2fer la coffee

People need coffee around the world in order to preserve the world’s coffee beans.


Intro:

Coffee eh

People in earth make safe choices and not so safe choice of drinking.

Which is coffee,if consumer choose tea over milk or coffee than the consumer will make a better choice for the environmentally world it like pick water over soda than those people who choose the sugar drinks.

They are many types of coffee bean in the world doesn't matter it cheap or expensive it affect the earth's environment cycles.

This essay will explain the thesis about coffee comparing the people need coffee for energy and earth need it beans for a good earth environment so it won't be destroy  and also what coffee companies will be doing with theses beans

For example, people are perceiving types of coffee as a different category as milk or tea but they original from nature but how does this affect the environment   

Beans from plant also tea leaves people buy these product and base on research on line we learn that have abusive is use then teas leave that can leave harm to the environment.

 

Based on research their a quote talking about the bird earth environment   

(http://www.thefashionspot.com/life/392139-is-your-coffee-eco-friendly/)

(“Quote Is it bird-friendly? Some shade-growers even go the extra mile to earn the “bird-friendly” certification—because cutting down the forest, of course, means destroying the homes and disrupting the migratory patterns of tons of birds worldwide”

This quote that i got from the text show people have be careful about nature and others thing like birds,not just cutting down the tree which cause harm for the earth environment.”)

The analysis of the thesis show support of my thesis essay the qoute state one of earth issues which is the earth environment is being destroyed by people cutting down the trees and also include collateral damage to the bird and migratory some birds produce coffee beans too.


Second For example, people are perceiving types of coffee as a different category as milk or tea but they original from nature but how does this affect the environment   people also use giant chain to produce multiple parts of a coffee from companie and store like starbucks and nestle and also let's not forget the farmers.back on my thesis i stated Which is coffee,if consumer choose tea over milk or coffee than the consumer will make a better choice for the environmentally world also They are many types of coffee bean in the world doesn't matter it cheap or expensive we people have to be wise to pick the types coffee brand that we choose.

Companies like starbucks and nestle attracted people around the worlds drinking coffee also their fair trade coffee within commute for people.

This coffee beans have impacted on earth greatly amount of a forest  

The Analysis of this parts is the coffee have negative effect people mood and also the surrounding of the environment what people thinks sugar drink or not also need to choose a wise way to preserve the world's coffee bean with bird into good environment instead of preventing damage to coffee product also for the environment. For example, people are perceiving types of coffee as a different category as milk or tea but they original from nature but how does this affect the environment   

Beans from plant also tea leaves people buy these product and base on research on line we learn that have abusive is use then teas leave that can leave harm to the environment. Image result for coffee

Support

People out there argue out their the coffee thesis they need coffee to make business and other etc and some say we can choose safe drinks to pick like water and other to not destroy the earth environment also say caffeine is bad for heartly    

This entire side view that say coffee that is bad or good


The Analysis for the world coffee beans people many ways to grow coffee beans and other different aspects of it which is coffee so people brew coffee can also the environment to be little more safe and so with these coffee to brew which people enjoy it instead of bad soda drinks.

Best 2fer

Lotus Shareef-Trudeau

English 3

Ms. Pahomov

4/27/17

In every language, one can find swear words that are a crucial part of the culture. People often use swear words at times of emotional peaks, when they’re stressed or extremely happy. Though many are taught that the use of curse words makes someone a bad person. Often when someone swears excessively it gives others a negative impression of their character, but the truth is curse words are extremely important to mental health. Swear words are essential to human expression because it is an immediate emotional release.

As people grow older, things like crying to let a build up of emotions out becomes less and less acceptable. Crying when angry, or frustrated, sad, even when overly happy, as an adult is frowned upon not only in America but in many other countries around the world as well, it is considered weak and childish. But people do need some kind of emotional release, and if it isn’t crying, it’s swearing. Most children are taught at an early age not to swear, that it is something bad. This gives people the ability to make a more powerful statement by breaking “the rules” demonstrating that they feel so much that they no longer care to stay within the confines of social etiquette. Geoff Nunberg, a linguist at the UC Berkeley School of Information and the leading linguist contributor on NPR’s Fresh Air, wrote an article about swearing and stated that, “Swear words don't describe your feelings; they manifest them.” He says that, “the basic point of swearing is to demonstrate that your emotions have gotten the better of you and trumped your inhibitions.” By the way Nunberg describes it, swearing is a release of emotions, it acts as a valve to let off the pressure of feelings, that otherwise might build up and be a hit to one’s emotional well being.

In the human brain, curse words have a special place. They are not processed in the usual section of the brain that any other words are, the anterior speech area, or Broca’s area, instead they are sent to the limbic system, “a collection of deep brain regions which are responsible for processing emotions, certain automatic drives and habits, and even aspects of learning.” An article on Northwestern University’s science magazine, Helix, talks about where in the brain curse words are processed and what that says about them. “Swearing has an undeniable emotional component – some scientists argue that swearing is more about expressing an emotional state than articulating an actual linguistic idea. In the same vein, cursing is also considered a kind of automatic speech, as it is often used to fill space between thoughts or ideas.“ Cursing is more a communication of emotion than of ideas. This is evident in the fact that, unlike any other words, swear words live in the same parts of the brain as one’s emotions. Though people are taught to use them scarcely, restricting swearing entirely would be like telling people that they can’t feel frustration, or anger, it is impossible and unhealthy. People will always gravitate towards using words that are taboo in their culture to let off pressure because it helps them to deal with overloads of emotion.

Though curse words get a bad rap, they are necessary. They have always existed and are not going away anytime soon. They relay emotion when used and can convey the serious of a situation or show how much passion a person feels for something. The fact that curse words are considered unacceptable, provides the possibility for them to be used cathartically. If there were not the invisible “rules” put in place in societies against swearing it would not be as powerful when someone broke those rules and therefore it would no longer be as effective a tool to release those built up emotions. Not only is cursing necessary but the reinforced knowledge that one is not "supposed" to curse is also necessary in a society for people to maintain their emotional health.

Works Cited

Clark, Josh , and Charles Bryant. "How Swearing Works." Audio blog post. Stuff You Should Know.

HowStuffWorks, 20 Apr. 2017. Web. 26 Apr. 2017. <http://www.stuffyoushouldknow.com/podcasts/swearing.htm>.

Roache, Rebecca. "Where does swearing get its power – and how should we use it? – Rebecca

Roache | Aeon Essays." Aeon. Aeon, 26 Apr. 2017. Web. 26 Apr. 2017. <https://aeon.co/essays/where-does-swearing-get-its-power-and-how-should-we-use-it>.

Nunberg, Geoff. "Swearing: A Long And #%@&$ History." NPR. NPR, 11 July 2012. Web. 26 Apr.

2017. <http://www.npr.org/2012/07/24/156623763/swearing-a-long-and-history>.

"BBC - Future - The surprising benefits of swearing." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.

<http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20160303-the-surprising-benefits-of-swearing>.

Kloet, Jim. "A Special Place in the Brain for Swearing" Helix Magazine. Northwestern University, 18

Feb. 2013. Web. 28 Apr. 2017. <https://helix.northwestern.edu/blog/2013/02/special-place-brain-swearing>.


Why this is my best possible 2fer:

In the past I have struggled to make my essay theses debateable. On many occasions they have read more like a research paper than a persuasive essay. This 2fer in particular is better than my previous 2fers because the point I am arguing is more subjective and therefore more debateable, which makes for a better and more interesting essay.

13 Reasons Why Not


Tigidankay Saccoh

5/1/2017

English 3

Pahomov

Best 2fer Ever

On the surface level, the original Netflix series “13 Reasons Why” conveys the message that kindness could save a life. Since its release on March 31, viewers have taken to various social media platforms to proclaim their love for the show, stressing the importance of acknowledging mental illness in teenagers. Some have even suggested it become required viewing for middle and high school students, even with all  the graphic displays of  violence. Despite its overarching message of compassion and understanding in the youth, this popular teen flick belies a more sinister meaning: Suicide is a tool for revenge.  The show relays the story of Hannah Baker, who kills herself and leaves 13 tapes behind to allocate blame.  ‘13 Reasons Why’ can be highly triggering for teenagers because it glamorizes suicide by portraying it as a means of retribution.

Hannah is the protagonist of the storyline. She commits suicide for thirteen reasons, or rather, thirteen people. She records their stories on cutely decorated tapes and sends them to the first person on her list. Whoever was currently listening  was to pass it on to the next after he or she went through the entire set of tapes. Initially outspoken and confident with her quick wit, Hannah becomes torn down by the bullying and rumors that engulf her social life. By the time of her death, she is self-sabotaging, incredibly insecure, and depressed. She then seeks revenge by killing herself and making sure those who wronged her feel guilt for her death.

In a recent Rolling Stone article, titled “Does '13 Reasons Why' Glamorize Teen Suicide?”,  Alexis Curtis, teen bullying expert, explains that the series lingers on the drama surrounding suicide. She explains that after Hannah Baker died, her story is continued and dramatized. Hannah continues to live through the tapes, and is almost immortalized. In fact, for most of the show, viewers feel as though she is still alive through countless flashbacks of her. This erroneous depiction of suicide romanticizes the trauma and pain it engenders.  “In real life”, Curtis writes, “when someone commits suicide, their story ends there. ‘13 Reasons Why’ failed to end Baker's story, since she lives on through the tapes. We become captivated by the drama of the suicide rather than the actual suicide itself” ”. Baker seeks revenge through suicide, which makes her feel validated and triumphant, which are connotations too glamorous for the bleak reality of someone taking their own life.

Moreover, the way Hannah tries to seek reprisal takes a toll on the mental health of those she leaves behind. For instance, Clay, her closest friend and crush, nearly loses his mind after finding out he is on the tapes. He starts exhibiting characteristics of a suicidal person and even attempts to jump off a cliff after he finally listens to his tape. He felt that by killing himself, he would make up for hurting Hannah when she was alive. Not only did he try to kill himself, but he also tries to make the other people on the tapes feel overbearing guilt. Alex, another close ex friend of Hannah’s, eventually ends up shooting himself in the head because he felt like he was mainly responsible for Hannah’s death. Her vengeful suicide gave a reason to those who fely that hey hurt her,  to become victims themselves.

In 2016,  the Jason Foundation reported that  suicide was the second leading cause of death for ages 10-24. In 2014, 1,668 youth aged 13-18 committed suicide. Because this is the demographic the show targets, it is especially triggering for teens. For instance, President of the Child Mind Institute,  Harold S. Kopelowicz, explains in an interview, “This program is coming into living rooms with attractive kids, who seem cool and with it, and are very witty, and they are giving the message of ‘once you are dead, you can get revenge on the people who were mean to you,’”. This false, but contagious message, does not bring awareness to an important cause, but instead catalyzes teenage anxiety and makes suicide seem fulfilling.

Most teens don't leave tapes informing several people of how they contributed to their suicide. Because of these tapes, viewers were unable to witness the grief that occurs after someone commits suicide. 13 Reasons Why fails to end the last episode with closure. For teens who are battling mental health issues in life, witnessing the end of a life as casually as the show portrays, can be desensitizing to this very serious matter. Teenagers are usually very impressionable and pay attention to trending topics. ‘13 Reasons Why’ is the new teen craze attempting to destigmatize youth mental illness. However, it only exacerbates the issue by conveying a tone-deaf message of hope. This show can be highly triggering for teenagers because it romanticizes suicide by portraying it as a means of revenge and gratification.


Citations:

http://www.rollingstone.com/tv/features/does-13-reasons-why-glamorize-teen-suicide-w476303
http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/25/health/13-reasons-why-teen-suicide-debate-explainer/
https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2017/04/28/psychologists-warn-13-reasons-why-could-inspire-copycat-suicides/307592001/
https://www.teenhelp.com/teen-suicide/teen-suicide-statistics/

Why is this my best 2fer ever?

This is my best 2fer ever because I was able to draw inspiration from the criticism of my past 2fers to create this masterpiece (haha). This has been the most concise, thorough, and analytic 2fer I have written yet. I gave necessary context and analysis behind my thesis in a way that is not overly pretentious, like I used to write my essays.

Introverted Extroverts

Luis-Manuel Morales

05/01/2017

The Final 2Fer

Introverted Extroverts

Subliminal contradictions play a big role in many lives. Most people don’t notice, and may never do so. A person with both introvert and extrovert traits may appear to be conflicting themselves. An outgoing, shy person may sound ridiculous, however this is the case for many. Although it goes against popular belief, can a person demonstrate both introvert and extrovert personality traits?

The definition of introvert is a shy, self conscious person whose actions are often directed towards themselves. The definition of extrovert is an outgoing, expressive individual whose actions are often driven outward.. These antonyms make up for plenty of people's character descriptions, however for some, they carry both traits. Whether it's just for a day or the permanent makeup of a personality. In an article by Life Hack, David Khim goes breaks down what some may see as an Introverted Extrovert, or simply mood change, bad days, and other factors in life that can lead to such perspectives. Sometimes the days exhausting or uncertain, unpleasant circumstances can create an introverted extrovert. Or a person may just simply be born like such, and have those traits all the time. Sometimes a bad day or unforeseen circumstances can change moods and motives, however this does not mean they are necessarily permanent.

The perceptions of introverts, extroverts,have there pros and cons. The two together give more layers and genuinity to a person. In a 2013 article by Belle Beth Cooper for Fast Company, she discusses what businesses think about those with both traits. In one section, she discusses how an introvert gets energy from time alone, whereas an extrovert is able to get energy from interaction. Either way, businesses see benefits in both, however the two can make for a versatile employee. Someone who can be in more than one type of scenario. This kind of employee can tend to have more than one strong point and can be a more powerful asset to a company rather than a one dimensional figure, and this kind of employee is more sought out for.

Some people openly refer to themselves as introverted extroverts. One such person is rapper Kendrick Lamar. On 2017’s DNA off his album Damn, features the line “Antisocial, Extrovert, and excellence mean the extra work, and absence what the f--- you heard”. The idea drawn by Lamar is similar to a theme in his 2016 song “untitled 06 I 6.30.2014” in which the rapper describes both sides of him to be “equally odd” in a line sung by guest artist Ceelo Green. “Both sides of me are evenly odd, it’s attractive, you're intrigued, am I mortal man or make believe” Here Kendrick makes an argument rather than a turn off, the variant in his personality makes him all the more interesting, rather than a plain one dimensional figure. Earlier in the track Lamar says “A Gemini, duality personalities always conflict in me” this line sounds similar to a person with depression and what goes on inside their brains. Kendrick has never shied away from the topic of depression in his albums, especially in 2012’s Good Kid Maad City and 2015’s To Pimp A Butterfly. Reflecting on Kendrick's relationship with depression, this idea of conflicting ideas inside a human are normalized, and the idea of an Introverted Extrovert become more understandable.

Although it goes against popular belief, a person can demonstrate both introvert and extrovert personality traits. Whether its due to current life circumstances, mental state, or that's just how a person was born, it is not uncommon to encounter an introverted extrovert. Some don’t show it, others are open about it. Either way, it’s important to understand everyones differences and personalities, and when that is done, the world is one step closer to some sort of unity and community it longs for.

Why This Is My Best Possible 2Fer

In this 2Fer, I believe I had my strongest analysis and overall structure. I used the sources in different and unexpected ways and also dissected 2 tracks and Kendrick Lamar's overall theme in his music. I tried to order the paragraphs in such a way that the evidence for the thesis got stronger, and the final point was the dissection of an artist who fits the thesis description.

Sources:

Animal Research Keeps Humans Alive

Scientists, medical professionals, and other analysts use animals to develop successful medical treatments and determine the safety and effects of medications as well as other products that are intended for human use. Through animal testing, cures to cancer, anemia, and tuberculosis have been founded as well as the discovery of penicillin and insulin - among other things. Even then, according to a study conducted by the Human Society of the United States, approximately 65% of Americans are against animal testing due to the harm that may be inflicted on the animals being used in the tests. It should be known, though, that although animal testing may be considered cruel and inhumane on behalf of the animals, and there are changes that could be made to the methods that are practiced, there are certain circumstances of higher importance where animal testing has proven to make major positive impacts and is necessary for the long-term wellbeing of our human population.

Animal testing is opposed by such a large number of the American population. However, it is questionable that what these people propose as solutions and alternatives to animal testing would be as effective, in addition to their not being very many. The only current alternatives include test methods where cells are modeled after human cells and computer based simulations where drugs are virtually tested. These methods may be useful but they do not provide the accurate and reliable results that animal testing does, as computers and models are only based off of real cells and are not advanced enough to understand complex human organs. Being that humans and animals share many similar biological characteristics, understanding the biological functions of animals and their reactions to certain drugs and products means understanding the biological functions of humans and how humans would react, therefore advancing scientific knowledge of the human body.

To put it simply, in order to develop effective drugs they must be put through many trial experiments and be reworked until made successful. A crucial step in creating effective medications, such as insulin, a critical discovery that lead to saving many lives of those with diabetes, is by testing them first on real cells and organs. In 1889 a German scientist studying diabetes found that once a dog had his pancreas removed, it got diabetes. This lead to further investigation of what exactly the pancreas’ job was: to produce digestive juices and to produce an unknown substance that regulates sugar glucose throughout the body. They carried out studies where the pancreas of dog A was removed, and dog B’s pancreatic ducts were tied off, stopping the flow of nourishment. Dog A developed diabetes, while dog B only developed minor digestional issues. They later took out dog B’s pancreas as well and filtered the fluids inside, through which they found insulin. They injected the insulin directly into the dog’s veins and found that it’s blood sugar levels dropped drastically and they were able to keep the dog healthy and free of symptoms of diabetes. These long, hard studies that took place over the course of many years perfectly portray the importance of animal research in both advancing scientific knowledge and developing effective medicines to cure potentially lethal diseases. There are many other instances where animal research and testing have contributed to understanding and treating harmful conditions, such as breast cancer, brain injury, childhood leukemia, cystic fibrosis, malaria, multiple sclerosis, and tuberculosis.

Some argue that carrying out these tests on humans, who volunteer to do so, would be safer and more reliable than animals. However, it is simply not feasible under many circumstances. By law, it is considered murder for a human to die by a drug that has not yet been under proper tests, also known as ‘unethical human experimentation.’ Additionally, it would be simply immoral to complete these possibly dangerous experiments on humans when the medications being tested are intended in the first place to make scientific advancement in the human world. Just as a product or medicine for a specific breed of dog wouldn’t be tested on that breed of dog first, products or medicines for humans should not be tested on humans before being released for public consumption.

When thinking about animal testing, people do not focus enough on the major positive impacts that have been made when it comes to expanding scientific knowledge and maintaining a healthy human, and animal, population, as shown with the dog who had been cured of diabetes. However, when it comes to the welfare of the thousands of animals currently being tested on, if the government were to consider implementing laws focused around animal testing it would be most beneficial if they governed how often and under what circumstances it is allowed to be used rather than completely eradicating it.


Works Cited

Carome, M.D. Michael. "Outrage of the Month: A Steady Stream of Unethical Human Experiments." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 02 May 2016. Web.

"Diseases & Research." Animal Research Info. N.p., n.d. Web.

"Medical Benefits." Speaking of Research. N.p., 06 Apr. 2016. Web.

"New Poll Shows Majority of Americans Strongly Oppose Animal Testing for Cosmetics." The Humane Society of the United States. N.p., n.d. Web.

Society, New England Anti-Vivisection. "Animals in Science/Alternatives." In Testing. N.p., n.d. Web.

"The Discovery of Insulin." nobelprize.org. N.p., Feb. 2009. Web.


Why this is my best possible 2fer…

I believe that this is my best 2fer thus far both through my writing and choice of topic. I chose a controversial and popular topic, then went against even my own opinions while writing this 2fer. In doing this, I had to be sure to do ample research to find substantial evidence to back the claims I make, which is something I had struggled with in past 2fers. My arguments were stronger in this 2fer and I think that is even more important with such a controversial topic.


The Taming Of The Bridesmaid


The Taming of The Bridesmaid




In the Taming of the Shrew Petruchio is a suitor to Katherine, he looks at her as just a symbol of money and wealth. While, in the movie Bridesmaids, there is Annie a young woman who lost her business due to the recession, who is in a relationship with Ted, a young and rich guy but they aren’t dating. Ted just wants the relationship to be a mutual no strings attached sexual relationship while Annie wants more than to be just a sexual partner. Annie later meets Officer Rhodes, a young police officer who got her out of a ticket, he flirts with her, they have sex and she leaves him, he seems to be really hurt by that. The relationship between Petruchio and Katherine and Annie and her two men is about the symbol of the relationship and what comes with it. Annie and Petruchio both want relationships but want them for different reasons. Annie on one end wants to be exclusive with Ted while Ted just see’s her for sex. Petruchio just see’s Katherine for the wealth of her family. Both the film and the movie reflects the belief that people only get into relationships if the status is right for them.




"And yet I’ll promise thee she shall be rich, and very rich"

(Act 1, Scene 2, Lines 60-65)


In this scene Petruchio was telling Hortensio that he needed to find a wife. Hortensio said that he could find a women that was really rich but probably not too much of a good person. This shows that wealth is a more important factor than how someone acts, in fact it was the only factor in Petruchio finding a wife with the help of Hortensio.



In the movie, Annie is with Ted only because of sex. This  compares with Petruchio’s relationship with Katherine because he’s only in the relationship for the money.  
Screenshot 2017-04-19 at 11.34.02 PM
Screenshot 2017-04-19 at 11.34.02 PM

In the movie Bridesmaids, Annie’s at a diner with her best friend Lillian having a hilarious breakfast. Lillian asks Annie what she did the night before and what she did, seemingly embarrassed to sleep with Ted. Lillian responds by saying “I know you say he’s cute and all that stuff, but he makes you feel like shit, you know, you’re a total catch and any guy would be psyched to be your man. You should just make room for someone who’s nice to you.”From this, it can be said that for a successful relationship, a person should be nice to another person who they want to have a relationship with. I guess what they have isn’t considered a traditional relationship but just sex partners, Annie responds by saying “You know what he’s honest, he told me that we are what we are and we’re just having fun.”


“I come to wive it wealthily in Padua; If wealthily, then happily in Padua.”

( Act 1 Scene 2, line 75-77)


This is the part in scene one where Petruchio responds to Hortensio when he says that he could find a woman who was really rich but not too nice. What Petruchio is saying is that if the lay isn’t nice that’s okay, her wealth covers up for that.


No-Longer-My-Number-3-Bridesmaids-Movie-Quote
No-Longer-My-Number-3-Bridesmaids-Movie-Quote

I contrasted the scene from the Taming of the Shrew with the scene in Bridesmaids where Ted picks Annie up from her car accident. In this scene Annie get into a car accident with her really crappy car after her fight with her best friend and has no way to get home, so she calls really rich Ted to pick her up. Ted pulls up in his $100,000 Porsche. While in the car home Ted asked Annie to have sex with him, she got really frustrated and asked to get out, he asked why she said “Because I would rather get murdered out here than spend the next half-an-hour with you.” This doesn’t show happiness, this doesn’t show a couple that's happy even though wealth is surrounding them. In the end of this scene Annie gets out of the car and never see Ted again, as she left he screamed “You are no longer my number three”.

Both the play and the movie both depict relationships that start of really bad, based off the concept. The relationships in both the play and the film show’s what people would do for status, Annie wants to be the girlfriend of this really wealthy man, but that’s not what he wants. Petruchio want’s a relationship with Katherine but she doesn’t. In the end both relationships differ, some people realize that relationship are best for them while others find out it was wrong all along.


Pre-Calculus is The Easiest Class Even Though Tito Doesn't Perform Well in It

Tito Mazzucchi

English 3

Larissa Pahomov

4/27/17

Pre-Calculus is The Easiest Class Even Though Tito Doesn’t Perform Well in It.

Pre-Calculus: one of the most ghastly names ever known to a high school student’s GPA. From the sophomore years, rumors are spread about the workload that is inbound, and when the time finally comes to take the class, many people take the stance of a fixed mindset— fearing the name that the class has acquired. While many people might think that Pre-Calculus is a difficult topic for students that do not possess a natural mathematical ability, it may come to the surprise of many that it can actually be among the easiest. It’s just a matter of understanding what the class needs most from its students. In this case, a high school's Pre-Calculus class could be considered the least difficult class. It does not challenge any problem-solving situations but rather functions on basic Algebra fundamentals and memorization; fundamentals that were already taught to the students.

So why is it that many people think it such a hard subject? Why is it that on average the grades of students enrolled in that class compares to be lower than the grade of other classes? The answer resides not in its material or teachers or schedule; but rather on the organizational structure of the subject. Reports from PBS about “Misunderstood Minds” regarding Mathematics touch upon many different factors ranging from: organizational difficulties and output difficulties, to computational and attention difficulties. Keyword: attention. This can be said about any class and that is, if a student has attention difficulties, then learning the material becomes a greater struggle. While it is true that individuals can be predisposed with natural ability or lack thereof, it is the very philosophy of many math teachers that everything can be learned as long as the appropriate amount of effort is put in. This effort translates into how much studying an individual commits themselves to. However, it is also the very same reason as to why the issue becomes split into two groups.

The structure of a standard high school Pre-Calculus class involves: material that is taught in class, homework/projects that are assigned, scheduled exams, and a baseline expectation for outside of class studying. While all of this may seem alright, the concern is how the material which is being taught is structured. See, Pre-Calculus is not the same as Physics. It embodies a math-procedures nature; where the core of the course involves testing the memorization of various units. It is about taking an input and generating an output using random numbers, and there are few times when an individual problem is applied to outside elements. On the other hand, Physics is similar to math-problem-solving, where students invest a larger amount of time focusing on the reasons why certain number values exist and apply their knowledge to solving scenarios rather than endless computation. In this sense, memorization of Pre-Calculus holds the impression of mattering more than abstract thinking or strategizing. While many math teachers disagree, it is the unfortunate nature of the subject’s structure. Students become too invested in memorizing the various things that are being taught as to perform well on exams and projects. In reality the class becomes a brainless computational ladder where all that someone needs to succeed on assignments, is either good memory, or a good ability to study.

Here is where the confusion is best illustrated. The majority of the student population has to challenge itself because in many cases, individuals have not yet fully developed their ability to study or personalized strategies of memorization. It is the truth that many times people struggle, not because of the difficulty in the math, as it does not really exceed Algebra 2, but rather on figuring out what that damn formula was or what were the set of steps needed for a solution. However, just because there is this specific element that many find difficult, the solution for it is very straight forward. Pre-Calculus is an easy subject because it is purely dependent on already learned material and the choice of whether to study or not. The concepts are not mentally mind-blowing or transcendental, they just require memorization. Therefore, because really there is only one thing that students need to do in order to succeed, the path one must take to success is much shorter compared to other subjects like English or History: where thorough reflection is a must. It is not difficult to repeatedly read the same numbers out loud until they remain ingrained in the brain, it’s just something that many people prefer to not do. That is why then in the future those same people struggle, and confuse the difficulty of Pre-Calculus with the difficulty of studying.

As stated before, due to the organization of the course, classes remain split between groups of students. Those who have an easy time memorizing, and those who do not. Those who are curious of the math, and those who just want a good grade. When much material must be taught in a year's time, less sessions can be spent on discussing real-world applications or analyzing scenarios from which math derives. In other words, a good Pre-Calculus grade depends on how well individuals memorize material, and therefore by not requiring unique thought, does not truly challenge a mind. However, many people wish there was a course that was more laid-back and did not rush through unit after unit. Among this group of people are teachers who wish for their students to truly understand the deeper meaning of math. As stated by an 11th grade math teacher on The Atlantic: “Overreliance on memorization is like most problems in education: systemic. One teacher can't topple the tyrant's statue alone. But she can begin to chip away at the base.” It is a shame that the current situation makes it more difficult for people to involve themselves into deeper levels of mathematical understanding. By offering rewards to “efficient students” that memorize material 10 minutes before class only to forget it 10 minutes after, means that a robotic strategy is adopted. Nonetheless, this is how the system currently functions, and it is more true for Pre-Calculus than it is for other subjects. Due to its simple solution, Pre-Calculus technically qualifies as the easiest class. The solution is to study.


Why is this my best possible 2Fer ever written in the existence of my writing of 2Fers that I wrote?

Well, for starters this 2Fer is the one which applies to the lives of the SLA community in the greatest way. No one can escape Mr. Reddy’s Pre-Calculus class, unless you transfer out of SLA or cheat and take math during the summer instead of learning like the rest of your peers. ANYWAYS, this 2Fer I believe really takes into consideration the state of the situation that many students find themselves in. In a way, it is almost like a combination of a reflection and advice for the students who will take Pre-Calculus in the coming years. (Truth be told, I don’t think my writing is great and I don’t think that this 2Fer is the best I’ve written. However, I have to write this paragraph, following Ms. Pahomov’s instructions.) On a more serious note, I can see how my 2Fers have improved just within the school year, this will definitely continue to be applicable for my future. Also, I wrote this paragraph in first person but we can pretend that I didn’t.

Works Cited

Orlin, Ben. "When Memorization Gets in the Way of Learning." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 09 Sept. 2013. Web. 01 May 2017.


"Difficulties Within Mathematics." PBS. Public Broadcasting Service, 2002. Web. 01 May 2017.

I Love Marijuana???


      

                                                              Marijuana

Hi, my name is Josiah Mast and I am a 15 year old freshman that is currently attending Science leadership Academy (SLA) . I am a supporter of marijuana for  medical and recreational use. I started to realize the benefits(i’ll explain in an upcoming paragraph) of what legal marijuana could do for our city and state as it has done for the states that have it legalized for medical and recreational use as well. I wanted to do something about it but I didn’t know where to start and how to start. That all changed when we thankfully got this You & The world project because now I can talk about why I am passionate about this topic and real world issue that needs to be better addressed. 160420_MBOX_organic-weed-promo.jpg.CROP.promo-xlarge2.jpg

(Above) Marijuana leaf being grown so scientist can do research on the plant

It started out as just a support for medical marijuana for the reasons that it was helping people all over America with their diseases. In a show called “Last week tonight with John Oliver” he talks about a veteran he was trialed for having marijuana. The man explained that he had PTSD which is a disease that stands for post traumatic stress disorder. and the pill that the doctor was giving were not working so he would smoke some marijuana and then go back to bed. He said he would wake up in the morning and go help veterans and do other great things like that. John Oliver talks about how people are a lot of the time saying that Marijuana is a gateway drug “but it’s a pretty nice looking gateway if that’s the stuff that happens on the other side.” He said this referring to the man’s actions that he did when he helped people.I am very open with supporting marijuana and that went from wearing marijuana socks to school to creating and singing songs about marijuana. I had planned to start a medical marijuana club at school but got in trouble for wearing the marijuana socks at the school. What was intriguing to me was the school never gave me a chance to talk with them and change their mind. They said that because of past reasons with marijuana in the school that it could not be accepted. This is the school that on the front door has a sign that says all are welcome. I DO NOT FEEL WELCOMED!


The reason I support recreational marijuana is because of after doing some recent research online(http://preview.tinyurl.com/n89e3hl Link to my annotated bibliography) and seeing how much more money states with legalized recreational use marijuana is making compared to the states that don’t. After visiting a multiple websites they all seem to give about the same estimate amount of how much extra money california has made since they legalized marijuana for medical and recreational. It is an estimated 100 million dollars. Imagine what our city could do with around that much extra money. We could fix up schools and unsafe neighborhoods. Help the needy and make roads evenly paved with no potholes. It would be amazing right? Well, with this state is not with medical or recreational marijuana we are not making that extra money so we are still stuck here with a poor school district and some rough neighborhoods. Do you really want to live on a city that is against something that could make us prosper? Do something about it know and tell people what is happening and join me in my fight.2cff41739ca69cdb5585319b8d12a7b9.jpg

       (above) Man shows his passion for recreational marijuana in the streets of philadelphia



The Absence of Homework

A majority of modern cultures have not evolutionized from the consistent assignment of daily homework given to students throughout the school year. Although homework is often misconstrued as a helpful tool for students’ learning development there is an absence of information to support  this common belief. In fact, scientific studies have prevailed this common assumption. With modernized knowledge we now know that homework is no longer a benefiting factor in a student’s attainment of information. It has been proven in several studies that homework does not improve a student's academic strengths, therefore students should no longer have to use this method. Regardless a majority of countries have continued to make students uphold/ partake in this old traditional method of teaching.

In a quote from Independent Co a news organization an article written by researcher and journalists Gerald K Letendre, he informs the public of the serious physical strain large quantities of homework can inflict on students. “Empirical studies have linked excessive homework to sleep disruption, indicating a negative relationship between the amount of homework, stress and physical health.” What starts as a well intentioned attempt to help students through their endeavors can end up becoming a hindrance for a child’s learning development. Lack of sleep causes people to become prone to obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease. Not to mention the mental strain that sleep deprivation puts on a person. Sleep strengthens your memory, and productivity. Two essential components for a student to fully retain lessons efficiently. Stress has proven to weaken a person's immune system making them more susceptible to illness. It also encourages factors such as fatigue, depression, and anxiety. When a person experiences prolonged stress, the adrenal hormone, epinephrine is released.  Excessive adrenaline is dangerous for a person's heart commonly causing heart disease.

In many countries homework has been re-evaluated invalid in their student curriculum. For example Finland has followed through with a no homework policy. They also hass the highest test scores and graduation rates in the world. Finland supports one on one teacher interaction, showing how learning can be positively affected by community involvement. “In Canada, the high school graduation rate is around 78 per cent and in America it comes in at around 75 per cent. Now, consider the fact that the graduation rate for students in Finland comes in at 93 per cent – showing a massive comparison between the countries. Finland also happens to have the highest rate in Europe for students going to college (two out of three).” This piece of data shows the correlation between teaching styles and resulting graduation rates. The absence of homework and over testing creates a different atmosphere of learning that allows exploration of community teamwork and involvement.

As an argument many may say that homework proves to be good practice for obtaining responsibility. Especially when these students come of age and are expected to be dependable working citizens as well as helpful members of their communities.In this quote from a scientific study by the George Lucas Foundation, the negatives outweigh the benefits of doing monotonous assignments. “Finally, there isn't a shred of evidence to support the folk wisdom that homework provides nonacademic benefits at any age -- for example, that it builds character, promotes self-discipline, or teaches good work habits. We're all familiar with the downside of homework: the frustration and exhaustion, the family conflict, time lost for other activities, and possible diminution of children's interest in learning. But the stubborn belief that all of this must be worth it, that the gain must outweigh the pain, relies on faith rather than evidence.” Luckily there are many other ways a teacher can test and strengthen a student’s ability to follow through with tasks.Lesson plans can be altered to test students capabilities. For example group activities, projects and in class assignments can all cover the basis to the same extent.

In conclusion the additional stress of homework has no purpose in our learning system. It worsens students experience in a learning environment and creates a negative connotation with learning. Homework overwhelms students that are struggling with concepts and bores academically advanced students. New methods should be set in place to push the boundaries of modern education so society as a whole can further our knowledge in the structure of learning.


Why this is my best possible 2fer:

In the past many of my 2-fer’s have been incredibly wordy and ridden with run on sentences. I think this essay may be one of my shortest and most concise pieces of writing. I focused on getting to the point with the information that supported my thesis rather than rambling and getting off topic. I also followed through with explaining quotes briefly before introducing them to my paragraph. This made the information simpler to understand and easier to convey.


Bibliography



LeTendre, Gerald K. "Does Homework Help Children?" The Independent. Independent Digital News and Media, 03 Sept. 2015. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.


Ashton, Danny. "There Is No Homework In Finland [Infographic]." NeoMam Studios. NeoMam Studios Limited, 10 June 2016. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.





























Bibliography



LeTendre, Gerald K. "Does Homework Help Children?" The Independent. Independent Digital News and Media, 03 Sept. 2015. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.


Ashton, Danny. "There Is No Homework In Finland [Infographic]." NeoMam Studios. NeoMam Studios Limited, 10 June 2016. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.


Cat Videos On The Internet Are Purr-fect

Claire Byrnes

Pahomov

English 3

May 1, 2017

Cat Videos On The Internet Are Purr-fect

4,000 years ago, the first cats were domesticated by the Ancient Egyptians who used domesticated cats to catch vermin. Now, cats have transcended this simple task by becoming internet sensations such as: Lil Bub, Grumpy Cat, Nyan Cat, Maru, and Lolcats. Domestic cats are some of the most viewed content on the web and have attracted the attention of scholars who strive to analyze why this form of art becomes iconic and psychologists who research the positive effects of cat videos. Research has shown that watching cat videos not only helps viewers regulate their emotions, but it also allows the viewers to imagine a world where they are not constantly surveillanced.

Grumpy_Cat_by_Gage_Skidmore.jpg

Cat videos are associated with procrastination and are cited as a guilty pleasure but those derogatory titles may not hold true. Jessica Gall Myrick, media scholar at Indiana University, surveyed nearly 7,000 internet users to explore how emotions are affected by the viewing of internet cats. Her results, shown in the bar chart below, support the idea that “happiness gained from viewing Internet cats can moderate the relationship between procrastination motives, guilt, and enjoyment.

cat-video-emotions-study.png

Cat videos have been proven to cause positive feelings but their effect on behavior has not been fully researched, until now. A Japanese study led by four scientists examined the effect of cute images on various tasks such as “fine motor dexterity” tasks. University students were asked to perform various tasks after viewing cute images. For all trials, viewing cute images narrowed the focus of the participants, allowing their performance on the tasks to improve.

Cat videos have been proven multiple times to be a rewarding experience for the viewers’ brains that increases effectiveness for tasks. Another topic of research is cats’ indifference to filming, since from the FBI to the Department of Homeland Security to the Defense Department, various surveillance programs have been implemented by the government to watch what citizens do online. For example, the Department of Homeland Security tracks approximately 380 keywords organized into categories such as cyber security or emergencies and weather or terrorism. There are many psychological risks of mass surveillance – under certain conditions, constant surveillance can encourage social conformity, promote distrust and increase mental strain and stress. The positive effects of cat videos (providing a dopamine boost and keeping negative emotions in check) can combat the negative effects of constant surveillance.

A researcher at Massey University in New Zealand analyzed cat videos and found that the cat videos popular on the internet tend to have a few key characteristics. “They are generated by users, shot on a mobile device such as a phone, and set in a domestic environment.” These characteristics set up the viewers as “observers” to the cat’s actions with the cats being indifferent to the filming. The cats are oblivious to the camera which contrasts against other online videos. When dogs are filmed, they make eye contact with the camera and understand, to some extent, that they are being watched. “The cats’ apparent uninhibited behavior gives the viewer the illusion of voyeuristically catching a glimpse of a self-sufficient world. This lack of self-consciousness and sense of authenticity are key to their reception as ‘cute’ videos.”

When asked, internet users might say that cat videos are merely for entertainment, but on closer inspection, they not only regulate viewers negative emotions, but also combat the stress of constant surveillance. Surveillance programs sponsored by the government to watch citizens’ internet usage places strain on them. Cat videos are the purr-fect combatant for whenever a dopamine rush is wanted.

This is my best possible 2fer because I edited my thesis statement throughout my writing process. A few times, I found a very interesting study that I knew I had to include after tweaking my thesis. In other 2fers, I researched information that would just prove my existent thesis which didn't allow me to use other arguments that were still applicable to my topic. My flexibility during this 2fer allowed my argument to be changed depending on my research and made my essay more well-rounded.


Works Cited

Baer, Drake. "Here's the surprising psychological reason the Internet loves cat videos."
Business Insider. Business Insider, 17 June 2015. Web. 30 April 2017.
<http://www.businessinsider.com/psychology-of-cat-videos-study-2015-6>.

"Cats’ indifference a crowd-pleaser." Cats' indifference a crowd-pleaser - Massey University.
Massey University New Zealand, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2017. <http://www.massey.ac.nz
/masseyabout-massey/news/article.cfm?mnarticle_uuid=E50983B4-920A-0C58-CB7B
-0DCD96B677DB>.

Chambers, Chris. "NSA and GCHQ: the flawed psychology of government mass surveillance |
Chris Chambers." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 26 Aug. 2013. Web. 30 Apr.
2017. <https://www.theguardian.com/science/head-quarters/2013/aug/26/nsa-gchq-
psychology-government-mass-surveillance>.

Kounang, Nadia. "Watching cute cat videos is instinctual and good for you." CNN. Cable
News Network, 20 Jan. 2016. Web. 30 Apr. 2017. <http://www.cnn.com/2016/01
/20/health/your-brain-on-cute/>.

Myrick, Jessica Gall. "Emotion regulation, procrastination, and watching cat videos online:
Who watches Internet cats, why, and to what effect?" Science Direct. Elsevier Ltd, n.d.
Web. 30 April 2017. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii
/S0747563215004343#>.

Nittono, Hiroshi, Michiko Fukushima, Akihiro Yano, and Hiroki Moriya. "The Power of Kawaii:
Viewing Cute Images Promotes a Careful Behavior and Narrows Attentional Focus."
PLOS ONE. Public Library of Science, 26 Sept. 2012. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.
<http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0046362>.

O'Meara, Radha. "Do Cats Know They Rule YouTube? Surveillance and the Pleasures of Cat Videos." M/C Journal. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2017. <http://journal.media-culture.org.au/ index.php/mcjournal/article/viewArticle/794>.

Rosen / AlterNet, David. "6 Government Surveillance Programs Designed to Watch What You Do
Online." Alternet. N.p., 06 June 2012. Web. 30 Apr. 2017. <http://www.alternet.org/story/
155764/6_government_surveillance_programs_designed_to_watch_
what_you_do_online>.

Homelessness

Helping Homeless

Everyday life in a large city consists of seeing a homeless person, and that deep wracking guilt that nothing can be done. Many of the homeless seen on the street are there due to a lack of housing. 1.6 billion people lack adequate housing across the world. Countless organizations work to help the homeless, but still the homeless have yet to receive adequate aid. Homeless should be given additional access to services, such as public restrooms, health services , and living facilities, because it would improve life for all persons in the community.

As of 2005 it was estimated that the world wide homeless population is 100 million people. According to a University of Texas two-year survey of homeless individuals, each person cost the taxpayers $14,480 per year, primarily for overnight jail. The cost of homelessness can be quite high. Hospitalization, medical treatment, incarceration, police intervention, and emergency shelter expenses can add up quickly, making homelessness surprisingly expensive for municipalities and taxpayers. Less homeless would be  arrested for loitering, drug use, etc because they were provided shelter, this would provide a large amount of money to go towards other services. Instead of having to put in effect new taxes, such as a soda tax, the money saved on homelessness could be used for a multitude of reasons. The money saved could be put back into homelessness and with enough continued support, more money would continue to be saved. The more money in circulation, the more that can be put to use to better the community.

Lorena Cassady of San Francisco State University manages a home health agency in Los Angeles. Cassady oversees the growth of an individual as they attempt to re-enter society. Through working with multiple programs, she concluded that people who exit homelessness by entering permanent supportive housing (permanent housing with supportive services) reduce public spending, formally used to mitigate crises in their lives. According to a 2009 study by The Economic Roundtable, the typical public cost for residents in supportive housing in Los Angeles is $605 a month, whereas the cost for homeless persons in or out of shelters is $2,897. This results in about $2,300 that could be saved per person. With a homeless population of 1.6 billion, this could potentially put $3.68 billion back into the hands of the people  or the circulation of the government to be used for other things. For example, This $3.68 billion is more than a third of what Pennsylvania puts towards their public school budget. Billions of dollars could greatly improve the quality of education in major cities by defeating the budget crisis, or preventing another.

With the implementation of additional services for homeless, not only will the lifestyle of homeless be benefited, but all of society. Treating homelessness not as an epidemic to society, but as an industry would be the key to putting more money in the hands of the people, but while being driven by the betterment of others. Economically and morally, the world would be a better place while helping to end homelessness.

This is my best 2fer because I pushed myself from previous feedback to not be biased and let my opinions shine through. I personally disagree with my entire 2fer, but I feel that I pushed myself to prove my thesis purely through statistics. I took a look at my 2fer that gave constructive criticism about myself, and feel that I followed that closely. Multiple times throughout the writing process I tweaked my thesis, and I feel it really acted like a Linchpin. This is exactly how I would want to end my 2fer career.

CITATIONS:


"About Homelessness." National Alliance to End Homelessness. NAEH, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2017. <http://www.endhomelessness.org/pages/about_homelessness>.

Writer, Leaf Group. "The Effects of Homelessness on Society." Our Everyday Life. Our Everyday Life, 29 July 2011. Web. 26 Apr. 2017. <http://peopleof.oureverydaylife.com/effects-homelessness-society-8838.html>.


God Didn't Make Man, Man Made Gods

Since the beginning of times there have been questions that people have sought answers for. These questions range from how humans were made to what will happen in 10 years. This curiosity has led humans to creating numerous possible answers about any topic that crosses their mind. One of the sources of these answers is the idea of religion. Religion is a complicated factor in the lives of people, but in reality religion is a manmade concept.

Looking at any religious piece, one will find numerous controversial and inconsistent statements. However, there are already numerous articles that thoroughly explain these points. If one were to look at the most undiscussed argument that could be used to show that the construction of religion was by man, it would be the personality of god. In numerous religions, God displays disappointment, anger, regret, happiness, and numerous other human emotions. How is it possible for an all powerful enlightened being to display human characteristics and still be labeled as the deity it is supposed to be? The attributes given to God, a divine deity, are  similar to those possessed by his imperfect creation, humans. It can be concluded that God’s attributes are a reflection of his creators and a direct representation of how man perceives themselves. Furthermore, the male father figure traits given to God show that God was designed around the male father figure.

Religion being manmade does not disprove the fact that the bible and other religious texts were constructed 100’s of years ago. Archeologist have found evidence to show that the first handwritten bible was produced in around 1380. Over the years the bible has been re-written and translated into numerous other languages. However, its followers still believe in the usefulness of it when there are clearly outdated principles. While God is a reflection of man, the bible is a reflection of the time when it was originally written. Due to that time period, there are numerous principles stated in the bible that would seem absurd if they were ever brought up in modern times. The main examples of this are found in bible verses that could be labeled as sexist. For example, In Timothy 2:11 it is said; “I permit no woman to teach or have authority of man.” This verse is clearly a reflection of the time when the bible was written. A time when women were below man and were seen as nothing more than an object of sex. In 1380, for it to believed that a woman has no right to teach a man is extremely logical. This leads to bible verses such as that of Timothy 2:11 to be seen as controversial in the equality striving world we live in. Yet logical to the sexist, racist world that was around when the bible was being constructed.

In conclusion, religion being created by man is not an idea that most lead to pure chaos and self doubt. Instead it should bring questions as to how the human nature truly is. Why do humans constantly need answers? Why do humans fear not having answers to the point where they must create answers? The system of religions have been around for centuries. It is possible that as time goes on the same way the beliefs of the Greek became labeled as myths eventually the same will occur to Christianity, Judaism, Islam, and so forth. However, when or if this happens, how will it be handled? With man’s source of answers being lost, will humans fall into complete anarchy, or will they start to see how the beings they have worshipped for so long are merely reflections of themselves?







Why This Is My Best Possible 2fer

Out of all 7 2fers I have written this year I would like to say this is my best. What leads me to this conclusion is I feel like I was able to stray from the past mistakes I have found. To do this I reflected on the 2fer where I discussed my most common mistake. Also I had the courage to attack a very controversial topic that could cause a large amount of controversy. Attacking such a topic forced me to have to be very thorough with my research so that my points would be valid and not fall during a conversation. Because of these methods I have used I believe that this 2fer is the best 2fer I have written so far and am proud to submit it as such.








Works Cited

Thomson, J. Anderson, and Clare Aukofer. "Science and religion: God didn't make man; man made gods." Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, 18 July 2011. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

English Bible History: Timeline of how we got the English Bible. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

Fish, Stanley. "Is Religion Man-Made?" The New York Times. The New York Times, 24 June 2007. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

"“Aren’t All Religions Man-Made?”." Probe Ministries. N.p., 20 Mar. 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.


Narcotics to Psychotics

Kawthar Hasan (Kay)

Ms. Larissa Pahomov

English 3

1 May 2017

Approximately 80% of people in the world who smoke and take narcotics suffer from major health defects and die due to simply taking; Tobacco, Xanax, Heroin, Marijuana, etc. Taking unprescribed medications or recreational drugs can lead people to have ‘Drug Addiction Characteristics’. This means that a person who abuses a chemical stimulant becomes dependent and addicted to it. Adults are not the only ones who struggle with addiction; teens are affected by this issue as well. In the United States teenagers struggle with drug addiction. Recreational and non prescribed drugs within the teen community is becoming more encouraged and accepted. Abusing them at such a young age will cause complications in their later lives, that could hinder how they function as adults.

There are differences and similarities between illegal, and legal drugs. There are also many ways of using them as well. The commonly used illegal drugs are; Marijuana, Hashish, Heroin, and more. Marijuana which also have many other names like weed, is a cannabis that can be smoked in cigarettes or joint. Hashish or hash is made from cannabis that can be smoked from a pipe, vaporizer, or joint. Heroin is processed from morphine and has a natural materials taken out from seed pod of particular poppy plants. On the other hand the most frequently used legal drugs are; Nicotine, Alcohol, OxyContin, etc. Nicotine is a stimulant/relaxant which allows people to be more ‘happy’ yet it increases the heart rate and pressure. Alcohol is a liquid substance that is usually comes in form of beer, wine, and liquor. OxyContin is a painkiller medicine that has an active ingredient of oxycodone. On “Addiction Center” website it stated the side effects of taking any drug; “Substance abuse affects teen brain development by: Interfering with neurotransmitters and damaging connections within the brain, Reducing the ability to experience pleasure, Creating problems with memory, Causing missed opportunities during a period of heightened learning potential, Ingraining expectations of unhealthy habits into brain circuitry, Inhibiting development of perceptual abilities.” Therefore, teens should avoid taking any drug whether it is legal or illegal so that they would not face any dominant health issues at an early stage in life.

As a person reaches adolescence stage in their life, they would often begin to experiment and find things out on their own, especially with drugs. At a young age many of them were taught by their parents, guardians, or at least their teachers to try to avoid becoming a drug addict simply because of how harmful it is to that person. While some may listen to that specific advise, others may want to learn the hard way of acting doing drugs. It could be affected by how their older advisers would guide them. An example could be, how someone could put too much pressure on persuading them to not take it and not necessarily telling them the consequences causing that teen to not care and start the addiction. Whereas, someone who is giving that health lesson offering a lot of great information for a teen to adjust to why they should not face harming themselves with it, what would go through becoming an addict, and ways/places to get seek for help to end the bad harmful habit. On the “Partnership for Drug-Free kids” site it offered information as to possible reasons to why they may take drugs and it stated; “...some teens abuse prescription medicine to manage stress or regulate their lives. Sometimes they abuse prescription stimulants (used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) to provide additional energy and the ability to focus when they’re studying or taking tests. Others are abusing prescription pain relievers and tranquilizers to cope with academic, social or emotional stress.” Nonetheless, teens sometimes find ways to do things with many activities and objects. This can be build by creating different habits for themselves. However, it can lead to start doing more positive or negative things to affect a path they would create themselves of their future. Either way, becoming an addict at a young age does not sound like a great path that someone should risk to take.

Drug usage at any age can cause many medical complications, but teenagers who have addiction to narcotics in particular are at a higher risk simply due to the fact that they are extremely young. For example, the most common problems that teens face after smoking include hysteria attacks, apprehension disorder, and depression. It also makes it very hard for them to give up their obsession if they are abusing it from their adolescence to adulthood since they have been on it for a while. This connects to the blog written by Casa Palmera Staff stating; “Statistics show that drug abuse is a growing problem among teens. In addition to cocaine, Ecstasy and other club drugs, a recent Monitoring the Future Study showed that the top six most abused drugs by teens are: marijuana (31.5%), Vicodin (9.7%), amphetamines (8.1%), cough medicine (6.9%), sedatives & tranquilizers (6.6% each). Without treatment, the effects of drug abuse on teens can lead to serious consequences now and well into adulthood.” Either way, if knowing that taking any harmful chemical stimulant can affect physically damaging their body, why even take the risk?  There are many ways of resolving this addiction, but that person needs to willing take the second chance to be their vigorous selves again. Therefore, if teens want to live a nice healthy life as they get older, they should try to seek guidance in ending their obsession to drugs.

One way a teen can end their dependency on drugs is going to Rehab. Rehab is a facility that people stay to live for a period of time for recovery and they are 14,000+ rehab centers that are available in the United States. Treatment and unique techniques for anyone who is struggling with addiction is offered to help combat their disease. From the “Teen Challenge” rehab website it mentioned; “Unwilling to settle for helping only 20 percent of those desperate for help, Pennsylvania Teen Challenge and McFadden created and launched Project 80, where they are endeavoring to provide services for 80 percent of candidates calling for help.” A lot of times it is extremely hard for a teen to seek for help about their addiction, they may be so involved with their drug abuse that teens may not realize that they have an obsession and that they need any possible assistance.  

If teenagers stopped to think about it, they would realize that taking illegal or legal drugs does not just involve having an addiction, but it also it causes a lot of health issues as they grow into their adulthood as well. No matter if they may be struggling in their life with, they should find more positive habits to solve their issues. Harming themselves can cause their situation to be worst that what it already is, especially around those who they may be encounter to. That is why teens throughout the world should put an end to their addiction to not only keep their bodies healthy and to save their lives but to allow them to have more of an open mind about what they are interested doing in life.


Works Cited:

https://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/06/is-smoking-still-a-problem-among-teenagers/comment-page-9/

Gonchar, Michael. "Is Smoking Still a Problem Among Teenagers?" The New York Times. The New York Times, 06 Sept. 2013. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.

http://www.livestrong.com/article/108848-teen-smoking-problems/

Boehlke, Julie. "Teen Smoking Problems." LIVESTRONG.COM. Leaf Group, 19 Apr. 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.

https://www.dosomething.org/facts/11-facts-about-teen-smoking

"11 Facts About Teen Smoking." DoSomething.org | Volunteer for Social Change. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.

http://rapidcityjournal.com/news/opinion/editorial/teen-smoking-still-a-big-problem/article_72a2c2d8-b7a7-11df-a176-001cc4c03286.html

Board, Journal Editorial. "Teen Smoking Still a Big Problem." Rapid City Journal. N.p., 09 Sept. 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2017.

https://www.summitbehavioralhealth.com/blog/top-10-addictive-illegal-drugs/

"What Are The Top 10 Most Addictive Illegal Drugs?" Summit Behavioral Health. N.p., 10 June 2016. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.

http://www.attn.com/stories/2643/crack-vs-cocaine

Bracy, Emma. "Here's the Surprising Difference Between Crack and Cocaine." ATTN:. ATTN:, 09 Aug. 2015. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.

https://casapalmera.com/the-effects-of-drug-abuse-on-teens/

Staff, Written By Casa Palmera. "The Effects of Drug Abuse on Teens." Casa Palmera. N.p., 23 July 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/

"Tobacco." World Health Organization. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2017.

https://www.centeronaddiction.org/addiction/commonly-used-illegal-drugs#.WQh2VPQrK00

"Commonly Used Illegal Drugs." The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse. N.p., 14 Apr. 2017. Web. 02 May 2017.

http://drugfree.org/parent-blog/top-8-reasons-teens-try-alcohol-drugs/

February 13, 2017 by Julie. "Top 8 Reasons Why Teens Try Alcohol and Drugs." Partnership for Drug-Free Kids - Where Families Find Answers. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2017.
















The NFL Draft is Wasteful

The NFL Draft is Wasteful


The National Football League, and other professional sport leagues, hold a draft every year. This consists of each team in the league selecting the best players available in their opinion who declare for the draft. In this process, the NFL and the other leagues who participate make a big deal out of it. This year, the NFL draft is held in Philadelphia, home of the Philadelphia Eagles. It is the first NFL draft where the venue is being built and held outside on the stairs of the Art Museum. Also, the NFL is having a new event called “The NFL Draft Experience”. This will be an outdoor experience that is free to the public that will serve as a convention like atmosphere. This will take over the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in Philadelphia and allow closures to occur. The National Football League’s draft process is a waste of time and money because it doesn’t benefit the city nor the audience in attendance.

The NFL draft has seven rounds over the course of three days. Essentially, each team has one pick per round and in almost the same order. Sometimes teams trade their picks to one another for a higher pick, lower pick, or for current players. This means that teams may not have picks in a certain round which leaves their fans waiting until their next pick. Even during the actual draft, teams are allowed to trade their picks away to gain more picks or to move up in a spot where they can pick a certain player before another team can. “beyond the top pick, anyone watching only really cares about who their team chooses.  So the eager fan sits and listens to all the MC's who are just reading from media packets and speculating on the shape of a football for an hour while you wait for you team's pick.” (Brian Wolff, Bleacher Report) Fans are only watching the draft so they can see who their next star player will be to help fill a certain position on the team. They are eager to see when their pick is and the lead up to it. Just as their team is on the clock, the team trades away their pick. This causes for the fans to get upset to have to wait for when their team picks again. This may occur over and over again, until the pick actually is made. Once it is made, the excitement lasts for a short period of time. This is boring for everyone. Majority of the audience doesn’t care about the other selections. They only care about their own. Even when the fan’s team is on the clock, they still have a long period of time to wait until the pick is actually made. Not only that, but the broadcasters are still talking about the previous picks because now it is day three and they can’t keep up. The entire process is just boring and a waste of time.

Philadelphia is hosting the NFL draft in 2017. They are closing a major part of the city to allow the creation of the draft to happen. Having closures from this makes the traffic increase and gets the city’s population frustrated by what they are doing. There are already tons of construction happening in the city, so this is not helping anyone get to where they need to be any faster. A good portion of Philadelphia does not care for football even though the city has a huge fanbase for the Philadelphia Eagles. This means that the draft is irrelevant to them and is just making their commute worst. Not only all this, but it is costing Philadelphia a lot of money. “The city will shell out $500,000 for the 2017 NFL Draft Experience coming to the Benjamin Franklin Parkway this month. That’s only a fraction of the full cost of the event – an estimated $25 million. The NFL will cover $20 million, and the rest, $5 million, will come from private funding secured by the city.” (Claire Sasko, Philadelphia Magazine) The city of Philadelphia’s education is falling. The school district cannot afford their teachers’ salaries and has major budget cuts every year. Recently, a lot of schools have been closed because they couldn’t afford to stay open. The school district needs money for the children, and their education. Instead, the city of Philadelphia decides to host the NFL draft, and spend $500,000 on it. The city barely earns any of it back from revenue and loses it all in the process. Building the venue does not help either because the venue’s left over material won’t get recycled anywhere else. No education is being helped and not even construction is going faster. This is a waste of time for the other people of the city, and a waste of money for the city itself.

Not only is it a waste of time during the draft, but the lead up period as well. The fans aren’t the only ones participating the in draft by showing up and cheering for their team. There is a whole group of people for every team that is working long hours just to select a player a round, if they have that many picks. The General Manager and other personnel work long and hard to come up with a scheme of selecting the player that is right for them. Not only that, but scenarios in which other teams select their player before they can. The process is long and hard for these people. “The pre-draft excessiveness starts in January with the Senior Bowl, where each team sends its GM, scouting staff and coaching staff. Then in February comes the Combine, where teams send 35 or so employees to Indianapolis for an expensive week of flights, hotels and meal costs, all for an over-hyped event. Then in February comes the Combine, where teams send 35 or so employees to Indianapolis for an expensive week of flights, hotels and meal costs, all for an over-hyped event.” (Jeff Diamond, Ex- General Manager: Sportingnews.com) Teams are put to the test to which players they really want out of the draft. Their draft process is long and hard. They have 81 days until the draft after Super Bowl. The NBA only has 4  days after the finals. That is absurd that the scouts have to do all this research on a couple of players that they are picking. They are pushed to the limit to find the right guy. Even so, sometimes they have the perfect plan they developed and then all of a sudden, another teams do something no one expects and take the guys that this one team had planned for. Now they are all in panic mode and are screwed up. This entire process, for what, nothing. The entire time they are doing this and now they just end up not being able to do what they wanted to do. Even during the scouting process, it is a waste of money. They have to travel everywhere to meet with the guys and learn their skill. That isn’t free of charge. They have to pay for it. Altogether, this draft is a waste for both the fans, and the people behind the draft too.

The NFL draft is doesn’t benefit anyone due to it being a waste of time and money from both ends. The fans are bored waiting for their pick to happen and don’t care about the other teams. The cities hosting the event have to pay a big fee just to host it. It could be going towards other important things like education, but the decision is already made. Even the personnel behind the draft process for each team is bothered by this. They work long and hard to pick someone who isn’t on the draft board no more. The NFL draft is just a waste of time and money for everyone.









Work Cited:

|, Claire Sasko. "NFL Draft Will Cost Philly $500K." Philadelphia Magazine. N.p., 13 Apr. 2017. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

<http://www.phillymag.com/news/2017/04/13/nfl-draft-cost-philly-500k/>

Jeff Diamond Contributor @jeffdiamondNFL Published on Apr. 6, 2017 Apr. 6, 2017. "NFL Draft period's annual overkill is bad for GMs, prospects alike." Sporting News. N.p., 06 Apr. 2017. Web. 27 Apr. 2017. <http://www.sportingnews.com/nfl/news/nfl-draft-2017-date-time-process-schedule-interviews-team-visits-overkill/19hccqz4u6g401vba1vntgyh5d>.

"The NFL Draft Probably Won’t Have Much of an Economic Impact on the City." Crossing Broad. N.p., 24 Apr. 2017. Web. 27 Apr. 2017. <http://www.crossingbroad.com/2017/04/the-nfl-draft-probably-wont-have-much-of-an-economic-impact-on-the-city.html>.  
Wolff, Brian. "Why the NFL Draft Is Boring." Bleacher Report. Bleacher Report, 11 Apr. 2017. Web. 27 Apr. 2017. <http://bleacherreport.com/articles/162267-why-the-nfl-draft-is-boring>.



I believe that this was my best 2fer that I have ever written because I felt that I gave my all for it. Personally, writing 700 words is a lot when you think about it. For this 2fer, I took it to the next level and wrote 1300 words. More than a 2fer needs to be, but I had a lot to talk about considering I felt passionate about the subject. I will say that this 2fer is actually me playing devil’s advocate because I do enjoy watching the draft and going to it. I had to write an essay with a different point of view than my own which is the first time I did ever in a 2fer. Since I could produce a well done 2fer from someone’s opinion, I think that this my best 2fer because of it.


Habits! By Jamie Polson

Are habits breakable?

By: Jamie Polson


Everybody has habits both good and bad and many people believe that it is close to impossible to break the bad habits like smoking or eating junk food, but research shows that their is hope for breaking bad habits.

What are habits?  The definition is” a settled or regular tendency or practice, especially one that is hard to give up.”  What does that mean?  Everything we do is some type of habit.  Everybody has habits no matter where they are or who they are.  Some examples of habits that are pretty common are brushing teeth, the route that one takes when commuting to work or school, or eating breakfast etc.  How do habits form?  They are the result of needs, desires or wants.  Habits come about from three different stages.  The first stage is that the person should continuously try to accomplish something new.  This is often the hardest phase of making a habit, because it requires the full attention of the person that is doing the action.  A good example of this is tying shoes or taking a route somewhere that is new to the driver or commuter.  The next stage is repetition.  A habit is formed from doing something over and over again. If a person ties their shoes a lot, they will, in turn, get very good at tying their shoes and that is now a habit.  The third and last stage is reward.  When people do a difficult task that they want to get better at, a good way to do it with more ease is to reward themselves everytime they do it correctly.  This sends a message to the brain saying that it likes doing that action because it leads to a treat afterwards.  This then makes the action easier and more fun even later when you do not reward yourself because your brain has a happy memory of having done that thing.


Habits can be both good or bad.  Even a healthy habit can be dangerous if you do it excessively.  To explain, if you eat too much even healthy foods, you could get fat, which is not healthy.  Exercise is good but if one exercises for eight or nine hours a day, it could put a lot of strain on your body.  You could also lose more weight than is healthy or natural.  Often habits are formed around a certain desire or need that people feel is important.  There are many behaviors that feel good while people are doing them but have more negative impact than positive.  Smoking tobacco products is a big one. While one is in the act of smoking, it may feel great. It relieves stress and makes you totally calm. People have also reported that they tend not to binge eat while they are smoking.  However, smoking has more negative impact than positive, like lung cancer, damage to one’s airways, increase of having a stroke, and increase of dying just to name a few. The reason why people don’t stop in spite of these dangers is because of the negative impact is because of how addictive the tobacco is.  Often people also don’t realize how bad they are until it is too late.  

How can one break a certain habit?  Habit breaking can be very hard. If the following steps are accomplished it can be accomplished.  Typically, the type of habit that people want to break is the type that is evident and off-putting in social situations, like biting your nails when in a conversation.  In order to break this type of habit, you have to notice when and where you typically do it.  Next, you need to follow through with some sort of consequence (applying a nontoxic, but bitter taste to the nails).  For instance maybe eating a food that is unenjoyable for that person so the habit becomes undesirable to the person in question.  Other good ways of eliminating bad habits is to get rid of the trigger.  The trigger is the thing that causes someone to do the habit, like a trigger for relaxing on the couch is that someone would automatically watch T.V and get unhealthy snacks.  A good example is if you tend to immediately sit on the couch, eat chips, and watch tv, when you get home , it might be wise to move the chips and remote to other places so that it is harder to find them.  This would start to slowly break that habit because of the work required to start it.  Another good way to break a habit is to get a friend to push you to stop, this would need to be someone who cares about your well being and wants to see you live a healthier life.  Ideally this person would be present when the person tends to engage in the bad habit behavior.  

Habits are caused from doing an activity over and over again with the intention to get better at the activity.  They also help to free up our minds to focus on more important things.  Everybody has habits both good and bad which are caused consciously and some without realizing it.  Many people think that bad habits are close to impossible to break but with hard work, repetition, persistence, and a friend to help it can be done.




http://www.npr.org/2012/03/05/147192599/habits-how-they-form-and-how-to-break-them

https://seachange.zenhabits.net/how-habits-are-formed/

http://jamesclear.com/three-steps-habit-change

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejsp.674/abstract

http://jamesclear.com/how-to-break-a-bad-habit

http://lifehacker.com/top-10-ways-to-break-bad-habits-1694247761


Your Skin Doesn’t Define You

“Wow, you’re really pretty for a dark skinned girl.” “She’s one of the dark skinned girls that don’t actually look dirty.” “If your skin wasn’t so dark all that acne wouldn’t look so bad.” “ You should try a skin lightener so your skin isn’t so dark.” For centuries dark skinned women have been the described as the opposite of beautiful. They have even been shamed by other African American men and women that are shades lighter. To be shamed by other races along with your race makes dark-skinned women feel as though they don’t have a place and that there is no place for them because of their skin. There are 2 types of melanin produced --pheomelanin, which is red to yellow in color, and eumelanin, which is dark brown to black.  People with light complexioned skin mostly produce pheomelanin, while those with dark colored skin mostly produce eumelanin also some people differ in the number and size of melanin particles that they have. Why should someone be alienated because they have more of something? Dark skinned women are looked down upon because of the society that we’ve grown into.

On December 31st, 1996 Khoudia Diop was born into the world. Khoudia is a Senegalese model, one of the darkest models in the world.Khoudia was teased as a child because of her dark skin tone by her classmates, friends, and family. Khoudia had to constantly tell herself that she was beautiful and there would be many of times where she would lock herself in her room just because she didn’t wanna hear what all the kids at school had to say about her. On “Glamour.com” Khoudia shared her story in an article called “I Want To Show Girls It’s Not Bad to Be Dark- Different is Beautiful”.  In her interview, she said that while growing up in Senegal more than 25 percent of dark skinned girls would bleach their skin and that she never tried it but she did crave the desire to be lighter as did those other girls. When Khoudia was 15 she went to Milan and on the street, one day she looked into a huge mirror then looked at all of the light skinned people around her and the realized how her skin was pooping and that's the reason why people look at her. She said every morning she looks into the mirror and tells herself “ Look at your skin. Look at your teeth and your smile. You are beautiful.” After this trip to Milan, she went to Paris and that is when photographers and modeling agencies noticed what she noticed and exposed her beauty to the rest of the world. Khoudia joined Instagram and named herself “Melaniin.goddess” to show girls that it’s not something bad to be dark and that different is beautiful.    

However, not every dark skinned woman will go on the same journey that Khoudia went. Growing up close to the equator it was normal for people to be as dark as Khoudia so she wasn't so often shamed as a girl in Brooklyn New York would be or a girl in California would. When people see something new they gravitate to it to judge it and point out the flaws instead of the positive things about whatever the person place or thing may be. That is what has been being done all around the world. Germans and Jews, White folks and Black people, North and South Koreans, and even down to name brand foods and the generic versions of those foods. Women that that are light skinned don’t understand so when they try to convince dark skinned women the skin color isn’t that big of a deal they are downplaying it and not understanding because they don't go through the struggles of dark skinned women.

There was talk about how rapper ASAP Rocky makes a comment in an interview with “The Coveteur” that dark skinned girls shouldn’t wear red lipstick. Dark skinned women who heard of what he said were furious. They asked him what were his thoughts on women wearing makeup and he gave an honest opinion which was that he prefers someone who goes naturally. Then he carried on and said “But for real, for me, I feel like with the red lipstick thing it all depends on the pair of complexion. I’m just being for real. You have to be fair skinned to get away with that. Just like if you were to wear like—f*cking for instance, what do dark skin girls have that you know fair skinned girls can't do… Purple lipstick? Naw, that looks stupid on all girls! Purple lipstick, guys! Like, what the f*ck…” A woman should never be told what she ca and can’t do. There is a hue of red for every woman out in the world. ASAP may not have said it to intentionally said that to down anyone but those are the kinds of things that can bring a Dark skinned woman's self-esteem down.For most men and women the grew up in a society where being “fair skinned” is the right skin but that is not true. Social media and the entertainment industry is brainwashing everyone's mind into thinking that you have to look a certain way to look beautiful when in reality you only have to look like yourself.

All around the world dark skinned women are reminded that their skin is what blocks them from being who they really are because society doesn’t accept what the what to do, say, and or wear. For a dark skinned women to go to a makeup store and be told by a light skinned woman or a white woman that they don’t carry the shade of foundation for their skin or the nude lipstick that would look appealing on their skin is alienating them because of the European beauty standards that were set for all women. On “Madamenoire.com”  they allow dark skinned women to share the things that they have had said to them because of their skin. One thing that was said by an anonymous user what that a man said to her “I don’t date dark women.” People also shared comments like “ The blacker the berry the sweeter the juice”, “Ooh girl, I'm getting dark”, “You should put on a hat before you go out in the sun”, and also “ Do tattoos show up on your skin?” The questioning and commenting leaves dark skinned women wanting to change themselves to please others when they should mainly try to please themselves. Some o to the extreme such as taking bleach baths after coming out from the and depigmentation procedures and spending loads of money on skin lightening creams.

Dark skinned women need to realize that it never gets easy and that building a foundation to protect themselves from the outside world criticism is what’s best. Tearing each other down will never fix anything and neither will extreme skin treatments. People who tear others down are too insecure in their own skin so they boost themselves off of another's insecurities to feel confident.


Citations

"Skin Color Adaptation." Human Biological Adaptability: Skin Color as an Adaptation. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 May 2017.

Wilson, Julee. "ASAP Rocky's Misguided Beauty Advice, Rapper Says Dark Skin Girls Shouldn't Wear Red Lipstick." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 08 Apr. 2013. Web. 01 May 2017.

Gharib, Malaka. "How Khoudia Diop Learned To Love Her Dark Skin." NPR. NPR, 20 Nov. 2016. Web. 01 May 2017.

Butler, Meg. "15 Things Women With Dark Skin Are Tired of Hearing." MadameNoire. N.p., 25 Apr. 2017. Web. 01 May 2017.

This is the best possible 2fer that I have ever written because I know that I only write about things that I deeply care about. When I write about things that I take interest I tend to do lots of research and I dig deeper than what the sources tell me. This topic is something that I care about so I have payed lots of attention to the things that I wrote.  In some of the other 2fers that I have written it was noticed that some phrases become repetitive and I also over explain. In this 2fer I’ve tried to to straight to the point while still explaining the problematic problems that dark skinned women have faced and are still facing.


More than letters and numbers

What right does a person have to judge others? Who is to say that they’re smarter than others? Many students say that they’re smarter than him or her, but what defines intelligence? According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, intelligence means “the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (such as tests).” Nowadays, people are considered smart due to their scores and grades in school. If they get one of the higher grades in the class, people will automatically assume that he or she is smart or intelligent. However, scores and grades do not define the intelligence of a student because of different criteria.

There was a survey done at Costa Mesa High School, California in 2014 about grades reflecting intelligence. The authors, Catherine Kricorian and Jeirany Chavez, said “For every class, the teacher sets up a system to ‘weigh’ the importance of tests, homework, participation, etc., and the combination of all of these aspects create a grade.” Meaning that grades doesn’t only come from the intelligence of a student but also from how the teacher aspects the student to be. Different teachers have different standards and rules in which they want the students to follow. Some teachers grade on effort, dedication, etc., so not all grades and scores are based on full intelligence or knowledge. It’s true that every teacher grades differently because they all have different rubrics that they go off of. Even though it might have the same categories, each category might have different description on meeting the expectations.

Similarly, there was a website that had people’s response to the question, “Do grades reflect intelligence.” On this web page, people vote either yes or no and also wrote their reason behind why they chose their answer. A post from mexicanmhitman said, “One can be lazy and not do their schoolwork. Millions of people in the world are intelligent, yet we choose not to do work. I don't do my classwork frequently, yet my test grades are higher than your average grades. I never hand in homework, but I have never gotten lower than an A in quizzes.” Another post by a user name, luvlee37 says, “Grades are usually based on a limited testing arena, which is usually a pen and paper test and does not take into consideration the student's frame 0f mind while writing the exam.  A three hour written test has its own limits and cannot judge a child's true calibre as such.” Those two comments is simply stating that grades and scores are from tests. The first comment is saying that many people might be smart but lazy, that can give them a “bad grade” because they’re lazy to do what the teacher is telling them to do. Meanwhile, in the second comment, that person is saying that grades are only based on tests, using a pen and paper. It’s also saying that tests aren’t enough to judge a student’s intelligence because there’s a limit of how much a person can take a test for so long.

Therefore, grades are mostly an overall score of all of the work that’s given to the students. Even though they tell a little of how much a student know, grades does not fully define the intelligence of a student. There are many different factors that make up a good grade, so it’s not only the intelligence of a student. The intelligence of a student is defined from what they understand as an individual not because of a grade. Students’ are more than just letters and numbers.




Works Cited

"Do Grades Reflect Intelligence? by Catherine Kricorian and Jeirany Chavez." The Equestrian. Web. 01 May 2017. <http://www.cmhsnews.com/featuresopinions/do-grades-reflect-intelligence-by-catherine-kricorian-and-jeirany-chavez>

"Do Grades Reflect Intelligence?" Debate.org. Web. 01 May 2017. <http://www.debate.org/opinions/do-grades-reflect-intelligence>


This is the best 2fer I've written because I learned from my mistakes. Hopefully, I

didn't make the same mistakes again, but I think that I covered it. I used factual

information from people, so that I can prove my thesis more. Using actual information

will make the reader see my point of view and why I wrote my thesis.



16 Is The New 18

Every four years the American public prepares for the always entertaining and important presidential election. The country comes together to decide by majority vote the person believed best suited to lead the most powerful country in the world. However, not everyone is included in this all important decision. The twenty-sixth amendment requires each citizen be a legal adult, age eighteen, to vote in any election whether it be presidential, congressional, or just district. The amendment does not take into consideration how the newly elected leaders will affect teenagers who had zero input in electing them. Because they are directly impacted from actions of the American government, the voting age in the United States should be decreased for those teens to have a say.

In the United States, the youth is eligible to partake in various adult activities. By sixteen teenagers can drive, work, pay taxes. At seventeen one can even enlist in the military and be transported overseas to fight in volatile battle in defense of the country. Despite all of this, teenagers are still considered too young to vote. The twenty-sixth amendment was ratified thus lowering the minimum voting age in the U.S from twenty-one to eighteen. This was primarily due to two major ideas. The first uttered by former president Franklin D. Roosevelt that “Old enough to fight, old enough to vote.” This meaning that since men could be drafted into the military at age eighteen, they were able to handle such responsibility as voting. Roosevelt’s slogan became popular during the youth voting movement.

The second idea being that by lowering the voting age, there would a greater voter turnout. This would allow more representation and opinions in elections. Richard Nixon once stated at a White House ceremony, “The reason I believe that your generation, the 11 million new voters, will do so much for America at home is that you will infuse into this nation some idealism, some courage, some stamina, some high moral purpose, that this country always needs.” This idea lead congress to pass the amendment. Voter turnout amongst the youth has proven vital in the presidential election. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, young voters (age 18 to 24) were the only group to show a statistically significant increase in turnout in 2008, despite an overall increase of some 5 million voters. In fact, The 2008 presidential election of Barack Obama saw a voter turnout of some 49 percent of 18- to 24 year-olds, the second highest in history. This clearly shows the vital impact young voters can have on elections as well as there need to vote. History has shown that while growing maturity and responsibility teenagers in these sixteen to seventeen range are old enough to vote.

When new leaders are chosen, they are given the great responsibility of implementing ideas that are meant to better the country and every citizen in it. Different politicians have different agendas, and it’s up to the public to decide which agenda will be most effective not just for the individual person, but for the majority of the public. The youth are directly impacted by these decisions that they aren’t apart of. Anything that policy makers implement will affect the youth who had zero opportunity to effectively voice their opinion and have adequate say. Even though many youth have opinions on policies and what should be done to fix not only the major issues within the country, but also the daily problems are legally quieted by the constitution.

This way of voting is not a true and complete representation as a large portion of the country does not have legal say. Other countries have implemented laws that allow for those sixteen and above to vote in different elections. For example, In Scotland, where 16- and 17-year-olds were eligible to vote in the independence referendum in 2014, an impressive three-quarters of those who registered turned out on the day, compared with 54% of 18- to 24-year-olds. In 2007 Austria became the only rich country where 16-year-olds could vote in all elections. If this is being allowed in other countries with consistently great turnouts, that more reason for the United States to decrease the voting age. Not only is it allowing representation for a wider range of people, it also connects to the previous point that voter turnout would increase significantly.

The United States has built its entire political system on the idea of democracy and fair say all. Every citizen has the right to one vote in any electoral vote in selecting who the new county, state, and national leaders will be. However, a large portion of people with valid opinions are being neglected their input. Teenagers, specifically sixteen and seventeen are knowledgeable enough and will be impacted just as much as legal adults. Because of this it only makes sense that they should be legally allowed to vote. If America wants to pride itself on democracy, then it must truly value and accept the input from all of those willing and eligible to give it.


Work Cited:

"Top Ten Reasons to Lower the Voting Age." Top Ten Reasons to Lower the Voting Age. National Youth Rights Association, 2016. Web. 01 May 2017.


History.com Staff. "The 26th Amendment." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 01 May 2017.


Why this is my best 2fer

I consider the 2fer to be my best or a good 2fer to end the year with because it reflects a cause that I firmly support, and allows me to inject a lot of opinions. Whereas some of my past 2fers have been on things that I found online or topics that I found interesting. This 2fer centers on an idea that I think should become a reality. I got to learn more information concerning why the voting age in the United States is eighteen, but also more information to support my claims that it should be lowered. I enjoyed writing this 2fer the most because it allowed my actual voice to come through so that it wasn’t just another essay. This 2fer is my best it was written well, had a unique topic that I cared about, and the most effort was put into it.


Finstas for the Soul

If anyone is more pressured by the media, it’s teens. They live their whole lives online. The solution is a fake instagram account. A Finstagram, Finsta, account is an instagram account primarily used by teens that showcases the true ups and downs they are enduring in their daily lives with less care about what they post and what it looks like. This is in comparison to a real instagram, Rinsta, account, where lives are also showcased but the account focuses on the outward attractiveness and less interaction with others about their daily lives . Finsta accounts help relieve teenagers of stress.

For starters, Finstas are, for the most part obscene and unfiltered. The finsta community is a great place for people to release their emotions at 100%. According to The Odyssey Online, one of the top 15 reasons users create a Finsta is to rant or rave about life events. If a teen is having a bad day or maybe a teacher or classmate upset them, they can make a Finsta post to let off some steam and perhaps find other followers who relate. Tiffany S. from Connecticut says, “I think Finstas are to vent about what I'm stressed about and to share what I find funny with my friends. And because it's a Finsta, I don't really have to worry about what other people think. I can say kind of whatever I want without worrying if people will judge me because, for me, only my really close friends follow my Finsta.” By allowing teens to vent about their issues, Finstas can help alleviate stress.

Along with being good stress relievers, Finstas are also good for discarding the popularity contest. On a Rinsta account, standards and priorities are held such as  likes, followers, and a feed. A lot of the time when posting a photo on Instagram, the main things that go into consideration are, “how many likes will it get,” or “does this go with my feed?” This factor can also contribute to stress in a teen’s life. The aspiration for popularity is especially strong in the teenage years. That being said, on a Finsta account, followers and likes and a feed are almost irrelevant. The majority of finsta followers are close friends that the user can develop a bond with and can tell them what’s going on in their personal lives.

Lastly, a Finsta is private. The majority of Finsta users keep their accounts private so that they can choose who can and cannot follow them. So when a user goes to rant about that person they don’t like, or rave about an interaction with their crush, the user doesn’t have to worry about them seeing a post about them or a hater commenting negative things. Also, this is a way to keep out of a parental or relative’s watchful eye. For the people who have parents and family members that like to use social media, a Finsta can be private, keeping any nosy parents or guardians out of their business. This also relieves stress to not have to worry about someone being or you about all your actions all the time.

Obviously, Finstas are highly beneficial to teens regarding all aspects of life including stress relief and their social lives. It can be seen by the followers that there are things going on in someone’s life on a more personal level that allows them to connect. Also, it’s can provide shelter from the perfection and standards of family and parents or even peers. Teenagers create finsta accounts to relieve stress.


Why this is my best possible 2fer

This is my best possible 2fer. It’s my best possible 2fer because I combined all the criticism and comments from my peer reviews edited my essay accordingly. I also edited my essay based on the techniques I learned during class. Knowing this was the last 2fer I would produce in this class, I made sure that I put the most thought into it. My topic was something that I knew a lot about, and that I as confident in writing about that I also knew met the requirements of a good working thesis. That’s why this is my best possible 2fer.

Sources and Citations:

Harnish, Amelia, Best of Instagram • Entertainment News • Health • Health Trends • How To Deal With Stress • News • Reclaim Your Domain • Tech, and Illustrated By Ariel Davis. "We Need To Talk About This Unhealthy Social Media Behavior." Who Am I Social Media Identity Crisis Instagram Stress. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2017. <http://www.refinery29.com/2017/03/146733/identity-crisis-causes-social-media-fake-world>.

Sheveland, Hannah. "Opinion: Instagram should inspire creativity not stress." The Seabury Tides. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2017. <http://seaburytides.org/2537/opinion/opinion-instagram-should-inspire-creativity-not-stress/>.

Migdol, Erin. "The Dark Side of Instagram Popularity That Nobody Talks About ." Mic. Mic Network Inc., 15 Dec. 2015. Web. 30 Apr. 2017. <https://mic.com/articles/130396/having-a-ton-of-instagram-followers-can-make-you-absolutely-miserable#.hpEGN64k1>.

"8 College Students on 'Secret' Instagrams." Fresh U. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2017. <https://www.freshu.io/stacy-andryshak/8-college-students-and-secret-instagrams>.

"15 Reasons Why Finstas Make The World A Better Place." Odyssey. N.p., 08 Jan. 2016. Web. 30 Apr. 2017. <https://www.theodysseyonline.com/12-reasons-why-finstas-make-the-world-better-place>.

Kazemi, Alex. "What ‘Finsta’ Accounts Are and Why Their Owners Will Live to Regret Them." Observer. N.p., 20 Mar. 2017. Web. 30 Apr. 2017. <http://observer.com/2017/03/finsta-accounts-why-their-owners-will-regret-them-fame-fake-instagram-hollywood/>.


Harman, Justine. "The Crazy Way Teens Are Hiding Their Imperfections Online: Finstagram." ELLE. N.p., 06 Nov. 2015. Web. 01 May 2017. <http://www.elle.com/culture/tech/a29243/finstagram/>.

Patterson, Daniel. "The Dark World Of Teenage 'Finsta' Users On Instagram." The

Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 05 Oct. 2016. Web. 01 May 2017.

Degree vs. Diploma

Steve Jobs and Bill Gates are a few names that come to mind when speaking about success stories of people who have prospered without a college degree. But, not everyone can be the lucky few. College degrees are extremely helpful in developing a career in today’s industry versus only earning a high school diploma. There are more benefits than just the above average annual salary once you have a degree. Below the surface, lifestyle is greatly impacted by attending college. Earning a college degree will help further one’s career which can lead them to a more successful life.

The payoff from earning a college degree is apparent through the amount earned in your bank account. Four years of a college degree earns someone a bachelor’s degree, which is the usual degree one earns as a college undergrad. A report from the US Department of Labor Statistics in 2013 depicted the average wages of people who have a bachelor’s degree in comparison to people who only have a high school degree. In the 2000’s, the bachelor’s degree line stayed between $45k and $55k. The high school diploma line in the 2000’s stayed between $30k and $35k. Paychecks determine a great amount in one’s life. Many life decisions revolve around what a bank account allows. Diet, activities, and clothes are all determined by how much money one earns. The more money earned, more is available to spend or save. The degree average salary is not asCompared to a high school diploma, one can lead a better, more successful life.

In 2013, the College Board released statistics about college graduates lives involving happiness, health, socialness, and personal development. With a bachelor’s degree or higher, 51% of people were satisfied with their job, while people who only earned high school diplomas were 41% satisfied. 68% of bachelor’s degree graduates exercise at least once a week, but only 40% for high school graduates. Only 8% of bachelor’s degree graduates were smokers and 25% of high school graduates smoke. Once someone graduates college, their overall life is impacted, not just their paycheck. Studying a specific career of choice will give someone a better chance of maintaining a job they enjoy. Five out of seven days a week are spent at the workplace, so it is important that their job is enjoyable. Health and fitness impacts happiness. One is more likely to afford a monthly gym membership with a higher salary. When one’s health and happiness is thriving, that means their life will end up successfully compared than no college degree.

College isn’t only working through a path to earn a degree. College is a way to meet new people and network through them. Networking is to interact with other people to exchange information and develop contacts, especially to further one's career. John Bennett, director of the Master of Science and executive coaching and assistant professor of behavioral science at Queens University of Charlotte says, “Research tells us that between 60-80% of jobs are found through personal relationships.” Universities are full of different people with unique backgrounds. Everyone shares the same common ground of the student life, so everyone is willing to help another. A major problem today is finding a job after graduating college; networking allows this process to become easier. Networking allows room for new colleagues as well as friends. The faster a job is earned, the easier life becomes. A steady paycheck ensures more benefits to life at a faster rate. Attending college and earning the degree helps with success further in life.

Attending university has a lot to offer on a closer inspection. Some deem college as unnecessary, while not assessing the full benefits. A high school diploma does not compare to a college degree. According to statistics, people are much more healthy, happy, and successful when having earned a degree. Lifestyle, happiness, income is indirectly impacted by completing college. Earning a college degree compared to a high school diploma ensures a better chance of a better career which brings a successful life.



Why this is my best 2fer:

I believe this is my best 2fer because I have made steady argument regarding my thesis. I feel quite strongly about this thesis so it was easy for me to explain it and argue my position. I made sure to check over my draft several times to ensure that I had the best analysis. It was quite easy for me to repeat myself and over explain, but I corrected some sentences and checked that everything flowed easily with a thoughtful explanation.


Works Cited

"College May Not Pay Off for Everyone   Liberty Street Economics." Liberty Street Economics. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

"Unemployment rates and earnings by educational attainment." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

Pfeffer, Jennifer. "Rasmussen College." Rasmussen College - Regionally Accredited College Online and on Campus. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

Driscoll, Emily. "It's all About Who You Know: Networking to Get a Job." Fox Business. Fox Business, 25 Apr. 2011. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

The Evils of "Health"

Food plays a vital role in every single person on Earth's life. It is the one constant among all people, and thus is often being examined. In a world with so many options of what to eat, people are afraid they could be eating the wrong thing. Worried that their food could be bad for them, the environment, farmers, or animals people turn to dietary recommendations. One of the biggest healthy eating “ideologies” is the one of vegetarianism, and the smaller, but growing, sect of veganism. Vegetarianism dictates one should eat no meat, veganism though dictates that one should eat no animal products at all. These two dietary plans differ in their severity towards restricting the intake of animal products, but not in the reasons to follow these restrictions; which often involve appeals that focus on the environment, health and animal rights. While often coming from a good place, the diets of vegans and vegetarians actually turn them into hypocritical people who live under a dictatorial and destructive ideology.


Saving the environment is one of the greatest appeals that persons opposed to the consumption of animal products have in their arsenals. This appeal consists a string of “facts” meant to shame meat eaters into ceasing to consume meat, such as “a staggering 51 percent or more of global greenhouse-gas emissions are caused by animal agriculture” (PETA) The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) instead says that this number is 14.5%, and could be reduced by 30% while sustaining the current meat supply. (The Guardian) The difference in these studies is simple, the one that claims 51% adds numerous things to CO2 emissions that are erroneous, like the claim that ⅓ of animal  emissions can be from animals breathing. This is an outrageous difference, yet even organizations such as the PETA, a major proponent at the forefront of the argument for the vegan or vegetarian diets, use faulty statistics. Data so incorrect that to proclaim it as fact is to not understand it or to willfully spread disinformation. In reality, vegan and vegetarian diets don’t actually really reduce a carbon footprint at all. Since to sustain such a diet a variety of foods is necessary to avoid malnutrition, foods that must be flown in from across the world. In the end, the footprint balances out to those who eat meat anyway. (CNN) Plus there is not only the effect on the globe, but on the long term good for humanity. If the United States became vegan it could support 735 million people, while if the restrictions were to be made less extreme and the U.S. was to be vegetarian it could support 807 million people. In fact, it was found in the same study that diets consisting of 20-40% meat were actually significantly more sustainable than any diet that was meat free. (NOVA)


Eat healthy. The ideology of dietary restrictions consistently insists that their diets can be tied to numerous health benefits. The PETA says “all our dietary needs, even as infants and children, are best supplied by a meatless diet.This statement is not altogether false, but this system of eating is not altogether as safe as it would suggest. Such as a case in Georgia where two parents received life sentences after starving their baby to death on a “vegan diet”, (Daily Mail) or another case in Italy where a 14 month old baby was found to be malnourished and weighing the same as a baby that was 3 months old after being fed a vegan diet. (Washington Post) These two cases are examples of issues with veganism, that the diet itself is naturally lacking several nutrients extremely important to human development normally found in meat. Italy is in the process of passing a law that would institute a four year penalty on parents who enforce a vegan diet on their kids, after three other such cases involving malnourished children under vegan diets. (BBC) It is often easy to tie a host of health benefits to a vegetarian diet, as a study in Austria found that they have lower BMI’s. (Medical University of Graz) The PETA spouts numerous facts claiming those who eat vegan or vegetarian diets are less likely to have heart attacks or cancer. This forgets to factor in that people who follow these diets are also less likely to smoke, consume tobacco, and are wealthier something the study from Austria did do. Vegetarians were found to suffer more from anxiety or depression, chronic diseases and a 50% increase in heart attacks and cancer. This is then portrayed as the “healthy” diet.


Animal rights rest on the crux of vegan or vegetarian arguments. People don’t want to hurt animals, and they see the industry that creates animal products as being abusive. If someone has a guilty conscience about eating meat then they can become vegetarian, or even go vegan. What can’t be done though is guilt those who would like to eat meat into following a diet that is less sustainable, needs supplements to make up for lost vitamins, has the same carbon footprint as eating meat, and can hurt one’s children. The sort of behavior by organizations like the PETA and the vegans and vegetarians who support it is akin to a cult, they ignore facts and dogmatically push their arguments. They ignore that their diets meant to be champions of healthy and the ecosystem go against everything they claim to believe in, and instead insist on lying about the subject. It pushes veganism and vegetarianism on people, dietary restrictions than can actually force people to sacrifice something that can be a large part of their lives and happiness, meat eating. For now though, the structure that pushes veganism and vegetarianism is harsh and hypocritical, often having to use downright lies or bad science to support their ideas. Vegans and vegetarians use propaganda, and they share company in history with fellow infamous vegetarian Adolf Hitler who too used system wide deceit and denial of reality to push his ideology.


Why this is my best possible 2fer: 

For me 2fers were at first just assignments, but the longer I did them they became easier and I decided that I did my best work when I was having fun. My first 2fer was about human attention span, it was an interesting enough topic but I just couldn't really get interested. What I was writing about was too factual and too easily agreeable. As time has gone on, I have tried to make my 2fers more outrageous and to prove ideas that can be difficult to approach or prove. I decided to make this 2fer the climax of that, to prove a point that had little to no evidence in actuality to back it up and to prove it with a relation of events and data. This is my best possible 2fer because I made it fun and made a claim that seemed ludicrous relevant and believable by the end of the paper. 


Works Cited:

  1. "Going Vegan Isn’t the Most Sustainable Option for Humanity." PBS. Public Broadcasting Service, 16 Aug. 2016. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/earth/going-vegan-isnt-actually-th/

  1. "Italy proposal to jail vegans who impose diet on children." BBC News. BBC, 10 Aug. 2016. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-37034619

  1. Thompson, Paul. "Vegan couple will serve life sentences for starving baby to death on a diet of soy milk and apple juice." Daily Mail Online. Associated Newspapers, 13 Sept. 2011. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2036671/Vegan-couple-serve-life-sentences-starving-baby-death-extreme-diet.html

  1. "Factory Farming: Misery for Animals." PETA. PETA, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-food/factory-farming/

  1. "Disadvantages of Being a Vegetarian." HealthGuidance.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/11183/1/Disadvantages-of-Being-a-Vegetarian.html

  1. Martindale, Wayne. "Is a vegetarian diet better for the planet?" CNN. Cable News Network, 06 Feb. 2017. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

http://www.cnn.com/2017/02/06/health/vegetarian-diet-conversation/

  1. Dye, Lee. "Researcher: Vegetarian Diet Kills Animals Too." ABC News. ABC News Network, 01 May 1970. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=97836&page=1

  1. "Meat and the Environment." PETA. PETA, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-food/meat-environment/

  1. Bryce, Emma. "Do the UN's new numbers for livestock emissions kill the argument for vegetarianism?" The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 27 Sept. 2013. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/world-on-a-plate/2013/sep/27/environment-food-ipcc-emissions-greenhouse-gas-livestock-vegetarian-meat

  1. "Vegan Diets: Healthy and Humane." PETA. PETA, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2017.

http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-food/animals-used-food-factsheets/vegan-diets-healthy-humane/

  1. Buckert, Nathalie T., Johanna Muckenhuber, Franziska Großscha¨dl, E´va Ra´ Sky, and Wolfgang Freidl. "Nutrition and Health – The Association between Eating Behavior and Various Health Parameters: A Matched Sample Study." Journals. Medical University of Graz, 7 Feb. 2014. Web.

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0088278&type=printable

Human Relocation to Mars

From the start of their time here, Humans have been destroying the Earth. They wreck ecosystems, produce tons of all types of pollution, and lead animals into extinction. Humans treat the Earth as a trash can, and do not care about the animals or environment around them. Only when there is crisis do they feel a need to take action, such as when global warming becomes a mainstream issue or their favorite animal goes extinct. Humans take the resources of this planet for granted, things such as fresh water, clean air, and land. Even though Earth is believed to be the only planet that contains life, we do not treat it well. But, just because Earth is the only planet that currently has life, doesn’t mean it should be the only one. Humans should relocate to Mars in order to colonize it, and restore Earth to a better state for it’s other life forms.

Of all the planets in our solar system, Mars is the second easiest to access from Earth, next to Venus. However, Venus should not even begin to be considered as a new home for humans, due to its extreme suffocating weather, a toasty 800 degrees fahrenheit. While Mars has an average surface temperature of -81 degrees fahrenheit, there is already a plan for how to deal with it. Buzz Aldrin, the second man to land on the moon, has drawn up the plans. “ "It's an integrated plan that knits together return[ing] to the moon on a commercial and international basis, leveraging asteroid rendezvous, and settling Mars on a carefully developed risk-mitigation architecture," Aldrin said. "It includes the use of a robotic cycler between Mars and Earth that will revolutionize the economics and safety aspects of human missions to Mars."  While this opinion might seem far fetched, two other former astronauts agree with Aldrin, agreeing that Mars should “seriously be considered as a backup in case something catastrophic should happen to Earth.” However, these men are not considering the catastrophe Earth has already entered, the sixth mass extinction. Scientists estimate that this is the worst mass extinction since the era of dinosaurs, with a rate of 1,000 to 10,000 times higher than it has ever been before. Unlike this last mass extinctions, this one is not caused by natural disasters. The three main forces of this wave of extinction are habitat destruction, global warming, and invasive species which are all results of human activity. While these activities might not seem like they are capable of mass extinctions, the ecosystems of Earth are delicate things. The eradication of one species could lead to an entire level the food chain being removed, and the balanced system would fall apart. For the good of Earth’s creatures, Humans should remove themselves from the planet they are destroying, and move to another, and Mars is a suitable and livable planet that contains no life for them to ruin.  

While global warming is ruining Earth, those greenhouse gases that damage our atmosphere would be helpful to giving Mars a similar climate to Earth. Terraforming is the term scientists use when talking about transforming one planet into another. Greenhouse gases are key to terraforming Mars into a habitable place. The plans to terraform Mars even involve fetching meteors in order to produce these gases. However, seeing that humans already create too much greenhouse gas for Earth, as long as scientists can set up life to continue, Humans should be able to raise that rate no problem. Seeing that Mars gets considerably colder at night, the temperatures regularly drop to 100 below zero depending on the orbit, Humans should be able to create a lot of gas before it even begins to have an affect on Mars. Seeing as though humans lifestyle is harming Earth, but would be helpful to living conditions on Mars, it makes it the perfect planet for relocation.

This rise in temperatures after the start of terraforming in Mars will lead for all the ice on the planet to melt and become water. However, this water will obviously not last forever, and other usable bodies of water will take longer to form. This scarcity of resources will result in humans having to manage and be frugal with their resources for once. Americans alone waste 1 trillion gallons of water per year. If people don’t have these resources to waste, then it will teach them to be respectful and value their natural resources.

Humans are naturally selfish. They have taken the beautiful blue planet that belongs to the animals and plants and dumped their pollution and wastes all over it. These organisms do not have the capabilities to survive in other atmospheres, yet humans do and choose to stay here and overrun and wreck this planet. They have no regard for anyone other than themselves. Relocating humans to Mars is good for all parties involved, that way humans are not ruining animals homes anymore than they already have, and humans are able to learn how valuable natural resources are. It is 100% possible for humans to one day live on Mars, and stop driving this planet into crises they have created.










Works Cited:


Stern, David P., Dr. "#21b     Flight to Mars: How Long? Along what Path?" Flight to Mars: How Long? And along what path? N.p., 12 Dec. 2004. Web. 26 Apr. 2017. <http://www.phy6.org/stargaze/Smars1.htm>.


Dunbar, Brian. "Venus Weather Not Boring After All, NASA/International Study Shows." NASA. NASA, 27 Sept. 2011. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.

"Mars Facts | Mars Exploration Program." NASA. NASA, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2017. <https://mars.nasa.gov/allaboutmars/facts/#?c=inspace&s=distance>.


Mike Wall Space.com Senior. "US Needs a Mars Colony, Buzz Aldrin Tells Senators." Space.com. N.p., 28 Feb. 2016. Web. 26 Apr. 2017. <http://www.space.com/28654-mars-colony-buzz-aldrin-senate.html>


"." The Extinction Crisis. Center for Biological Diversity, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2017. <http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/biodiversity/elements_of_biodiversity/extinction_crisis/>


"Exploring Space: Mars Terraforming Timeline." PBS. Public Broadcasting Service, 2005. Web. 26 Apr. 2017. <http://www.pbs.org/exploringspace/mars/terraforming/no_flash.html >

"Journey to Mars Next Steps." NASA. NASA, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2017. <https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/journey-to-mars-next-steps-20151008_508.pdf >.





I think that this is my best possible 2fer because I loved the topic that I chose, and I had a lot of time to think through my thesis and choose a topic. I wrote so much more for this 2fer than any other, because I was really excited about my topic and wanted ti have as much information as possible. I reworded my thesis a bunch of times, which is normally what I struggle with when it comes to 2fers. It all came naturally for this paper, and is by far my favorite piece of my own writing from this year. 

Negative Space Cut Out

Cut-out SM
Cut-out SM

Negative space is the space around and between objects in an image. That space is used to emphasize the object of the image! In my cut out I found negative space by looking at the opposites. I knew that if parts of the one side of the owl were present, I would have to take that presence away on the other side.


For artist, it is very important to see negative space. Artist can utilize negative space to their benefit and create many wonderful pieces. They can use negative space to make the main object of their piece to stand out and become more unique! So negative space can definitely enhance a drawing because of that utilization of space!


Sister City Exchange with Frankfurt, Germany!

IMG_6075
IMG_6075
Ten SLA students are back home after a successful weeklong exchange in Frankfurt, Germany.

The new program was organized with the Sister Cities office of Philadelphia and government officials in Frankfurt. Students were paired with high schoolers at Gymnasium Riedberg, a bilingual high school with a focus on science and technology. They stayed with families, attended school, and participated in special programming put together for the visit.

The exchange was specifically designed to create intercultural understanding of the two cities, with programs to explore stereotypes of each nation and an interdisciplinary project where students explored the relationship between cities and personal memories. The participating students also were received by Frankfurt's deputy mayor at a formal reception at city hall, pictured above. 

The ten students from Gymnasium Riedberg will round out the exchange by visiting Philadelphia in the fall. SLA students are hard at work planning the program and preparing for their guests!

An Experience Or An Excuse

There are many experiences from birth to a teenager that a person will go through that will build themselves as they will get older. These experiences are a guidance to a variety of roads that will give a certain path and it’s up to that individual to make the decision that’s best for them and their future. One of the trials that the youth are impacted by regularly is, “peer pressure”. Peer pressure is the influence from members of one’s peer group, usually the influence being negative. This is claimed to happen to many teenagers as they become accessible to more freedom from their parents and they begin to crave a larger desire to be around their peers. Teenagers are curious and sometimes this curiosity leads to them trying negative actions such as; smoking, drinking, and even having sex when not ready with their peers of course as they decide to go through these experiences together. For teenagers that have a more positive mindset, doing such things are often claimed to have happened because of peer pressure since people who are associated with them expect them to not fall for these types of mistakes. However, this brings the counterargument that peer pressure is just an excuse for a teenager to make a mistake and receive sympathy for their wrong choices. Which brings up the question, is peer pressure a real thing or can it be resisted and labeled as an excuse? The answer to this question is it can be resisted and mistakes by one should be owned up too.

It is true that most teens or a person at any age desires to be accepted. For teens, this pressure comes into play a lot throughout the school year. It’s important for teens to be accepted into a group that likes them for themselves. Without this happening, one can become depressed and feel abandoned in school as they feel like they are not wanted by the ‘cool kids’ or feel as they aren’t good enough to be involved in a group of entertaining friends. This is where teens tend to do whatever they possibly can to fill that emptiness inside from not feeling wanted by their peers which leads to decisions being made without thought. This is where the pressure supposedly lives, the decision making of the teen. However, the youth at some point in their young lifetime are educated on the difference of being a follower and a leader. Also, how doing drugs and other negative actions similar are bad and can lead down a path of destruction. It’s up to that person the teenager to listen and understand how doing things like drugs, drinking, and even dares that can put their life at risk, is something they should work to stay away from. Putting the blame of their actions on another is weak and in reality can be a downfall because if they continue to make mistakes at a higher scale, judges in courtrooms will not take in “peer pressure” being an excuse for committing a crime. Parents stressed this a lot to their children, how it’s easy to mess up or slip up. As long as the parent is pressuring this on their teen, the peers shouldn’t be an issue or at least not enough to not receive necessary consequences for one’s negative actions. Living and learning does not involve making excuses and allowing a teenager to rely on the fact that another teen making the same mistake makes their actions less unacceptable. In a CNN survey, it stated that 17% of high schoolers are caught drinking, smoking, during the school day with peers. Also, in another CNN survey, 75% of high schoolers say that they are encouraged to party with marijuana or alcohol when they see images of their peers doing so. Reflecting upon the second survey of the two, it can be reasonably assumed that the high schoolers will not be surprised to see smokes and drinks at the party. In fact, in most scenarios it’s highly spoken about before going to the party, “who’s bringing what and who’s doing what?” Essentially, this makes it the teenager fault of being aware of their surroundings and allowing themselves to be persuaded into doing something illegal or something their not suppose to be doing.

When it comes to the idea of peer pressure it’s mostly looked upon as all negative but that’s not always true. There is a such thing as positive peer pressure. This is a peer that will help one do something they should be doing. Encouraging one to do right and keep up the good work. For example, positive peer pressure can consists of consistent completion of homework, exercising, and more. In a teen’s perspective there is a better chance of getting this type of encouragement from parents or guardians. Parenting can definitely impact a teenager’s decision making when it comes to situations involving themselves and their peers. The parents must be the people they want their children to become which will display how the teenagers should behave in a way that is in their best interest. In reality, teenager don’t want to take responsibility for things they do which is why they blame the people nearest to them which is their peers. If one tell their peer to jump off a bridge, most teens have an absolute NO in this case. So when one tell a peer to smoke with them, the teen will either not smoke or smoke based on what values and lines they have set in their mind, not on what their friends are telling them is “cool” or not.

If teenagers stop to think about it, they would realize that peer pressure is an excuse for them to make mistakes and they it’s important to be a leader by understanding they are in control of their actions and making the best choices for their future. However, if one does decide to be a follower and make negative choices, be prepared to own up and face the consequences instead of placing the blame on a peer.

Throughout the year, I have wrote many 2Fers that touched on many different topics. However, out of all I strongly believe this 2Fer was the best. Because I touched on a topic that impacts almost every human person at some point in their life whether as a teen or even as an adult, I felt this 2Fer was way more powerful than the others. With this being said, also in this 2Fer I was able to correct many of my mistakes I made in previous 2Fers to make this written wise a lot improved! In conclusion, I can say my ups and downs in my previous 2Fers contributed to this 2Fer in my opinion being my strongest of all.



Works Cited: