourself.
When it came to challenging yourself, most of the initiative had to come from you while you were in an environment that promotes being average as the main goal. While I was trying to improve my reading level, I found out the more you read, the better your result were, especially when you tried to read challenging books. I remembered with the library that we had in class, they would organize the books based on your level as well. The easiest books were at the top-mid shelf while the harder book were more towards the bottom. In fact, with the harder books, there weren't that many interesting ones that I could really remember. There were just random books. They would be mostly be books that were on history or war. I still did not let that discourage me though. I went outside of school, to libraries and I read with my dad. “ You need to try and read everyday. It’s a long time commitment that requires a lot of dedication.” He would say to me. It took some time, but I was able to finally get where on the level that I was able to be on, and my love for read grew by that time too, but from there I only wanted to go further.
That was when I started to notice the looks of surprise that people started giving me for choosing books that they never expected a child to read. “ Wow, I never thought someone like you could read books like these.” , “ That looks like a challenging book, I’m surprised you chose something so difficult” People saw me as some sort of fascinating oddity. In Sherman Alexie’s “Superman and Me” he addresses this issue as well. He stated that “ If he’d been anything but an Indian boy living on the reservation, he might’ve been called a prodigy”(13). I was, naturally, surprised that people would look at kids who were not white, yet still very educated like they was so sort of rare occurrence when it should be the norm. It made me think, now, and I realized that when they look at a smart minority, their astonishment is not about child’s intellect, it’s about the child’s success in a broke system.
When you are apart of an environment that is set up for failure, or being average as the main goal, someone who is able to go against that and succeed is something rare. It shouldn’t have to be that way at all. Literacy should not have limitations of any form. It is a simple, yet complex form that should be available to everyone. Anyone can read just about anything they choose as long as they are able to understand and answer these three important question. Who is speaking? What happened? Why does it matter? Now, people might say  that there is more to this process, which is true. The reason that sometimes these question can be hard to answer at times is because there is a lack in vocabulary and experience. Vocab is the easy part. All there is to do is to learn more words, but most of the time experience can be challenging. You have to understand where the author’s character is coming from and the times, as well as the society of the story. Only then can you understand the significance of what happened and why it matters coming from the person who is speaking. Once you overcome these two setbacks you can read just about anything at any age.

Title it Advanced Essay #2: The School Sylubus

In this paper I have focused on becoming a better writer. I have always struggled with writing, and I have wanted to do a better job when it comes to writing. I have wanted to expand my vocabulary, so I don't say the same things over and over again, and I want my writing to be smooth, connected with conjunctions in proper places. I have also tried to improve upon my use of grammar, figuring out where to place punctuation, so that my sentences make sense. I am very proud of my analytical writing, I felt as if it was something that I improved upon. I want to get better at writing descriptive scenes.

I constantly hear students complain about math homework, or just any homework in general, asking questions such as, “How is this going to help me in the future? What purpose will it serve? How will it be useful? When am I going to need to use this? Why is this important or relevant to me? The questions ring in my ear, I swear it is contagious. I now have started wondering if there are certain things that I am not going to need to use after I get out of school and enter the real world. In fact, I remember recently talking to my mom who is a graduate school math professor about homework that Mr. Reddy gave us. “What are you doing in math class these days?” she asked me.

“…uhh….” My mind was blank. It was a friday night and I didn’t want to think about any sort of work at all, but she wanted to know the status of my homework for the weekend. “Oh right,” I just remembered. “We are learning about the division and simplification of polynomials.”

She asked me to explain it because this is something she had not learned in a long time and had not needed to know. I did my best to recall everything that Mr. Reddy drilled into our head. She easily understood what I was explaining, but there was a look on her face that suggested confusion.

“What?” I asked.

“Why would you put the remainder over the complex polynomial?”

I didn’t know how to answer. I tried to force an explanation out of my mouth, but nothing would come. I finally said “I don’t know” in an attitude that made it seem as if I had something to defend. “ I mean… I guess… Because-”

She interrupted. “Oh, because in normal long division, you put the remainder over the divisor and that is how you get the decimal.”

“Oh that’s true,” slight pause. “Also that’s what we were told to do.”

“That just seems useless,” she added, almost as an insult to what we were learning in math. “It just seems pointless. How would that help you? How would that simplify the equation?” I was speechless; my mind was flipped upside down; I was shocked. I never thought that my mom would ever in, her existence, question what I would be learning especially in my math class. I could not for the life of me think of any sort of response to her question. I wasn’t barely even confident enough to say “I don’t know,” but her question got me thinking. Do schools teach us to be literate in the real world? I mentioned this to my mom and we eventually got on the topic of what in school is necessary to be taught in schools, and what is not. I then told her about a video on Youtube that I had seen recently. It was of a British guy, Dave Brown, rapping about how the school curriculum was flawed. Ever since watching that video I had wondered if what we are learning in school is important to us. My mom also showed me the video titled “Somewhere in America,” the video in class. It was featuring three teenage girls who performed a slam poem about how the most important lessons we need for everyday life are not taught in school. Ever since then, I have always been interested in what is important to be taught in school versus what is irrelevant.

“I wasn’t taught how to get a job, but I can remember dissecting a frog,” Dave Brown. Unless you are passionate about becoming a scientist, learning how to dissect a frog is not important. If you are a junior or senior in high school, or if you’re just starting college, a skill that your survival in the world depends on is getting a job. This is especially true if you are trying to afford college. So far the only two jobs I’ve gotten are because my mom knew a couple people who were interested in hiring, and wanted someone who could help out with a large amount of work. I have never experience the process of applying for a job, sending in a resume, and setting up an interview. Now I’m afraid of what will happen when it comes time for me to get a job. I wouldn’t know how to handle the responsibility of getting a job even if I was approached with the opportunity to get hired. I wasn’t taught how to use computer programming, so how am I supposed to major in CS without any experience. How am I supposed to find an internship or volunteer work that can help me if I don’t have a platform to work off of. This makes me look like an idiot, especially when talking to professional programmers, video game designers, and computer scientists. The typical sting of the dreadful question that nags at me as if I’m stupid gives me a headache. “So, what programing experience do you have?” My mind hunts for words putting them together in one long command to impress whoever cares to listen. I fail each time, and have no clue what I am actually talking about.

“Umm… I uh… I can umm… I- I’ve- I’ve coded a few times… using processing… and then I- I tried using eclipse… which I think is javascript based. I found eclipse to be too hard though”, and now I know we’re off to a great start when I can’t even understand one of the most simplest programing applications, and its language. Their response is always the same.

“We can start you on something a bit more basic,” or “it takes time everyone needs room for improvement and room to grow.” Honestly I get it. I understand. There isn’t any reason the truth needs to be hidden. I know I am not that good, especially if I have no where to start.

I am trapped by my lack of knowledge. If only I had learned this is school. Unfortunately those in charge of the school curriculum believe that dividing polynomials and staying up all night writing essays about the history of these United States is more important.

“I mean I get that you want us to practice writing but in real life when am I ever going to need to do in depth research of how the English, French, Portuguese and, Spanish sailed across the Atlantic and slaughtered the Indigenous people with guns, germs, and steel? And when in my life am I going to need to solve equations that involve dividing polynomials? Even If you are interested in majoring in math no one whatsoever will need to know all that information about vertical, slanted, or horizontal asymptotes?”

Literacy is understanding the world around us. Schools do not always teach us to be literate. We often learn to be literate, but not from our parents, guardians, friends or family. We do not often remember learning how to be literate. Do you remember who taught you to always fill in “C” on a quiz or test when you do not know what the answer is? Do you remember who told you to pretend to be on the phone if you think someone is following you?


 Brown, D. (Director). (2015). Don't Stay in School [Motion picture]. England: Youtube. 


 Youth Speaks (Director). (2014). Changing the World, One Word at a Time! | The Queen Latifah Show [Motion picture]. California: Youtube. 

Advanced Essay #2: Troubles with literacy

Intro:   

In this paper I focus on how kids that have disabilities are affected in the way they view literacy. I focused more on a personal disability to better express what I know and inform everyone real life issues children are going through. I am proud that I got to talk about an issues that I have struggled with personally. A plan to continuing growth as a writer is writing more about personal experiences.



“You read slow, read faster. Fix your grammar. You can’t write.” Words that taunt one’s way of seeing English class. Words that make you not participate because everything you say you will just get judged for it anyway. Getting judged on issues in english class that kids everyday are suffering with the same problem, so, at least, I am not the only one. I have a comprehension problem where I have issues comprehending what I read as well as others. The comprehension problem was worse in middle school because I would have to read a book maybe three times to fully understand what the story was about. I would read slower so I can understand what I am reading at the first try and not have to keep reading it over and over. People always told me to “read faster” but what good would that do me. Getting put in “special classes” just because kids like me don’t read or write like the rest of them shows us that we are not like everyone. Sherman Alexie once said in the essay Superman “I refuse to fail” was something we always followed. We didn’t want people thinking they have a right to say hurtful things to us just because we have disabilities. Especially me  I was not going to let them get to me, I will show them I am just as good as anyone of them. Everyone is their own person and we are not always going to know to same as other people. I thought we were suppose to do everything at the best of our abilities not do something and if you are not on the level than they label you as being slow or needs extra help. That’s the problem especially in english class kids always point out the “slow readers” and criticize them. There is a reason for these kids reading slow and not being able to comprehend.


Today many kids suffer with reading disabilities, reading rockets states the abilities such as  phonological deficit, processing speed/orthographic processing deficit, and comprehension deficit are common . Phonological deficit is an explanation for the cause of reading difficulties and dyslexia. Processing speed/orthographic processing deficit is a disability that kids that don’t have good grammar. Comprehension deficit is “an active problem solving process in which readers relate the ideas in the text to own knowledge and experiences which allows the reader to create a mental construct in memory” (National Reading Panel, 2000, p. 23). A lot of young children feel alienated from reading and literacy because they suffer from these disorders. Often the classroom setting doesn’t allow kids that are slower at reading to fully enjoy the subject.  


“I want everyone to remake the story little red riding hood.” My teacher, Mrs. Goodnow, said. I remember I was in the third grade I didn’t really know much about how to write a story  because I was never a good writer. So, when she told us to write a whole short story.  I panicked the room started spinning and all I kept thinking how this could not be real. The spinning stopped “You have until tomorrow to turn in a draft,” Mrs. Goodnow said. The only good thing  that came out of this was we had to remake my favorite story little red riding hood. When school was over at 3:05, I rushed home to get started on my draft. 5 o'clock hit and  it was dinner time I still had nothing written down on my draft.  I had no clue how to start this story and I also need to draw pictures to match. After I was done dinner, I went to my room because it was the quietest place in my house. I stared at the blank piece of loose leaf paper admiring its perfectly straight lines.” “Lilly snap out of it,” the little voice in my head told me. Only a few hours left to write this before I had to go to bed. I finally started..with the title little green riding hood. Since I wanted to make it funny I started doing the original red riding hood but with funny twist. It took me about a hundred balled up papers on the floor to finally get a good start. After the start more and more ideas kept popping up  in my head.  


The next day I had to read my draft out loud before the teacher told everyone to pick their partners, me and my best friend Natalia gave each other that I choose you look. After we sat with our partners it was time to share out. I was not even nervous because I was partners with my bestfriend. I read mine first just to get it over with so I started with my title and author  “Little green riding hood by Liliana Guercio” then I started the story I wrote. Once..upon..a..tim-- before I could finish she cut me off saying “you read slow, read faster.” I sat there and gave her the death glare. “What?” she questioned. I responded with “that is how I read.” My own best friend criticizing me on how I read. She made me feel like I was dumb and I couldn’t do anything. That is when I became distant in english class. I stopped raising my hand because if I said anything I would feel like everyone would just think I am stupid.


The environment that an english class can present often can alienate children that struggle with learning disabilities.


Code- Switching

Introduction
Growing up, I've always been singled out because of how I talk and the way I pronounce my words. This wasn't always a bad thing, though, because it experienced me to new ways of life. Moving to Philadelphia was the transition period which had the most impact in my life. I was around so many people of color as myself, and I was not used to this. So I did what I thought was best in order to be able to fit in and adapt to this new environment which I was not used to, learn their ways. This essay really reflects on the effects code switching has had on my life. It also reflects on the role social class plays in code switching, simply because that is one of the main reasons why I do so. I could have improved this essay by including more sources, which would have made my thesis and essay even stronger.

Essay

“Wassup dog”, or “Lemme ask you something real quick.” are some of the things I would normally say to my friends or family members. But, the second someone of a higher class or professional field approaches me, that language would automatically switch. Without even thinking about it, that “wassup dog” would turn into “how are you doing today?” Code- switching is the practice of alternating between two different languages, usually to fit in more with a specific environment.

Fifth grade was the year I first encountered and discovered code-switching. Because I was raised in the suburbs around white people of high class, whom are considered the dominant members of society because of their social status and wealth, I had become accustomed to speaking Standard English as a dominant language. In today’s society, those of the high class are viewed as superior, educated, and powerful. When I first moved to an urban Philadelphia area, there were words and slang terms being used that I never knew could exist.

“Why you talking like that?”

“You talk like a white girl?”
“Stop talking like that, be yourself.”

Before even asking for my name, these were just some of the things that people said to me on my first day of attending a Philadelphia Public School. Someone had told me to be myself, yet that’s what I had been doing all along. I didn’t know how to talk any other way than standard English, so I did the only thing that I thought and knew would ensure my survival in Philly. Learn. I learned how to speak slang, what words to use and not to use. Most importantly, I learned when to use this on my own. Speaking slang around those in the higher class could cause judgement, leading to stereotypes against those who aren’t privileged. In order to not be judged and stereotyped, I learned how to code- switch in order to be able to survive not only in Philly, but the real world, which isn’t made for everyone especially not myself. The United States of America was claimed and created by white men and for white men, no one else. Yet, as one, the majority of American people have grown to be diverse and integrated. Although this is great, it doesn’t take away from the values of those in power. The only way I could succeed in a world that wasn’t made for me to succeed was to cope with and somehow learn the ways of those who America was created for.

I can not remember exactly how many times my people (black people) have told me I “talk like a white girl”. This just shows the psychological mindset of blacks in America. Speaking properly is considered “speaking white.” Yet, the most successful people, not always white, know how to speak fluently and professionally. Being able to do so can take one further in life than them not being able to or doing so, and this is because of the cultural capital of those who are superior in America. The reason many people associate speaking “black” with speaking “ghetto” or improper is because that is how blacks are viewed as a whole, regardless if they can speak properly or not.

I remember watching and observing a video project relating to code- switching and there were numerous perspectives involved. There were blacks, whites, hispanics, and those of the lower, middle and higher class. The video composed of numerous questions being asked based on code- switching, who is superior in society, and who is inferior in society. One interviewee who was a black male of the lower class said "I don't see my cultural capital to certain institutions as valuable as a white person's cultural capital". Being black in America, I can relate to what was being said. Because blacks are viewed as inferior to whites,  this inferiority can discriminate against the views of those who are inferior. The effects of this discrimination are a group of people, whose ideas and opinions are swept under the rug and viewed as abnormal to those who are superior in society (typically the high class). Which brings back the point that anything outside of society’s norms leads to stereotypes and judgements, as Black English is viewed. My language does not define who I am, rather it defines who I’m around and which way I am perceived to act.


Works Cited:

Powell, Josh. "Code-Switching and Social Class." YouTube. YouTube, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2015.
<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4HIe4qwObUk>

Google Dictionary
<http://www.google.com>
Thompson, Matt. "Five Reasons Why People Code-Switch." NPR. NPR, 13 Apr. 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2015. <http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/04/13/177126294/five-reasons-why-people-code-switch>.

Looking Up to the Dream: Siawale's Advanced Essay #2

Intro:

For this essay, I was studying the impact of culture on the definition of literacy. In particular, I was studying the Liberian culture on the definition of literacy. Liberia is heavily influenced by the United States and its definition of literacy. As a whole, first world countries have a great influence on third world countries view of literacy.


Essay:

This was the second time we’ve gotten my brother’s report card and his teachers were saying he wasn’t on his grade reading level. The feeling of knowing that my brother wasn’t on the top half of the class was something my father refused to believe. Being the fastest reader between all my siblings, my dad gave me the task of teaching my brother. I saw the potential in my brother as he continued to read, but the problem that I saw was that my brother had no motivation. He would start off really strong, but then he would always just stop and say, “I don’t feel like it anymore”. That attitude is what a lot of Black boys face and it was something I could never understand. I have always had that drive to keep pushing forward. My father always told us the story of his struggle growing up in the liberian civil war. The drive was something my dad described as something people have to just keep going. Sometimes we want to just in one place and give up and life just happen, but when someone has the drive, they refuse to sit down, maybe they stand for a little bit, but they never fully give. Knowing thing and having someone just give upon himself, was something I could never relate to.

Culture has always been in direct correlation with the general ideas of literacy. Throughout the world,I believe that there is a shared understanding how literacy is important. However, in different places throughout the world, the definition and application of literacy is very different. Cultures have different beliefs that influence the way literacy is interpreted and how it influences the way of life for people. Specifically, coming from Liberia, my parents never had an opportunity to have a great education, which is why their definition of literacy is to excel above others in all aspects of school. Liberia was founded by America, so many of the definitions Liberians have is heavily influenced, or basically copied, from the American system. As a result, school is a place where literacy is the thing that defines how you will live the rest of your life. While these values are of American value, Liberia is not in the same economic standpoint of America. Upon those facts, Liberian culture has a tremendous impact of the definition of literacy and literacy is defined as education everyone must obtain in order to be happy.

When I was younger, my Father was very pressed on all of children being advanced readers. My Dad would have a set time, usually in the evening that we would have turn off the tv and all other games we had, which was little to none anyways, and he would sit us around the dining table. We would all choose books and my dad would tell us we would for read for a set amount of time, the minimum time would be 30 minutes. After reading, we would be responsible for writing a summary of what we read and my dad would check over it and then we would read our summary back to him. The process was always something that I dreaded so I would always rush to read as much as I could and write quickly so I could go back to watching tv. This was a habit that developed of the years and as I got younger, I started to rethink of why my dad was so eager to have all his kids be at a certain level. When I would ask, my dad always described his struggles as a child in the civil war and he would tell stories of how America was always the goal for the Liberian people. It is the place where happiness and wealth come intertwined with one.

The type of images and messages sent to other countries who value America as a role model for literacy makes up very high standards set by people. This is due to the fact that America has had a reputation of being the country to hold the freedom and that freedom is built off of literacy, which is just defined as education. Literacy had a huge impact on the way people see life. Specifically, literacy in the Liberian culture is to embrace the american culture. In How to Tame a Wild Tongue, the author states “ if you want to be American, speak “American”. Liberia specifically takes this statement at the heart of its definition of literacy. The bigger idea is that third world countries have always looked up to first world country fro influences on definitions of literacy. This is due to the fact that first world leaders have used their definitions on literacy in order to advance their country and third world countries want to be able to give their civilians those same opportunities.


Japan Tour tught me Noone can judge you.

Scene 1

The thing with life is that it’s only lived once, and I mean what I mean is for sure it only happens once and I’m talking about life. I was blessed enough to experience the feelings of singing and the tours that I’ve been accepted to go too.  Then the wrong feelings of people were brought in the line and the lane. I brought back the feeling  back from the memories I shared with others in Japan, and I’m pretty sure you’d do the same. I went from back to back cycles with the mind in my head going from different mindset to mindset.


Scene 2

The trip I had was amazing with the Japan tour. It had teached me that not everyone is the same because if that was true then everyone would’ve gone on that tour, and everyone in the choir would’ve been happy. I was blessed to be go on this tour because I was up against about three hundred other guys to be picked on this tour and they chose me. I was very happy with the turnout of my conductor decision. I’m not saying that because he chose well actually yes I am because  of the decisions have been made in my life and the mindset I’m in now is because of Mr.Fisher. He impacted my life so much by just being there and not being a square basically just being  a lame, but back to the story.




This story means don’t judge by the cover or give someone a chance.




I was just in the airport going through security and saw many pretty girls in the lines to get to the airport. I think they call it the terminal and so after we got all the way through. I finally went to go get something to eat in the food court and I got japanese food and it was really good chicken. The rest of the group was doing their own thing in the terminal because we were set into pairs of two and the rest of the choir was sitting down because they didn’t want to spend there money. I suppose they would rather eat Airplane food rather than real food but that’s none of my business. Finally they called our plane number on the microphone and we approached towards the plane, and someone had forgotten there snapple so the plane waited for us while one of the members Tunde Sogo ran and grabbed his raspberry Tea Snapple and got on the plane. Then as we were packing our items on the plane one of our managers had started singing On the road again and we all started to sing along even some of the older people on the flight were singing with us. It was so heavenly to hear older/elderly people sing to our songs because that means we’re history in the making or the other way around.

On the plane ride I had sat next to a good friend of mine name Adam and we liked the same music so basically for the whole plane ride we listened to Kendrick Lamar and watched the Heat back to back.  We ended up having the seats towards the window so we just chilling there, so I don’t recall if I had used the bathroom, actually I did because I remember eating five of the airport dinners then taking a huge shit in the bathroom and someone had used it right before me.


Once we got off the plane ride we had gotten on a terminal bus straight off the airport. We were driving on land and I remember some of the people were looking at our windbreakers and kept asking questions about what KSB stood for and we’d tell them and we sung for them when we were driving in the bus. I wasn’t concerned about the singing part. I was mostly worried for how some of the people would’ve responded because all of our voices were a little horse and people actually ended up applauding us for our time and our voices. One man said he couldn’t believe seven boys could combine and a voice of an angel. The reason he said that because when we’re united our voices link and we end up being the sound that everyone gets so interested in. Finally we were leaving the airport and I guess you could say we were at the entrance of the airport waiting for the cars to come, and we’re in Hiroshima (One of the best cities in Japan in my opinion). Finally the cars came and they were on time and all of us were pretty hungry but our managers told us boys that we had to go check in our hotel rooms and then we’d go get something to eat. So I ended up driving with one of the managers Mrs.Martha and she’s so cool and chill. Finally we had gotten the hotel and when we got out the cars people were already unpacking the cars and putting the luggage onto the carts that they have in hotels, but I can’t recall if they’re actually named anything. Once all that was finished we got on the elevator and took it up to our floor while our managers were finishing up the rest of the check in. In Japan they give you the room key but they have a system where they can turn in



After this trip it was a lesson that was learned and that lesson was Never judge anyone by there cover because they could be way different and I’m pretty sure my conductor figured that out after the tours he invited me too. There’s another thing when some people here that you’re in a boychoir or even some other “weird” group or some type of event they’ll make fun of you and call you names, but once they see you perform they’ll be sorry they ever did any of those things to you. Some people might go and join those activities so they can cherish the same moments that you have already captured.

Advanced Essay #2:Racial Authenticity DuBois Stewart

Most of my time on this earth has been centered around finding what made me different from others, why my skin color was so important to my social standing, and how others perceived me. When I was about 7, I had my first real encounter with the ideology of racial identity.I first encountered this ‘fence’ when I made my first friends in my neighborhood. Their names were Cory and Corby, brother and sister. As my uncle said to me in later years, everyone was friends with everyone when they were 7, so long as they could play together. This was also true for me and I played with them day in and day out. The more time we spent together, the more I noticed our differences. They both liked what I thought of at the time as ‘dude music’, whereas the music I listened to was soul, r&b, and pop. They were allowed to go roaming around the neighborhood without their parents, I wasn’t allowed off of the block without a chaperone. Discovering all of these differences also led to an eventual climax in our relationship, that challenged my opinion on who I was. This encounter spurred me into action of finding the answer to my question:who was I? Who was I supposed to be? This question I found gave me a multitude of answers, corroborated from new stories, my family, and just encounters with people at school. This answer wasn’t to who I was, but rather who I was supposed be. I believe that ethnic background and racial identity are like stakes in the ground that pin you to a certain spot, forcing you to conform to the social norms around you, or perish. This creates a society in which you are born into a class, and like a caste system that is where you live and die. I believe that to belong to a racial/ethnic group is something can be measured in authenticity, but rather in how comfortable you are with yourself and who you are first.

Continuing my story from above, The one distinct difference between us also led to the eventual termination of our friendship. One day, Cory and Corby cornered me in front of my house with my bike. I’d recently gotten a bike for Christmas. The chain had fallen off and I was trying to fix it when Cory and Corby came walking over, with determined looks. “Curse” they demanded, as they noticed that I never cursed but they always did. I refused, and they cursed instead, to show me how easy it was. However, I still wouldn’t do it, so Corby took my bike while Cory blocked my path and rode off with it. However, he didn’t get very far as the chain fell off and he fell over. He got up and motioned to his sister to come with him, deciding that I wasn’t “cool” enough to be their friend. I cried, and my brother helped me bring me back inside with my bike.


Speaking in terms of racial/ethnic identity, this experience didn’t teach me much at the time, only that Cory and Corby were jerks. Big, big, fat, meanie, nincompoopie jerks. However, and looking at this experience now, I realized that they were testing me. They weren’t testing my friendship in terms of loyalty, but rather in terms of toughness. They were trying to gauge my toughness, and my reaction was not to their liking. This form of testing I believe stemmed from an overlying dogma that encouraged black people to act tough and be tough to shield their vulnerabilities. This is just one part of the large population of sheep being harbored within this fence, but it is the only one I can say I personally relate to. I believe another factor that contributes to the ‘authenticity’ of being in an ethnic group is not just how you identify, but how you present yourself in your everyday life.In Ta Nehisi’s book, Between The world and Me, He says: “The meek shall inherit the earth” meant nothing to me.The meek were battered in West Baltimore, stomped out at Walbrook Junction, bashed upon Park Heights, and raped in the showers of the city jail. While this is a more extreme example of my argument, it still encompasses the kind of toughness that Cory and Corby were testing me for. When he says this, I believe he means to say that to fit in, to survive in his fence was to be tough, or at least feign toughness. For me, my identity would be what I said above, but underneath that layer is  my true self that you expose or hide from your ethnic group. In the end, I don’t believe ethnic identity is about proving your authenticity to others, but rather proving it to yourself. Then, I believe that is when you are able to embrace your ethnic identity, but not before then.

Coates, Ta-Nehisi. Between the World and Me. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

English argument

Advanced Essay #2: The Standard of Nonconformity

Introduction:

In this essay, I focused on developing a deep idea in my thesis that got readers thinking and questioning themselves. I also tried to support this thesis with by supporting it with direct evidence and ideas. I am proud of the complexity and development of my thesis and how I upheld it. In future writing assignments, I would like to add more descriptive and thorough information to my personal experiences.


Essay:

Trend. Fad. Blind leading the blind. Mainstream. A lot of names that mean one thing: conformity.  Many people, including myself, aim to go against and question these ideals. These people in our society are usually titled nonconformists. The nonconformists that I see are just obsessed with being apart from the norm and tend to question and criticize anything popular and counteract it. I’ve also noticed they admire other people’s individuality or style and try to model it for themselves, because it is different from the current norm. These people want to be unique from popular trends, but decide to mirror what they admire in another person that is seen as distinct instead of following their own minds and hearts without second guessing. They also change just for the sake of change or to purposely try to become a nonconformist.

As the American columnist and author, Bill Vaughn, once said, "If there is anything the nonconformist hates worse than a conformist, it’s another nonconformist who doesn’t conform to the prevailing standard of nonconformity.” Vaughn mentions this “standard” of nonconformity which is adored in our society today. There are certain types of trends and styles that are accepted in the nonconformist world while others are viewed as too different or weird. Some of trends these include being “emo”, “hipster”, and “indie” which were once seen as outcast styles but are now famed for being unique and trendy. Styles like these have become trends themselves whether or not they are deemed as popular, because they have many followers. Many people follow these trends for the sake of being a “nonconformist” and in doing so are conforming to the prevailing standard of nonconformity.

I’ve witnessed this standard at a summer concert festival called Warped Tour that features many punk, rock, metal, and indie bands and artists. As I walked through the maze of the crowd I noticed so many people wearing similar band t-shirts, eyeliner, black skinny jeans, beanies, and Dr. Martens along with the other “emo and punk kid essentials. The crowd is a sea of dark colors in which I look like a foreigner with denim shorts, a black tank top, and Vans. I think to myself, “These people must be sweating like crazy! Why would someone wear all black, jeans, boots, and hats in this humid 95 degree weather? To prove to everyone how “edgy” you are? This isn’t a contest, it’s concert. Just be yourself!” I finally made it through the crowd to the stage where a band is about to play. The lead singer is preaching about how it's okay to be an outsider and to embrace who your individuality and rise above the bullies who try to bring you down. The crowd screams and claps with every word that pours out of the singer’s mouth. I noticed empowering words like these that preached individuality in performances from other bands whether it was in the form of a speech or it was encoded in their lyrics. Every time the uniform crowd responded with screams and words of adoration for the bands as if they were gods. I don’t doubt that these people are bullied for their music taste and fashion and I feel sorry for them, but I also don’t believe that they should be considered unique because they are blindly following this trend and the band members who don’t follow their own prophecies of being an individual. Many of the music from the bands that I heard that day sounded very similar instrumentally and lyrically. It is hypocritical to teach what you do not follow, but it is even more of a travesty to carry on the prevailing standard of nonconformity and to imprint it on to people who are searching for their unique identity.    

All in all, nonconformity for the sake of nonconforming is still conformity. If you choose to question everything, shouldn’t you also question your questioning? Shouldn’t you challenge the desire itself to question? People need to find the deeper reason for why they portray themselves the way that they do and why they go against societal norms. If it is only because they want to rebel against what is popular, they are conforming to our society’s nonconformist trends. In order to truly be a nonconformist is to live and present yourself without thinking of people’s perception of you. That is the real you and makes you unique, because it is rare for people to live and act without allowing society to have a say in who they are.


Works Cited:

"Bill Vaughan." BrainyQuote.com. Xplore Inc, 2015. 25 November 2015. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/b/billvaugha122530.html

Chernoff, Marc. "Nonconformity for the Sake of Nonconformity Is Conformity."Marc and Angel Hack Life. N.p., 05 Sept. 2007. Web. 19 Nov. 2015.<http://www.marcandangel.com/2007/09/05/how-to-avoid-the-pitfalls-of-     conformity-and-nonconformity/>.


Artist's Statement: 
The two paintings below connect to my essay by providing a visual element that implicates my thesis and thoughts. The first painting states, "In trying to be different" with two green people and one blue person. The one blue person represents the nonconformist in the group of green people. I chose to make the other two people different shades of green to show that people labeled "conformists" in our society are not exact copies of one another, but they are extremely similar. The second painting is a continuation of the previous one and finishes the sentence by saying, "we become the same" under three shades of blue people. I used three shades of blue for the people for the same reason that I did the green people in the first painting. The continuation of the painting symbolizes how people who claim to be nonconformists obsess with being different and follow these set standards of nonconformity that I discussed in my essay. 
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Advanced Essay # 2

I could see her lips moving and her jaw going up and down but the words the sentences that she was speaking made no connection in my brain. When I think back to that day I think maybe it was her thick accent that I could never understand or her horrid pronunciation.  Even today I can never clearly understood what she was saying, but I will always remember her walking me into my first class walking in and seeing the kids sitting in there chairs quite focused and the teacher was sitting taken in her own world just as the students.

They all were reading their own books because they had a choice reading. Which I later learned found out and it  was  not just something Americans did in school. I remember the girl sitting next to me asked me for my name and I couldn't understand her it seemed like she was also speaking in language I did not know, I felt lost and out of place. Then she said to me would you like to borrow a book I feel like I said yes to her because after that I remember opening this book and feeling this spark of joy because there was finally something I could see and read that I could partially understand. It was weird to see how short the American's alphabet was so short I thought, but at least I am familiar with some of these words they are not all just symbols like the Greece's with their alphabet 2 letters then the rest seems like the jacked the periodic table of elements.

The way that this two people spoke were different so it came easier to understand  the girl because she has a less thick accent is the best way to describe it because the older women had a thicker accent and the region was hard to tell. It might also had to do with that she talked in a more proper way and some of the words that she was saying I could not understand that well.  The girl was saying words that I could understand because she was a first grader the boy next to me though who was the same age as me talked the same girl but when we got outside and he meet his friend the way that he was talking to to him was so different he switched his tone his way of speaking the properness.

I never put so much thought in the way that people spoke but the way that he spoke to me and then introduced himself to his “bro” was interesting because it made me curious to see if all people switched the way they talked to one another. That day I went home  with this thought in my mind do all people switcht the way they talk with one another or is it just people that have some kind close relationship. On the train ride home I saw a man interacting with one of his “boys” as he called him and when his other acquaintance came walking by he did not otter some type of saying like he did with the first two kids. That same day I went to introduce myself to the neighbours with my parents and the way that they were speaking bad but  not to the point where you could not talk they were speaking so proper on both sides and so generic it seemed like the entire time I was in a play scene waiting for it to be over but it kept going every one with these scripted words not real voice then when I went home I heard them speak normal.

This made me think of a quote from the story that we read How to Tame A Wild  Tongue

“I remember being caught speaking Spanish at recess - that was a good for three licks on the knuckles with a sharp ruler. I remember being sent to the corner of the classroom for “talking back” to the Anglo teacher when all I was trying to do was tell her how to pronounce my name. If you want to be American, speak ‘American.’ If you don’t like it, go back to Mexico where you belong.” This quote was powerful to me because it made me think that this girl was me at one point I was at the end of that stick I could not read or write or even speak English does that mean I should go back a go to where I was from. When I write I write with imperfections and and my type of writing is how I speak it's my voice taking form in words on my paper, does this mean that I should be kicked out and judged because of the type of english I speak . If so then who else needs to what is perfect english in speaking and writing what is the standard who should we follow.

I think not such thing exist because everyone has an individual voice away that  they speak that represents 

them and there are times when groups of people start to speak the same because they understand one 

another and when they change the way they speak like that with one another it's because that's for them to 

understand that's a way to show their individuality a way to break from the shackles that bind is a way to 

rebel from the idea of one voice on mind. Voltaire once said “Men use thought only as authority for their 

injustice, and employ speech only to conceal their thoughts.”This quote I thought was a way to describe the 

way we write and the way we speak as well I thought that writing is a way for us to not hold back and get out 

thoughts out on pen and paper for the ones that we cannot speak we write. I used this quote not for the 

meaning of men have bad thoughts but because we are not allowed to speak our mind or speak in our own

way that is holding us back suppressing us and binding people's voices but we we also put that in words it 

makes it so much worse because leaves us with nothing like Maya Angelou said “There is no greater agony 

than bearing an untold story inside you.”.


Music is the Influence

Intro:


This paper is about the way that musicians, rap artists especially, use their words to influence their fans. I think this is important because everyone loves art and it is extremely important for people to share their thoughts and art. The way that rappers use literacy and change it up to tell stories is amazing and I find it very important just because they are able to inspire and influence their fans with their music.



Essay:


I once told my English teacher to “Shut the fuck up”. I do not know if you have ever been pushed to the point that you had to do things that were out of line but I have. At the time I was some depressed little kid whose new days were just a copy of the previous one. I wanted and needed something to happen so I looked for the opportunity and when a career discussion came up I thought that I would be able to shock the rest of the class with my goals. “I want to be a fashion designer” I said. I then talked about my role model Kanye West and how he has inspired me to be different. They laughed and the teacher told me that Kanye West was such a ridiculous man and I should never try to shoot to be something that I can’t do. I think he was just trying to “be real” but I found it being one of the most disrespectful things someone has ever said to me. So, in a calm but apoplectic voice I said “Shut the fuck up. You’re a teacher…a teacher that is putting his stress and hate on his students. I don’t appreciate what you said and if you really think that then I guess I will grow up to be such a ridiculous man as well but at least I’ll be more paid than you are.” I was told to leave the class immediately.


Everyone is influenced by certain artists who are considered their icons. They use literacy in such a way that creates pieces or songs that are just perfect to certain listeners, viewers or readers. Literacy is universal. Every culture has their type of literacy that shapes and defines who they are. It is in our arts, it is in our schools, we speak using words, our world runs on math, science, and literacy. In music, literacy is expressed in multiple different ways. Also, artists all around the world have different fan bases who are influenced through the music that the specific artist creates. For example, rock or metal fans would speak and act a different way than hip hop/rap fans speak or act. They could also influence fans to do things that are out of their comfort zone and or raise their confidence.


Kanye West is my biggest influence by far and because of him, I can say that I talk, act, and dress differently from other people. West, 38, once said before that his “music isn’t just music — it’s medicine.” Like other fans of artists, I find things like this true. When you are influenced by someone as much as some fans are by their favorite artists, they vouch for what they say. They also take the information and change themselves because of it. For example, if a rapper states that they go to a restaurant every Friday, many of his fans might be influenced to visit that restaurant just because they believe that is what is the “cool” thing to do. As a person who is heavily influenced by West, I would not say that he influences me because he is famous and I want to follow him in order to be cool like he is.... I would say that instead of following him, I am learning from him. The masses do not truly understand the difference between following and learning and that is why some fans who are influenced by artists who do bad things are most likely to do bad things as well and that could be a problem.


Not only do artists influence the way people act but they also could influence the way they talk or the way they dress. Rappers specifically, use different types of slang words depending on where they are from or what they represent. For example, over the years rappers have used words like “jawn” to “trill” to “bud” as slang words to replace actual words for the sake of rhyming, for fun, or to replace the names of drugs. The way certain musicians speak has such a big influence on fans and a lot of times, fans do not even notice that the way they speak has changed. One big influence is A$AP Rocky. Rocky is a younger artist who has grasped the youth and influenced the way we speak and dess. He has brought words like “trill” and “jodye” to the world of slang and although he impacted the New York youth scene the most, kids from all over the world have been heard saying words that he has brought into the game.


It is believed that what artists (rap artists) wear has the most influence on the fans. Fashion is such an important subject in society and almost everyone does not realize how influenced they could be when it comes to fashion and style. Since the beginning of rap, fashion, streetwear especially, has been talked about and has influenced popular culture even to this day. From Notorious B.I.G. and his Coogi sweaters, to A$AP Rocky and his Raf Simons and Maison Margiela, to Kanye West in Haider Ackermann and other high fashion clothing, rappers have dominated pop culture influence when it comes to fashion for the masses. Kanye West is a perfect example...because of him people from all over the world have taken more notice to high fashion brands like Givenchy, Marcelo Burlon, and Haider Ackermann. We also cannot forget that every sneaker that has been designed by Kanye West has sold out in less than two hours upon release. Not everyone listens to hip-hop but everyone does wear clothes and when people see rappers wearing the clothes that they are, they have to have it because this person might be their idol or they love the piece. When people see each other wearing certain pieces, the influence spreads and artists themselves become trendsetters. I believe that fashion has the biggest influence on fans (besides the music) just because it has been relevant since the beginning of the idea of popular culture. Rap artists are not the only ones that have influenced their fans either. Musicians in every genre have set trends for their fans over and over again and that is why music and fashion go so perfectly together.

Music being the influential tool that it is, has been around for decades and decades. But not only has the music inspired people but the artists themselves have inspired and changed the listeners every since popular culture has become a more relevant subject in society. Artists have influenced people’s speech, attitude, and fashion sense and it can be said that this will happen for as long as people are able to express and share their art.